Special Issue "Fungal Disease Management and Mycotoxin Prevention in Cereals"

A special issue of Agronomy (ISSN 2073-4395). This special issue belongs to the section "Pest and Disease Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Carla Ceoloni
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Agricultural and Forest Sciences (DAFNE), University of Tuscia, 01100 Viterbo, Italy
Interests: identification, characterization and recombination-based transfer of alien Triticeae genes into cultivated wheat, targeting resistance to wheat diseases (e.g., rusts, powdery mildew, scab) and abiotic stresses, quality attributes, and yield-related traits; physiological and metabolic responses of wheat-alien genotypes towards biotic and abiotic stresses; sustainable wheat production through development of pre-breeding and breeding lines carrying traits derived from related wild species; organization of cereal genomes (wheat and related species) by genetic, cytogenetic and comparative genomic approaches
Dr. Silvio Tundo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Land, Environment, Agriculture and Forest (TeSAF), University of Padua, 35121 Padua, Italy
Interests: molecular plant–pathogen interaction; identification and characterization of cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs) produced by pathogenic fungi and bacteria; interaction of CWDEs and their plant inhibitors; virulence factors of necrotrophic fungi; identification and activity of natural molecules against plant pathogens; mycotoxin detoxification in plants
Dr. Ljiljana Kuzmanović
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Agricultural and Forest Sciences (DAFNE), University of Tuscia, 01100 Viterbo, Italy
Interests: genetic and physiological basis of wheat yield and disease resistance; chromosome engineering and exploitation of alien genetic variability for wheat improvement; metabolic and molecular characterization of plant response to pathogens; spike fertility tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

Fungal diseases of grain cereals, including primarily wheat, maize, rice, and barley, cause worldwide substantial reduction of grain yield and quality, which negatively affects the harvest, storage, and subsequent marketability of the products. A further threat is represented by mycotoxins, produced by some widespread pathogens (e.g., Fusarium spp.), which determine a variety of adverse effects (from acute poisoning to long-term effects such as immune deficiency and cancer) to both human and livestock health. Regulations on maximum mycotoxins levels have been established worldwide to protect consumers from their harmful effects, and the public concern on food safety extends to excessive and inappropriate use of pesticides, whose residues are likewise dangerous for consumers, as well as the environment. 

An increasing and more demanding world population, coupled with environmental issues, including climate changes, altogether pose as an essential goal the search for new and sustainable strategies to mitigate the many negative impacts of widespread fungal diseases on cereal crops. In this view, the Special Issue aims at collecting the results of recent advances in fungal disease management, addressing different topics, such as:

- Management of agronomic practices;

- Integrated disease management strategies, including use of fungicides, natural molecules with antifungal activity or biological control agents;

- Model-driven decision support systems;

- Identification and characterization of plant mechanisms involved in resistance against fungal pathogens or mycotoxin detoxification;

- Identification and utilization of genetic resources for disease resistance;

- Integrated control measures of fungal infections and mycotoxin accumulation at post-harvest stage.

Prof. Dr. Carla Ceoloni
Dr. Silvio Tundo
Dr. Ljiljana Kuzmanović
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Agronomy is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Sustainable agriculture
  • Biological control agents
  • Biofungicides
  • Genetic resources
  • Antifungal activity
  • Mycotoxin detoxification
  • Decision support systems

Published Papers (9 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Licorice, Doum, and Banana Peel Extracts Inhibit Aspergillus flavus Growth and Suppress Metabolic Pathway of Aflatoxin B1 Production
Agronomy 2021, 11(8), 1587; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11081587 - 10 Aug 2021
Viewed by 494
Abstract
Three different concentrations of four (ethanol, acetone, methanol, and diethyl ether) extracts of licorice, doum, and banana peel were evaluated for antifungal and antimycotoxigenic efficiency against a maize aflatoxigenic fungus, Aspergillus flavus. Among them, the licorice diethyl ether 75% extract was intensely [...] Read more.
Three different concentrations of four (ethanol, acetone, methanol, and diethyl ether) extracts of licorice, doum, and banana peel were evaluated for antifungal and antimycotoxigenic efficiency against a maize aflatoxigenic fungus, Aspergillus flavus. Among them, the licorice diethyl ether 75% extract was intensely active, showing the best wet and dry weight inhibition and exhibiting the highest efficacy ratio (91%). Regarding aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production, all the plant extracts tested were effective against AFB1 production after one month of maize storage, with average efficacy ratios ranging from 74.1% to 97.5%. At the same time, Thiram fungicide exhibited an efficacy ratio of 20.14%. The relative expression levels of three structural genes (aflD, aflP, and aflQ) and two regulatory genes (aflR and aflS) were significantly downregulated when compared to untreated maize grains or Thiram-treated maize grains. The doum diethyl ether 75% peel extract showed the highest total phenolic content (60.48 mg GAE/g dry extract wt.) and antioxidant activity (84.71 μg/mL). GC–MS analysis revealed that dimethoxycinnamic acid, aspartic acid, valproic acid, and linoleic acid might imbue the extracts with antioxidant capacities in relation to fungal growth and aflatoxin biosynthesis. Finally, the results suggest that the three plant extracts can be considered a promising source for developing potentially effective and environmentally safer alternative ways to control aflatoxin formation, thus creating a potentially protective method for grain storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Disease Management and Mycotoxin Prevention in Cereals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effect of Naturally Occurring Compounds on Fumonisin Production and fum Gene Expression in Fusarium verticillioides
Agronomy 2021, 11(6), 1060; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11061060 - 25 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 520
Abstract
Fusarium verticillioides, one of the most common pathogens in maize, is responsible for yield losses and reduced kernel quality due to contamination by fumonisins (FBs). Two F. verticillioides isolates that differed in their ability to produce FBs were treated with a selection of [...] Read more.
Fusarium verticillioides, one of the most common pathogens in maize, is responsible for yield losses and reduced kernel quality due to contamination by fumonisins (FBs). Two F. verticillioides isolates that differed in their ability to produce FBs were treated with a selection of eight natural phenolic compounds with the aim of identifying those that were able to decrease toxin production at concentrations that had a limited effect on fungal growth. Among the tested compounds, ellagic acid and isoeugenol, which turned out to be the most effective molecules against fungal growth, were assayed at lower concentrations, while the first retained its ability to inhibit toxin production in vitro, the latter improved both the fungal growth and FB accumulation. The effect of the most effective phenolic compounds on FB accumulation was also tested on maize kernels to highlight the importance of appropriate dosages in order to avoid conditions that are able to promote mycotoxin biosynthesis. An expression analysis of genes involved in FB production allowed more detailed insights into the mechanisms underlying the inhibition of FBs by phenolic compounds. The expression of the fum gene was generally down-regulated by the treatments; however, some treatments in the low-producing F. verticillioides strain up-regulated fum gene expression without improving FB production. This study showed that although different phenolic compounds are effective for FB reduction, they can modulate biosynthesis at the transcription level in opposite manners depending on strain. In conclusion, on the basis of in vitro and in vivo screening, two out of the eight tested phenols (ellagic acid and carvacrol) appear to be promising alternative molecules for the control of FB occurrence in maize. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Disease Management and Mycotoxin Prevention in Cereals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Low-Cost Spore Traps: An Efficient Tool to Manage Fusarium Head Blight through Improved Cropping Systems
Agronomy 2021, 11(5), 987; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11050987 - 15 May 2021
Viewed by 593
Abstract
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease of wheat. Worldwide, Fusarium graminearum is the most dominant FHB-causing species. Its most common toxin, deoxynivalenol (DON), impairs food and feed safety and has an enormous economic impact. Agronomic factors such as crop rotation, soil [...] Read more.
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease of wheat. Worldwide, Fusarium graminearum is the most dominant FHB-causing species. Its most common toxin, deoxynivalenol (DON), impairs food and feed safety and has an enormous economic impact. Agronomic factors such as crop rotation, soil management and host genotype strongly influence the occurrence of F. graminearum. Infected plant debris from previous crops, on which perithecia and ascospores develop, represent the main source for FHB, and hence, improved cropping systems aim to reduce this inoculum to decrease the infection risk. The best measure to evaluate the disease pressure is spore traps that detect deposited airborne ascospores. Commercial spore traps are expensive and require power sources, thus, they are not suitable for investigations in field experiments with different treatments. In consequence, we developed spore traps containing a Petri dish with Fusarium-selective agar, protected by aluminum dishes and attached on a wooden board. We compared the data of our low-cost trap with those of a commercial high-throughput jet sampler and obtained equivalent results. In field experiments to compare cropping systems, we observed a high correlation between the DON content in wheat grains and the number of colonies from deposited spores. Our spore trap proved to be a highly valuable tool to not only study FHB epidemiology but also to identify innovative cropping systems with a lower risk for FHB and DON contamination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Disease Management and Mycotoxin Prevention in Cereals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Frequency of Deoxynivalenol Concentrations above the Maximum Limit in Raw Winter Wheat Grain during a 12-Year Multi-Site Survey
Agronomy 2021, 11(5), 960; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11050960 - 12 May 2021
Viewed by 478
Abstract
Mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON) in wheat grain pose a threat to food and feed safety. Models predicting DON levels mostly require field specific input data that in turn allow predictions for individual fields. To obtain predictions for entire regions, model results from [...] Read more.
Mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON) in wheat grain pose a threat to food and feed safety. Models predicting DON levels mostly require field specific input data that in turn allow predictions for individual fields. To obtain predictions for entire regions, model results from fields commonly have to be aggregated, requiring many model runs and the integration of field specific information. Here, we present a novel approach for predicting the percentage of winter wheat samples with DON levels above the EU maximum legal limit (ML) based on freely available agricultural summary statistics and meteorological data for an entire region using case study data from Luxembourg and Switzerland. The coefficient of variation of the rainfall data recorded ±7 days around wheat anthesis and the percentage of fields with a previous crop of maize were used to predict the countrywide percentage of winter wheat grain samples with DON levels > ML. The relationships found in the present study allow for a better assessment of the risk of obtaining winter wheat samples with DON contaminations > ML for an entire region based on predictors that are freely available in agricultural summary statistics and meteorological data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Disease Management and Mycotoxin Prevention in Cereals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Applicability of Species- and Trichothecene-Specific Primers in Monitoring the Fusarium graminearum Species Complex and Its Impact on the Surveillance of Fusarium Head Blight in Winter Wheat in Serbia
Agronomy 2021, 11(4), 778; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11040778 - 15 Apr 2021
Viewed by 505
Abstract
Monitoring changes in the prevalence of Fusarium species and toxin production is an important tool for the integrated control of Fusarium head blight (FHB). However, methods for the high-throughput screening of Fusarium populations have been developed using isolates with limited geographic origins. In [...] Read more.
Monitoring changes in the prevalence of Fusarium species and toxin production is an important tool for the integrated control of Fusarium head blight (FHB). However, methods for the high-throughput screening of Fusarium populations have been developed using isolates with limited geographic origins. In this study, we used species- and trichothecene-specific primers to monitor the F. graminearum species complex (FGSC) originating from Serbia. We also tested the applicability of the primers to the surveillance of FHB. We analyzed two hundred and ten isolates collected from thirty two locations and five winter wheat varieties over a three-year period. Using multiple correspondence analysis (MCA), we investigated associations between Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK) and location, variety, members of the FGSC, and their predisposition for mycotoxin production. The results revealed that the species-specific primers were not specific for 11% of the F. graminearum population. The primer sets were 98.5%, 95.2%, and 92.4% effective in the multilocus genotyping of Tri7, Tri3, and Tri5 genes, respectively. We found that individual wheat varieties were associated with isolates that could not be characterized using species- and trichothecene-specific primers. Alternaria spp. had a significant influence (p < 0.001) on grain infection with F. graminearum, indicating the necessity to further investigate its impact on the pathogenesis of the F. graminearum clade. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Disease Management and Mycotoxin Prevention in Cereals)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Minimizing Yield Losses and Sanitary Risks through an Appropriate Combination of Fungicide Seed and Foliar Treatments on Wheat in Different Production Situations
Agronomy 2021, 11(4), 725; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11040725 - 09 Apr 2021
Viewed by 428
Abstract
Among the fungal diseases that affect wheat in temperate growing areas, Septoria Leaf Blotch (SLB) and Fusarium head blight (FHB) result in yield and sanitary risk losses that could be minimized through appropriate fungicide applications. Furthermore, the request from policy makers and the [...] Read more.
Among the fungal diseases that affect wheat in temperate growing areas, Septoria Leaf Blotch (SLB) and Fusarium head blight (FHB) result in yield and sanitary risk losses that could be minimized through appropriate fungicide applications. Furthermore, the request from policy makers and the food market to reduce the use of chemical pesticides in agriculture has driven research in the direction of performant defense strategies with a reduced spraying of pesticides. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different fungicide programs on the control of SLB and FHB, as well as on the grain yield and deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination of common wheat. Field experiments were carried out in 2016 and 2017 in North Italy. Two seed treatments (conventional vs. systemic) and four combinations of foliar fungicide applications (untreated control, application at the end of stem elongation, at flowering, and a double treatment at stem elongation and flowering) have been compared, according to a full factorial design, under two agronomic conditions: plowing vs. minimum tillage. Foliar sprayings at the end of stem elongation were found to be more effective in controlling SLB, while a triazole application at flowering was found to be an essential practice to reduce the FHB and DON contents. The double foliar treatment led to significant benefits, albeit only in the production situations with the highest SLB severity (e.g., in the 2017 experiment, after ploughing and the use of a conventional seed treatment). The systemic seed dressing led to a higher and prolonged STB protection, with significant canopy greenness during ripening in all the production situations. In 2017, which suffered from high disease pressure, the seed treatment with systemic fungicide led to a significant increase in grain yield (+5%), compared to the conventional one. The combination of the systemic seed treatment and the triazole application at flowering guaranteed the highest control of both SLB and FHB, maximized grain yield, and minimized DON contamination. This study provides useful information that could be used to evaluate appropriate fungicide programs, based on a combination of seed and foliar treatments, for wheat yield and sanity in distinct SLB and FHB diseases pressure scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Disease Management and Mycotoxin Prevention in Cereals)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Genotype Heterogeneity in Accessions of a Winter Barley Core Collection Assessed on Postulated Specific Powdery Mildew Resistance Genes
Agronomy 2021, 11(3), 513; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11030513 - 10 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 435
Abstract
Gene bank accessions are necessary for implementing many research and breeding projects. However, a great number of accessions are contaminated or confused. If such accessions are used, the results obtained from these projects are inaccurate and non-reproducible. There are methods that allow almost [...] Read more.
Gene bank accessions are necessary for implementing many research and breeding projects. However, a great number of accessions are contaminated or confused. If such accessions are used, the results obtained from these projects are inaccurate and non-reproducible. There are methods that allow almost perfect genotype identification; nevertheless, they are relatively recent and results cannot be compared with the characteristics of the original accessions. Growing resistant cultivars is an environmentally safe and cheap way of disease management and knowledge of diverse resistance genes and their combinations can be used to identify varieties and verify their authenticity and homogeneity. For this purpose, all 172 accessions of the core collection (CC) of the Czech winter barley (Hordeum vulgare) gene bank, originating from 35 countries, were studied. For resistance tests, 51 reference isolates of Blumeria graminis f. sp. Hordei, collected in all nonpolar continents over a period of 63 years and representing the global virulence/avirulence diversity of the pathogen, were used. Only 25 barley accessions were homogeneous (genetically uniform), whereas 147 accessions were heterogeneous due to presence of different genotypes. In total, 17 resistance genes were found singly or in combinations; 76.3% of accessions with identified resistance genes carried alleles at the Mla locus. To purify the CC, progenies of individual plants must be multiplied and authenticity and homogeneity of the seed should be confirmed with resistance tests, and subsequently can be studied with more advanced methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Disease Management and Mycotoxin Prevention in Cereals)
Article
The Influence of the Spraying Pressure of an Injector Asymmetric Double Nozzle with Variable Flow on Head Fungicide Coverage, Yield, Grain Quality, and Deoxynivalenol Content in Winter Wheat
Agronomy 2021, 11(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11010043 - 28 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 491
Abstract
Spraying parameters are important factors when spraying wheat heads against fusarium head blight (FHB) to control the deoxynivalenol level in the grain and to obtain high and quality yields. In 2019 and 2020, field trials were conducted in order to establish the effect [...] Read more.
Spraying parameters are important factors when spraying wheat heads against fusarium head blight (FHB) to control the deoxynivalenol level in the grain and to obtain high and quality yields. In 2019 and 2020, field trials were conducted in order to establish the effect of the spraying pressure (2 bar, 4 bar, and 6 bar) of special nozzles with a variable flow rate Agrotop VR 1.5 on the head fungicide coverage, yield parameters, and the deoxynivalenol (DON) value in the grain. The coverage of the front and rear sides of wheat heads increased with the increase of spraying pressure from 2 to 6 bar. In 2019, when the infection with FHB was more severe, no significant differences appeared in the yield and the hectoliter weight at a lower spraying pressure, while the DON value at this pressure approached the maximum permissible level. In that year, the DON value exponentially fell with the increase of spraying pressure. In 2019, the thousand grain weight was higher at the spraying pressure of 6 bar than at the pressures of 2 and 4 bar. The results show that also a lower spraying pressure (2 bar) and a volume application rate (117 L/ha) below the recommended one suffice to retain the DON value in the grain below the maximum permissible level, even in years with more severe infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Disease Management and Mycotoxin Prevention in Cereals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Ergot Alkaloids Mycotoxins in Cereals and Cereal-Derived Food Products: Characteristics, Toxicity, Prevalence, and Control Strategies
Agronomy 2021, 11(5), 931; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11050931 - 08 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 893
Abstract
Ergot alkaloids (EAs) are a group of mycotoxins that are mainly produced from the plant pathogen Claviceps. Claviceps purpurea is one of the most important species, being a major producer of EAs that infect more than 400 species of monocotyledonous plants. Rye, [...] Read more.
Ergot alkaloids (EAs) are a group of mycotoxins that are mainly produced from the plant pathogen Claviceps. Claviceps purpurea is one of the most important species, being a major producer of EAs that infect more than 400 species of monocotyledonous plants. Rye, barley, wheat, millet, oats, and triticale are the main crops affected by EAs, with rye having the highest rates of fungal infection. The 12 major EAs are ergometrine (Em), ergotamine (Et), ergocristine (Ecr), ergokryptine (Ekr), ergosine (Es), and ergocornine (Eco) and their epimers ergotaminine (Etn), egometrinine (Emn), egocristinine (Ecrn), ergokryptinine (Ekrn), ergocroninine (Econ), and ergosinine (Esn). Given that many food products are based on cereals (such as bread, pasta, cookies, baby food, and confectionery), the surveillance of these toxic substances is imperative. Although acute mycotoxicosis by EAs is rare, EAs remain a source of concern for human and animal health as food contamination by EAs has recently increased. Environmental conditions, such as low temperatures and humid weather before and during flowering, influence contamination agricultural products by EAs, contributing to the appearance of outbreak after the consumption of contaminated products. The present work aims to present the recent advances in the occurrence of EAs in some food products with emphasis mainly on grains and grain-based products, as well as their toxicity and control strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Disease Management and Mycotoxin Prevention in Cereals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

1. How Maize Seed Systems Can Control Mycotoxigenic Fungi: A Perspective

P. C. Biemond, T. J. Stomph, P. Lava Kumar, and P. C. Struik

Abstract: Mycotoxins are fungal produced toxins threating human health in developing countries. Consumption of contaminated maize can cause cancer or even sudden death. Mycotoxigenic fungi infection is a requisite for mycotoxin production. This perspective assesses opportunities to prevent mycotoxigenic fungi infection in maize seed, as maize seed health proves to  be essential to prevent transgenerational transmission of the infection. A case study of Nigeria showed that all farmer-produced, seed company and foundation seed samples were heavily infected. A schematic overview of the formal and informal seed system is presented to analyse fungi infection and mycotoxin contamination in the maize value chain, and to set criteria for successful control. We recommend an integrated approach to control mycotoxigenic fungi infection, including resistant varieties and other control methods, with an important role for seed systems.



2. A Two-Year Field Experiment for the Integrated Management of Bread and Durum Wheat Fungal Diseases in Central Italy

Beccari G., Balducci E., Tini F., Ricci G., Orfei M., Guiducci M., Covarelli L.

Abstract: Integrated disease management plays a key role for obtaining safe and sustainable wheat productions. At this purpose, a two-year (2018/19 and 2019/20) field trial was carried out to evaluate 7 bread and 8 durum wheat recently developed and commercially interesting varieties as well as the efficacy of the most recent wheat fungicides (including different modes of action: quinone-outside inhibitors, QoI; succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors, SDHI; demethylation inhibitors, DMI) towards fungal diseases. The experiment was carried out at the experimental station FIELDLAB of Papiano (Perugia, Umbria, Central Italy). All fungal diseases were evaluated under natural inoculum pressure with the exception of Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) for which artificial inoculation with a highly virulent Fusarium culmorum deoxynivalenol (DON)-producer strain was performed at the full anthesis stage (BBCH65). Fungicides were sprayed at two application timings corresponding to fully extended flag leaf (BBCH39) and full anthesis (BBCH65). Phytosanitary conditions of the tested varieties were monitored across their entire crop cycle; the incidence of different fungal diseases was visually assessed. Other parameters such as grains production (t/ha), protein content (%) and hectolitre weight (kg/hL) were also determined. Finally, DON accumulation (μg/kg) in the grains was quantified by the ELISA method. Significant differences were observed among the different wheat varieties both in terms of grains production and DON accumulation. In the two experimental years, each characterized by very different climatic conditions, fungicide treatments showed a high efficacy in controlling the observed fungal diseases (septoria tritici blotch, yellow and brown rusts and FHB). The obtained results highlight as varietal choice and the correct use of fungicides play a crucial role in the integrated management of wheat fungal diseases and DON contamination in the grains.

Back to TopTop