Special Issue "Emerging Issues in Aquaculture"

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Aquatic Animals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2021) | Viewed by 17945

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Cosmas Nathanailides
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Agriculture, University of Ioannina, 47100 Arta, Greece
Interests: aquaculture; biotechnology; ecophysiology; environmental education
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Aquaculture development is market driven, and the demand for food on the plates of a rising human population is increasing. Economic growth and increased wealth are usually followed by a change in the dietary patterns, which result in greater demand for seafood.

With global food security becoming an ever increasing concern, sustainable aquaculture sets to become the most rapidly increasing food production system worldwide, however the aquaculture industry is challenged to cover the global needs for food while at the same time  is facing several emerging issues in the development of new aquaculture technology and biotechnology methods, culture systems, production of new species, formulation of feed,  fish diseases, environmental issues, social and economic issues, public health, development of new seafood products and processing, packaging and marketing of aquaculture products.

The aim of this special Issue is to publish manuscripts which cover the emerging issues of the Aquaculture sector. Manuscripts that address the current problems and prospects for aquaculture development are invited for this Special Issue.

Contributions which will address environmental issues, aquaculture technology, biotechnology, fish welfare, new species for aquaculture, fish nutrition, fish diseases, socioeconomic aspects, fish processing and marketing are particularly invited.

Prof. Cosmas Nathanailides
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Aquaculture
  • Fish farming
  • Fish Nutrition
  • seafood quality
  • preservation

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Communication
Rising Temperature Effects on Growth and Gastric Emptying Time of Freshwater African Catfish (Clarias Gariepinus) Fingerlings
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3497; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123497 - 08 Dec 2021
Viewed by 767
Abstract
The present study was carried out to analyse the effect of water temperature on two components: (1) growth performance, and (2) gastric emptying time (GET) of African catfish Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. After 70 days, it was observed that experimental temperatures had no significant [...] Read more.
The present study was carried out to analyse the effect of water temperature on two components: (1) growth performance, and (2) gastric emptying time (GET) of African catfish Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. After 70 days, it was observed that experimental temperatures had no significant effects on the growth performance parameters, except for food conversion ratio (FCR) and food conversion efficiency (FCE). GET observation through X-radiography denoted that the shortest GET (10 h) was observed in fish reared at 32 °C and the longest GET (16 h) was observed in fish reared at 26 °C. The rapid digestion rate coincides with the FCR and FCE obtained in this study. Considering the limited scope of our study, more extensive studies on the impact of water temperature on other fish physiological parameters should be pursued. A better understanding of this research topic would be beneficial for the growth of African catfish fingerling aquaculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Issues in Aquaculture)
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Article
Post-Prandial Amino Acid Changes in Gilthead Sea Bream
Animals 2021, 11(7), 1889; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11071889 - 25 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 759
Abstract
Following a meal, a series of physiological changes occurs in fish as they digest, absorb and assimilate ingested nutrients. This study aims to assess post-prandial free amino acid (FAA) activity in gilthead sea bream consuming a partial marine protein (fishmeal) replacement. Sea bream [...] Read more.
Following a meal, a series of physiological changes occurs in fish as they digest, absorb and assimilate ingested nutrients. This study aims to assess post-prandial free amino acid (FAA) activity in gilthead sea bream consuming a partial marine protein (fishmeal) replacement. Sea bream were fed diets where 16 and 27% of the fishmeal protein was replaced by plant protein. The essential amino acid (EAA) composition of the white muscle, liver and gut of sea bream was strongly correlated with the EAA composition of the 16% protein replacement diet compared to the 27% protein replacement diet. The mean FAA concentration in the white muscle and liver changed at 4 to 8 h after a meal and was not different to pre-feeding (0 h) and at 24 h after feeding. It was confirmed in this study that 16% replacement of marine protein with plant protein meets the amino acid needs of sea bream. Overall, the present study contributes towards understanding post-prandial amino acid profiles during uptake, tissue assimilation and immediate metabolic processing of amino acids in sea bream consuming a partial marine protein replacement. This study suggests the need to further investigate the magnitude of the post-prandial tissue-specific amino acid activity in relation to species-specific abilities to regulate metabolism due to dietary nutrient utilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Issues in Aquaculture)
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Article
The Antioxidant Role of a Taurine-Enriched Diet in Combating the Immunotoxic and Inflammatory Effects of Pyrethroids and/or Carbamates in Oreochromis niloticus
Animals 2021, 11(5), 1318; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11051318 - 05 May 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 843
Abstract
Indiscriminate use of insecticides is a major concern due to its ubiquitous occurrence and potential toxicity to aquatic animals. This study investigated the adverse effects of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT; C23H19ClF3NO3) and methomyl (MTM; C5H [...] Read more.
Indiscriminate use of insecticides is a major concern due to its ubiquitous occurrence and potential toxicity to aquatic animals. This study investigated the adverse effects of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT; C23H19ClF3NO3) and methomyl (MTM; C5H10N2O2S) on immune system modulations and growth performance of juvenile fishes. The supportive role of a taurine (TUR; C2H7NO3S)-supplemented diet was also evaluated. Juvenile O. niloticus fishes were exposed to LCT (0.079 µg/L), MTM (20.39 µg/L), or both in water and were fed on a basal diet only or taurine-supplemented basal diet. Exposure to LCT and MTM retarded growth and increased mortality rate. LCT and MTM reduced antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) and innate and humoral immunity but upregulated interleukin and chemokine expressions. Moreover, exposure to LCT and MTM elevated 8-OHdG levels and increased the mortality of Oreochromis niloticus after the experimental bacterial challenge. The TUR-enriched diet enhanced antioxidant enzymes and acted as a growth promoter and anti-inflammatory agent. TUR can modify innate and adaptive immune responses. Furthermore, TUR supplementation is a beneficial additive candidate for mitigating LCT and MTM toxicities mixed with O. niloticus aquafeed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Issues in Aquaculture)
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Article
Thermal Tolerance and Physiological Changes in Mud Crab, Scylla paramamosain Crablet at Different Water Temperatures
Animals 2021, 11(4), 1146; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11041146 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 966
Abstract
This study was carried out to determine the physiological changes (survival, growth, molting cycle, sex differentiation, and gill condition) of mud crab, Scylla paramamosain crablet at different water temperatures of 24, 28 and 32 °C, and ambient temperature of 27 to 30 °C. [...] Read more.
This study was carried out to determine the physiological changes (survival, growth, molting cycle, sex differentiation, and gill condition) of mud crab, Scylla paramamosain crablet at different water temperatures of 24, 28 and 32 °C, and ambient temperature of 27 to 30 °C. Thermoregulatory behavior, represented by preferred temperature (29.83 ± SD 2.47 °C), critical thermal minimum (17.33 ± SD 0.58 °C), critical thermal maximum (40 ± SD 0.00 °C), and thermal tolerance interval (22.67 ± SD 0.58 °C), were checked for Crablet 1 stage only (with ambient temperature as acclimation temperature).Both low (24 °C) and high (32 °C) temperatures were associated with lower growth performance, and survival rate (p < 0.05), in comparison with both 28 °C and ambient temperature treatments.Male ratio at low temperaturetreatment (24 °C) was higher (80.09 ± SD 18.86%) than for other treatments (p < 0.05), observed as 44.81 ± D 10.50%, 41.94 ± SD 19.44%, and 76.30 ± SD 5.13% for 28 °C, 32 °C and ambient temperature treatments, respectively. However, there was no significant difference observed between 24 °C, 28 °C, and ambient temperature treatments. Anatomical alterations of gill lamellae of S. paramamosain crablet for both 32 °C, and 24 °C treatments, appeared thinner and paler than at both 28 °C, and ambient temperature treatments. Based on this study, temperature of 28 to 30 °C was recommended as the optimal temperature for the long-term nursery phase of S. paramamosain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Issues in Aquaculture)
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Article
Understanding the Interaction Effects between Dietary Lipid Content and Rearing Temperature on Growth Performance, Feed Utilization, and Fat Deposition of Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)
Animals 2021, 11(2), 392; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020392 - 03 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1093
Abstract
This study was conducted to elucidate the interaction effects of temperature and dietary lipid levels (2 × 2 factorial experiment) on the growth performance, muscle, and liver composition in adult farmed European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Two groups of fish (190 [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to elucidate the interaction effects of temperature and dietary lipid levels (2 × 2 factorial experiment) on the growth performance, muscle, and liver composition in adult farmed European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Two groups of fish (190 g; 60 fish per group) were distributed in 12 tanks in triplicates and kept at two different temperature regimes; one starting at 23 °C and then changed to 17 °C for 61 days, and the other starting at 17 °C and then changed to 23 °C for 39 days. Two commercial diets containing both ~44% crude protein but incorporating different dietary lipid levels, 16.5% (D16) and 20.0% (D20) (dry matter (DM)), were fed to the fish to apparent satiation; the type of diet fed to each fish group remained constant throughout the experiment. Final body weight, weight gain, and specific growth rate were significantly higher for the fish group held at 23 °C compared to the fish group at 17 °C (before the temperature changes), while the dietary fat content did not have any profound effect in both groups. Furthermore, the different temperature regimes did not affect muscle or liver composition, but, on the contrary, dietary lipids affected hepatosomatic, perivisceral fat, and visceral indexes. Feed conversion ratio and specific growth rate were not affected by the dietary lipid level. An interaction of temperature and dietary lipid content was observed in daily feed consumption (DFC) and final body weight (FBW). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Issues in Aquaculture)
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Article
Influence of Low Dietary Inclusion of the Microalga Nannochloropsis gaditana (Lubián 1982) on Performance, Fish Morphology, and Muscle Growth in Juvenile Gilthead Seabream (Sparus aurata)
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2270; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122270 - 01 Dec 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1187
Abstract
A 90-d feeding trial was conducted in which five groups of gilthead seabream (11.96 g initial body weight) were fed with a microalgae-free diet (control group, C) or four diets containing the microalgae Nannochloropsis gaditana at two inclusion levels (2.5% or 5%), either [...] Read more.
A 90-d feeding trial was conducted in which five groups of gilthead seabream (11.96 g initial body weight) were fed with a microalgae-free diet (control group, C) or four diets containing the microalgae Nannochloropsis gaditana at two inclusion levels (2.5% or 5%), either raw (R2.5 and R5 batches) or cellulose-hydrolyzed (H2.5 and H5 batches), to study their effect on the body and muscle growth. At 40 days, the highest values of body length and weight were reached in R5 group, but at 64 and 90 days, these were reached in R2.5. However, feed conversion rate, specific growth, daily intake, and survival (100%) were similar in all the groups. The acquisition of a discoid body shape was accelerated depending on the inclusion level of N. gaditana in the diets. Moreover, H5 diet affected the fish geometric morphology compared to R5 diet. The white muscle transverse area was similar in all groups at 40 days, with the exception of H2.5 group, which showed the lowest area. At day 90, C and R2.5 displayed the highest muscle growth, attributable to increased hyperplasia in C, and higher hypertrophy in R2.5. However, the highest proportion of small and medium fibers was observed in R5 and H5. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Issues in Aquaculture)
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Article
Mannanoligosaccharides as a Carbon Source in Biofloc Boost Dietary Plant Protein and Water Quality, Growth, Immunity and Aeromonas hydrophila Resistance in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
Animals 2020, 10(10), 1724; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10101724 - 23 Sep 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 1464
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to evaluate mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) or glycerol (GLY) as a carbon source on biofloc systems of Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) juveniles. Fish (n = 750) were reared in open flow (Controls) or biofloc systems [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) or glycerol (GLY) as a carbon source on biofloc systems of Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) juveniles. Fish (n = 750) were reared in open flow (Controls) or biofloc systems (B-GLY and B-MOS) fed with a plant or fish protein source over a period of twelve weeks. Total ammonia nitrogen and nitrate decreased in the biofloc groups, while biofloc volume increased in B-MOS. Compared to the controls, B-MOS and B-GLY exhibited higher weight gain and improved feed conversion, irrespectively of the diet. Serum level of C-reactive protein was reduced, while IgM and lysozyme activity was higher in the B-MOS fish, compared to other groups. Intestinal Bacillus spp. count was increased, whereas Vibrio, Aeromonas and Pseudomonas spp. counts decreased in B-MOS reared groups, compared to the other groups. The proinflammatory cytokine (IL-8 and IFN-γ) transcript expression was upregulated in B-MOS more than B-GLY reared groups. Compared to the controls, the virulence of Aeromonas hydrophila was decreased in the B-MOS and B-GLY groups. The results indicate several benefits of using MOS as a carbon source in a biofloc Nile tilapia system; a cost benefit analysis is required to assess the economic viability of this. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Issues in Aquaculture)
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Article
QTL for Stress and Disease Resistance in European Sea Bass, Dicentrarhus labrax L.
Animals 2020, 10(9), 1668; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10091668 - 16 Sep 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1485
Abstract
There is a growing interest in selective breeding in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), especially regarding family selection based on growth performance. In particular, quantitative trait loci (QTL) identification in sea bass enhances the application of marker-assisted breeding for the genetic [...] Read more.
There is a growing interest in selective breeding in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), especially regarding family selection based on growth performance. In particular, quantitative trait loci (QTL) identification in sea bass enhances the application of marker-assisted breeding for the genetic improvement of the production traits. The aims of the study were to identify potential QTL affecting stress and immunological indicators, body weight, and mortality after vibriosis injection in sea bass as well as to estimate heritability and genetic/phenotypic correlations for the aforementioned traits. To this end, stress test was performed on 960 offspring and a sub-group of them (420) was selected to explore the mortality after vibrio injection. Selective genotyping was performed in 620 offspring for 35 microsatellite markers and distributed into 6 linkage groups. The length of the genetic linkage map was 283.6 cM and the mean distance between the markers was 8.1 cM. QTL affecting body weight in three different growth periods detected on linkage groups LG1, LG4, LG6, and LG14. A QTL associated with weight in early growth stages (290–306 days post-hatching) was also identified on LG3. QTL analysis confirmed the existence of QTL affecting cortisol levels, on LG3 and LG14. Moreover, new QTL affecting only cortisol and glucose levels were detected on LG1 and LG23. No QTL affecting hormonal or biochemical marks was found on LG4 and LG6. Heritability of cortisol, lysozyme levels, and mortality were high (0.36, 0.55, and 0.38, respectively). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Issues in Aquaculture)
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Review

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Review
A Review of the Nursery Culture of Mud Crabs, Genus Scylla: Current Progress and Future Directions
Animals 2021, 11(7), 2034; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11072034 - 08 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2805
Abstract
The nursery stages of mud crab, genus Scylla, proceed from the megalopa stage to crablet instar stages. We review the definition and several of the key stages in mud crab nursery activities. The practice of the direct stocking of megalopa into ponds [...] Read more.
The nursery stages of mud crab, genus Scylla, proceed from the megalopa stage to crablet instar stages. We review the definition and several of the key stages in mud crab nursery activities. The practice of the direct stocking of megalopa into ponds is not recommended due to their sensitivity. Instead, nursery rearing is needed to grow-out mud crabs of a larger size before pond stocking. Individual nursery rearing results in a higher survival rate at the expense of growth and a more complicated maintenance process compared with communal rearing. The nursery of mud crabs can be done both indoors or outdoors with adequate shelter and feed required to obtain a good survival percentage and growth performance. Artemia nauplii are still irreplaceable as nursery feed, particularly at the megalopa stage, while the survival rate may be improved if live feed is combined with artificial feed such as microbound diet formulations. Water quality parameters, identical to those proposed in tiger shrimp cultures, can be implemented in mud crab rearing. The transportation of crablets between different locations can be done with or without water. The provision of monosex seeds from mud crab hatcheries is expected to become commonplace, increasing seed price and thus improving the income of farmers. Numerous aspects of a mud crab nursery including nutrition; feeding strategies; understanding their behaviour, i.e., cannibalism; control of environmental factors and practical rearing techniques still need further improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Issues in Aquaculture)
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Review
Use of Pelleted Diets in Commercially Farmed Decapods during Juvenile Stages: A Review
Animals 2021, 11(6), 1761; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11061761 - 12 Jun 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1847
Abstract
The increasing market demand for decapods has led to a considerable interest in cultivating decapod species at a larger scale. Following the development of hatchery technologies, most research has focused on the development of formulated feeds for commercially farmed decapods once they enter [...] Read more.
The increasing market demand for decapods has led to a considerable interest in cultivating decapod species at a larger scale. Following the development of hatchery technologies, most research has focused on the development of formulated feeds for commercially farmed decapods once they enter the juvenile stages. The use of formulated feed for decapods at a commercial scale is still in the early stages. This is probably because of the unique feeding behavior that decapods possess: being robust, slow feeders and bottom dwellers, their feeding preferences change during the transition from pelagic larvae to benthic juveniles as their digestive systems develop and become more complex. The current practice of decapod aquaculture involves the provision of juveniles with food such as natural diet, live feed, and formulated feed. Knowledge of nutrient requirements enables diets to be better formulated. By manipulating the levels of proteins and lipids, a formulated feed can be expected to lead to optimal growth in decapods. At the same time, the pellet’s physical characteristics are important factors to be considered upon formulating commercially farmed decapod feeds, considering the unique feeding behavior of the decapod. However, most published studies on decapod nutrition lack data on the physical characteristics of the feed types. Thus, it is difficult to establish a standard feed formulation that focuses on the physical pellet properties. Moreover, careful consideration must be given to the feeding behavior of species, as decapods are known as bottom feeders and are robust in terms of handling feed. Information on the pellet forms, diet composition, and unique feeding behaviors in commercially farmed decapods is gathered to suggest potential better formulated diets that can optimize growth and reproduction. Thus, the purpose of this review is to summarize the information that has been published to date and to come up with suggestions on ways to improve the feed formulation in decapods that comply with their feeding behavior and nutrient requirements. Further research is needed to explore the potential of the pelleted feed at the adult stage so the decapod can take full advantage of the nutrients present in the pellets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Issues in Aquaculture)
Review
Animal Welfare Issues in Capture-Based Aquaculture
Animals 2021, 11(4), 956; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11040956 - 30 Mar 2021
Viewed by 955
Abstract
Capture-based aquaculture (CBA) represents a type of intensive aquaculture production system for some economically valuable fish species, such as bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), eel (Anguilla spp.) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). In CBA, fish are captured from the wild [...] Read more.
Capture-based aquaculture (CBA) represents a type of intensive aquaculture production system for some economically valuable fish species, such as bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), eel (Anguilla spp.) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). In CBA, fish are captured from the wild in certain periods of the year, and following a recovery phase, they are kept in rearing facilities for a period of time, until they reach the market size. In this case, the fish are wild and have not gone through domestication like other fish species that are reproduced and farmed under the established farming systems. Therefore, these fish are not genetically adapted to live under the intensive farming conditions, and thus their welfare may be compromised in different manners compared to their domesticated counterparts. This review presents an overview of the current situation of CBA, while focusing on the assessment of fish welfare in CBA. The most commonly used fish welfare indicators will be discussed in relation to the different stages of CBA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Issues in Aquaculture)
Review
Innovative Seafood Preservation Technologies: Recent Developments
Animals 2021, 11(1), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11010092 - 06 Jan 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2213
Abstract
Fish and fishery products are among the food commodities of high commercial value, high-quality protein content, vitamins, minerals and unsaturated fatty acids, which are beneficial to health. However, seafood products are highly perishable and thus require proper processing to maintain their quality and [...] Read more.
Fish and fishery products are among the food commodities of high commercial value, high-quality protein content, vitamins, minerals and unsaturated fatty acids, which are beneficial to health. However, seafood products are highly perishable and thus require proper processing to maintain their quality and safety. On the other hand, consumers, nowadays, demand fresh or fresh-like, minimally processed fishery products that do not alter their natural quality attributes. The present article reviews the results of studies published over the last 15 years in the literature on: (i) the main spoilage mechanisms of seafood including contamination with pathogens and (ii) innovative processing technologies applied for the preservation and shelf life extension of seafood products. These primarily include: high hydrostatic pressure, natural preservatives, ozonation, irradiation, pulse light technology and retort pouch processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Issues in Aquaculture)
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