The Impact of Environmental Factors on Fruit Quality

A special issue of Agriculture (ISSN 2077-0472). This special issue belongs to the section "Agricultural Product Quality and Safety".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 November 2022) | Viewed by 63061

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Guest Editor
Department of Ornamental Plants, Dendrology and Pomology, Poznan University of Life Science, Ul. Dąbrowskiego 159, 60-594 Poznań, Poland
Interests: fruit production; fruit storage; engineering horticulture; bioactive compounds; processing; polyphenols; postharvest quality; edible flowers; anthocyanins; frost resistance; harvest date prediction; active temperatures; fruit quality; color development; orchard replantation; fertilization
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Dear Colleagues,

Agricultural production places an increased focus on sustainable development. This also applies to horticulture, where the aim is to obtain high-quality crops and, at the same time, a biological balance of ecosystems. Therefore, new environmentally friendly fruit production systems are being developed, in which growing methods and techniques strongly rely on environmental conditions. This involves breeding new cultivars with enhanced resistance to adverse factors, using crop rotation to limit the exposure to pathogens in soil, organic mulching, stimulating biological processes in the rhizosphere, and applying biological preparations for plant protection and nutrition, in order to improve fruit quality. 

Just like other food products, fruit offered to consumers should be of good quality and, above all, safe to eat. Each step from the orchard to the table must be subject to procedures, which ensure that relevant quality requirements are met. Fruit must fulfil the highest quality standards, which according to the literature, fall into three areas: sensory quality, health-promoting properties and their availability, and the increasingly important symbolic quality. 

Consumer choices are dictated by product appearance, taste, nutritional attributes, safety, and often environmental considerations regarding production.

Aside from the growing method, pruning, pollination, protection and fertilization, fruit quality is affected by environmental conditions, the most notable of which include all macro and microclimatic elements and soil environment. One of these conditions is air temperature, which affects physiological processes by slowing them down when above 35 °C and causes physiological disorders or damage to plants when below 0 °C. Similarly important are precipitation, sun radiation and wind conditions. All above-mentioned factors play a significant role in shaping, for many months of growing, the quality of fruit intended for fresh consumption, processing or therapeutic purposes as a source of bioactive compounds.

Prof. Dr. Grzegorz Lysiak
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • biotic and abiotic stress
  • climate change
  • fruit production
  • environmental impact
  • nutrition
  • replantation disease
  • water deficit
  • degree days
  • parasitic nematodes
  • total soluble solids
  • fruit firmness
  • internal quality
  • bioactive substances in fruits
  • sum of active temperatures
  • orchard systems

Published Papers (26 papers)

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11 pages, 268 KiB  
Article
Macro and Microelements in Leaves of ‘Meredith’ Peach Cultivar Supplied with Biochar, Organic and Beneficial Biofertilizer Combinations
by Mateusz Frąc, Lidia Sas-Paszt and Mirosław Sitarek
Agriculture 2023, 13(5), 933; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13050933 - 24 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1393
Abstract
The content of macro and microelements in the leaves of peach trees treated with biochar, organic fertilization and microorganisms in the field experiment was tested. The experiment was carried out in accordance with the integrated fruit production methods at the NIHR Experimental Orchard [...] Read more.
The content of macro and microelements in the leaves of peach trees treated with biochar, organic fertilization and microorganisms in the field experiment was tested. The experiment was carried out in accordance with the integrated fruit production methods at the NIHR Experimental Orchard in Dąbrowice, from 2015 to 2017. The trees were grafted on P. persica Mandżurska rootstock and planted in the spring of 2013. In 2014, the following products were applied around the trees and mixed into the topsoil: biochar at a dose of 1.6 kg/tree (2000 kg/ha); biochar at a dose of 1.6 kg/tree used together with microorganisms—bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pantoea and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi—Glomus caledonium, Glomus intraradices and Glomus coronatum; biochar at a dose of 1.6 kg/tree applied together with Florovit NPK organic fertilizer at a dose of 0.2 kg/tree; Florovit NPK; microorganisms—bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pantoea and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi—Glomus caledonium, Glomus intraradices and Glomus coronatum; Florovit NPK organic fertilizer with the same microorganisms; and an untreated control. The average results showed that, compared to the control, the biochar increased the nitrogen content in the leaves by 6%. All experimental combinations increased the content of P and K in the leaves. The most effective at increasing the content of phosphorus in leaves—by 48%—was Florovit. The greatest increase in potassium was after the use of biochar with Florovit—by 38%. The magnesium content ranged from 0.49 to 0.59 g/100 g DW. The highest content of Mg was found in the leaves after the application of biochar with Florovit, and the lowest after the use of biochar alone. The leaves of the trees fertilized with the Florovit organic fertilizer had the lowest calcium content, while the highest calcium content was found in combination with trees treated with biochar only. The use of biochar alone did not increase the content of boron in the leaves compared to the control. In all other combinations, a higher amount of boron was found. The highest—18% more than the control of this microelement had leaves where biochar and Florovit were used. Trees treated with biochar and microorganisms accumulated the least copper in the leaves, while the highest content of this element was found in the combination where biochar fertilization was applied together with Florovit. Lower iron concentrations in peach leaves were found as a result of applying microorganisms, microorganisms with the organic fertilizer and biochar, relative to organic fertilization and the control combination. Trees where only microorganisms were applied to the soil had the least manganese and zinc in the leaves. The accumulation of manganese in the leaves was most favored by fertilization with biochar together with microorganisms, and the zinc content was the highest after the use of biochar alone. In general, studies have shown that a small dose of biochar alone or biochar together with organic fertilizer is a very effective method of feeding peach trees. More research is needed on the use of microorganisms and methods of their application with various products used in orchard fertilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Environmental Factors on Fruit Quality)
23 pages, 2840 KiB  
Article
Effect of Nitrogen Fertilization on Tree Growth and Nutrient Content in Soil and Cherry Leaves (Prunus cerasus L.)
by Krzysztof Rutkowski and Grzegorz P. Łysiak
Agriculture 2023, 13(3), 578; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13030578 - 27 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4165
Abstract
Nitrogen fertilization ensures the proper growth of trees. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of differentiated nitrogen fertilization on selected parameters. It was assumed that such analysis is an indirect picture of the needs of cherries grown in herbicide [...] Read more.
Nitrogen fertilization ensures the proper growth of trees. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of differentiated nitrogen fertilization on selected parameters. It was assumed that such analysis is an indirect picture of the needs of cherries grown in herbicide fallow. The content of minerals in two layers of the soil, in leaves, and its influence on tree growth, and the content of chlorophyll in leaves were assessed. The experiments were carried out in three different cherry orchards. Three levels of fertilization were applied in each orchard: 0 kg, 60 kg, and 120 kg N ha−1. As expected the fertilization resulted in an increase in the content of nitrate and ammonium forms of nitrogen in the soil, however, their content was also dependent on precipitation and temperature. Additionally, high nitrogen fertilization increased the content of phosphorus and potassium and decreased the magnesium in the topsoil layer. High nitrogen fertilization caused the decreased content of phosphorus and potassium in the leaves. The level of calcium and magnesium in leaves increased with fertilization of 60 kg N ha−1 but decreased with the dose to 120 kg N ha−1. The use of nitrogen fertilization increased the vegetative growth of trees measured by leaf area and trunk cross-sectional area. However, the chlorophyll content was not dependent on the amount of nitrogen fertilization. Based on the results, it can be concluded that 60 kg N ha−1 is the optimal dose, ensuring proper nutrition of cherry trees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Environmental Factors on Fruit Quality)
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19 pages, 4599 KiB  
Article
Variation in Fruit and Seed Morphology of Selected Biotypes and Cultivars of Elaeagnus multiflora Thunb. in North-Eastern Europe
by Anna Bieniek, Arkadiusz Bieniek and Natalia Bielska
Agriculture 2023, 13(2), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13020495 - 19 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2172
Abstract
Elaeagnus multiflora Thunb., also known as “cherry silverberry”, “cherry elaeagnus”, and “goumi” has been used for a long time in traditional Chinese medicine as a phytosterol-rich plant. Today, the fruits of this species are also becoming more popular as a “superfood” in Europe, [...] Read more.
Elaeagnus multiflora Thunb., also known as “cherry silverberry”, “cherry elaeagnus”, and “goumi” has been used for a long time in traditional Chinese medicine as a phytosterol-rich plant. Today, the fruits of this species are also becoming more popular as a “superfood” in Europe, but the cultivation of these plants is not yet carried out on a large commercial scale. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield and morphological quality of the fruit of nine E. multiflora biotypes and two cultivars, ‘Jahidka’ and ‘Sweet Scarlet’, to determine their suitability for cultivation in the climatic conditions of Poland. The lowest yields (an average of 0.49 kg per bush) were recorded in 2021. In this year, the fruits of the biotypes and cultivars were distinguished by the highest mean fruit weight, fruit-to-seed weight ratio, and total soluble solids content. Our research shows that due to the greatest weight of fruits, cultivar ‘Jahidka’ and the biotype B11 can be recommended for cultivation in north-eastern Poland. Biotype B11 was distinguished by the highest yield (an average of 4.02 kg per bush). The smallest share of stone in relation to the weight of the fruit was shown for the cultivars ‘Jahidka’, and biotype B4. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Environmental Factors on Fruit Quality)
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17 pages, 20431 KiB  
Article
The Macroalgal Biostimulant Improves the Functional Quality of Tomato Fruits Produced from Plants Grown under Salt Stress
by Kanagaraj Muthu-Pandian Chanthini, Sengottayan Senthil-Nathan, Ganesh-Subbaraja Pavithra, Arul-Selvaraj Asahel, Pauldurai Malarvizhi, Ponnusamy Murugan, Arulsoosairaj Deva--Andrews, Haridoss Sivanesh, Vethamonickam Stanley-Raja, Ramakrishnan Ramasubramanian, Aml Ghaith, Ahmed Abdel-Megeed and Patcharin Krutmuang
Agriculture 2023, 13(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13010006 - 20 Dec 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2111
Abstract
Among the most perilous factors affecting tomato plant functioning and yield is salinity. The efficacy of halotolerant marine macroalgal extract of Chaetomorpha antennina (Seaweed Extract—SWE) in mitigating the toxic effects of salt stress (150 mM) in tomato plants to promote and enhance both [...] Read more.
Among the most perilous factors affecting tomato plant functioning and yield is salinity. The efficacy of halotolerant marine macroalgal extract of Chaetomorpha antennina (Seaweed Extract—SWE) in mitigating the toxic effects of salt stress (150 mM) in tomato plants to promote and enhance both plant functionality and yield was tested. It was evident that salt stress undesirably affected germination and plant growth in terms of quality and quantity. Treatment with SWE improved the functionality of salt-strained tomato plants by enhancing their germination indexes, growth and morphological traits, and photosynthetic pigments, as well as protein and phenol concentrations. SWE also exerted a positive influence on protecting the plant against salt stress by increasing the synthesis and accumulation of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and lipoxygenase enzymes, along with the contents of lycopene and vitamin C. SWE also increased the nutraceutical quality, flavour and organolepty of emerged tomato fruits. GCMS analysis of fruit pericarp showed increased siloxane, phenol, antioxidant and indole acetic acid compounds, along with aromatic benzene compounds. These results indicate the potentiality of SWE in protecting plants against salt stress induced toxicities by prompting the synthesis of protective compounds such as siloxane and antioxidant enzymes. It was also noted that SWE plays a crucial role in promoting plant growth and survivability by improving plant functionality, yield and nutrition, by promoting cultivation in saline soils in an eco-friendly and sustainable manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Environmental Factors on Fruit Quality)
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17 pages, 951 KiB  
Article
Effect of Nitrogen Fertilization of Apple Orchard on Soil Mineral Nitrogen Content, Yielding of the Apple Trees and Nutritional Status of Leaves and Fruits
by Wojciech Kowalczyk, Dariusz Wrona and Sebastian Przybyłko
Agriculture 2022, 12(12), 2169; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12122169 - 17 Dec 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3292
Abstract
Contemporary trends in horticulture are aimed at limiting the use of mineral fertilizers to the necessary minimum, which is to guarantee adequate profitability of production while maintaining high-quality fruit and at the same time preventing environmental pollution. Thus, in the presented study, we [...] Read more.
Contemporary trends in horticulture are aimed at limiting the use of mineral fertilizers to the necessary minimum, which is to guarantee adequate profitability of production while maintaining high-quality fruit and at the same time preventing environmental pollution. Thus, in the presented study, we investigate the effect of diversified nitrogen fertilization on soil mineral nitrogen content during vegetation season, yielding of apple trees and the nutritional status of apple leaves and fruits. We compared several ammonium nitrate treatments as well as growth without fertilization as a control. The results of our study show that under the conditions of humus-rich soils and with appropriate agrotechnics, N mineralization from the organic matter available in the soil may completely cover demand of apple trees for this component. Achieved outcomes clearly revealed that nitrogen fertilization in the amount of 100 kg N · ha−1 on the entire soil surface carries a real risk of groundwater contamination, and the same nitrogen dose applied within the grassland does not bring any production effects, therefore it should be considered as unjustified. Obtained results revealed that in a rationally managed, fully fruiting apple orchard, the annual dose of N should not exceed 50 kg N∙ha−1. This dosage of N should fully secure the nutritional needs of apple trees, guaranteeing their high yield and complete safety for the environment. What is important is, nitrogen fertilization strongly affects macroelemental composition of apple leaves and fruits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Environmental Factors on Fruit Quality)
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13 pages, 7099 KiB  
Article
Opportunities to Improve Effectiveness of Pollination of Blueberry CV. ‘Bluecrop’
by Monika Elżbieta Bieniasz and Anna Maria Konieczny
Agriculture 2022, 12(12), 2126; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12122126 - 10 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1435
Abstract
In the production of blueberries, pollination is a key factor determining high quality yield. Problems with the process of pollination in blueberries occurs frequently. Lack of the effective pollination results in a lower yield and production of small fruits with low commercial value. [...] Read more.
In the production of blueberries, pollination is a key factor determining high quality yield. Problems with the process of pollination in blueberries occurs frequently. Lack of the effective pollination results in a lower yield and production of small fruits with low commercial value. The experiment described in this paper was carried out to test the effect of titanium organic complex (TOC) on the pollination and fertilization processes, seed formation, fruit setting and fruit development of blueberry in two consecutive years. The experiment consisted of two experimental factors: pollination type (self or open pollination) and application of TOC or lack of it. The presented study proves that TOC stimulates pollen adhesion and germination on the stigma, fruit setting, seed setting and fruit development. In self-pollinated flowers, the use of TOC increased the mass of each berry by 28% (in the first year) and 26% (in the second year), compared to non-treated plants. In open pollinated flowers, the application of TOC increased fruit mass by 38% (in the first year) and 29% (in the second year), compared to non-treated plants. Therefore, TOC may be treated as a substance stimulating the total fruit yield and mass of individual fruit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Environmental Factors on Fruit Quality)
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14 pages, 1460 KiB  
Article
Effect of Preharvest and Postharvest Application of 1-MCP on the Quality of Gala Schniga® SchniCo Red(s) Apples during Long-Term Storage
by Maria Małachowska and Kazimierz Tomala
Agriculture 2022, 12(12), 2073; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12122073 - 3 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2183
Abstract
Fruit growers are looking for effective solutions to preserve the high quality of apples after storage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the impact of pre- and postharvest use of 1-MCP on the quality of ‘Gala Schniga® SchniCo Red(s)’ [...] Read more.
Fruit growers are looking for effective solutions to preserve the high quality of apples after storage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the impact of pre- and postharvest use of 1-MCP on the quality of ‘Gala Schniga® SchniCo Red(s)’ apples harvested at the optimal harvest date and at a delayed harvest date and stored for 9 months under conditions similar to DCA (0.6% CO2 and 0.6% O2). Four treatments: control (1-MCP untreated), 1-MCP treated 7 days before harvest (Harvista™), 1-MCP treated 7 days after harvest (Smart-Fresh™), and 1-MCP treated before and after harvest (Harvista™ + SmartFresh™) were used, respectively, for each of the above harvest dates. After 5, 7, and 9 months of storage and after an additional 7-day shelf-life period, the following properties were determined: flesh firmness, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, and ethylene production rate. The harvest date and the 1-MCP application date affected ethylene production rate which was reflected in fruit flesh firmness and acidity (p < 0.05). Apples collected at the optimal harvest date from trees sprayed with Harvista™ before harvest retained high firmness (>55 N) after 7 days of shelf-storage at 20 °C, even if previously stored for 9 months. Apples collected later showed firmness similar to the best preferred by consumers only if treated with 1-MCP after harvest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Environmental Factors on Fruit Quality)
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15 pages, 1595 KiB  
Article
Different Floor Management Systems Affect Soil Properties and Initial Development of Apple Tree (Malus × domestica Borkh.) in an Orchard
by Sebastian Przybyłko, Ewa Szpadzik, Jacek Marszał, Wojciech Kowalczyk and Dariusz Wrona
Agriculture 2022, 12(12), 2070; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12122070 - 2 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1909
Abstract
In order to achieve sustainable food production, non-chemical weed management practices need to be developed for fruit growing. Tailor-made floor management systems enable efficient weed regulation, but they also affect the soil quality in an orchard. In this article, the effects of various [...] Read more.
In order to achieve sustainable food production, non-chemical weed management practices need to be developed for fruit growing. Tailor-made floor management systems enable efficient weed regulation, but they also affect the soil quality in an orchard. In this article, the effects of various floor management systems in a ‘Red Jonaprince’ apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) orchard on the soil properties and the trees’ nutritional status and initial development during the first two years after the orchard’s establishment were assessed. The experiment was set up in the spring of 2017 in the Experimental Orchard of WULS. ‘Red Jonaprince’ cv. trees grafted on M.9 rootstock were planted with 3.5 × 1 m spacing between them. Different floor management systems were applied to the rows, including the selected organic mulches: Miscanthus × giganteus straw (MG1 and MG2), spent mushroom substrates (SMS1 and SMS2), herbicide strip (HS), clear mechanical soil cultivation (MC), and synthetic black mulch (BC). The organic mulches affected the soil properties significantly. Spent mushroom substrates (SMS1, SMS2) increased the P and K contents in the soil, increased the salinity 10-fold, and retarded the growth in terms of the trunk cross-section area (TCSA) and its increment compared with other systems. Miscanthus × giganteus straw mulch (MG1, MG2) was associated with a more vigorous shoot growth compared with other combinations in the first year of the study as it provided a better tree nitrogen nutritional status. The floor management system affected the generative development of the trees. Mulching with a spent mushroom substrate boosted the flower bud formation intensity, but it did not affect the yielding quantity. Moreover, due to the poor fruit set, the trees mulched with a spent mushroom substrate (SMS2) gave a low initial bearing. High crop loads were noted for the trees treated with black synthetic mulch (BC) and the trees mulched with Miscanthus × giganteus straw (MG1). This was an effect of the tree size rather than the blooming intensity, while there were no differences in the cropping efficiency index (CEI) parameter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Environmental Factors on Fruit Quality)
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22 pages, 4104 KiB  
Article
Effect of Nitrogen Fertilization in the Sour Cherry Orchard on Soil Enzymatic Activities, Microbial Population, and Fruit Quality
by Krzysztof Rutkowski, Grzegorz P. Łysiak and Zofia Zydlik
Agriculture 2022, 12(12), 2069; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12122069 - 1 Dec 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1956
Abstract
Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) is one of the most important fruit crops in Poland and ‘Łutówka’ is the dominant cultivar in commercial orchards. The experiment was carried out in 2007–2013 in three orchards; in each of them, three levels of fertilization [...] Read more.
Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) is one of the most important fruit crops in Poland and ‘Łutówka’ is the dominant cultivar in commercial orchards. The experiment was carried out in 2007–2013 in three orchards; in each of them, three levels of fertilization were applied: 0 N kg ha−1, 60 kg N ha−1, and 120 kg N ha−1. The activity of dehydrogenase and protease in the soil was studied depending on nitrogen fertilization. The abundance of soil microorganisms was assessed: bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and nitrogenous bacteria (Azospirillum and Azotobacter) in the years during the experiments carried out with fertilization of 60 kg N ha−1 in all orchards. The enzyme activity of dehydrogenases increased after the use of 60 kg N ha−1 from 3.8 to 6.7 (cm3 H2 24 h−1 kg−1 DW soil), but a further increase in the dose to 120 kg N ha−1 caused a decrease in activity to 5.1 (cm3 H2 24 h−1 kg−1 DW soil). The activity of proteases was dependent on nitrogen fertilization, but to a large extent it was related to the course of climatic conditions. There is no relationship between the growth and the activity of proteases. The yield and selected quality parameters of the cherry fruits were associated with both dehydrogenases and proteases. The use of lower doses of nitrogen fertilizers allows for maintaining biological balance in the soil and a more efficient use of nutrients, contributing to less environmental pollution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Environmental Factors on Fruit Quality)
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14 pages, 1289 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Storage Quality of Hardy Kiwifruit (Actinidia arguta): Effect of 1-MCP and Maturity Stage
by Tomasz Krupa, Kazimierz Tomala and Ewa Zaraś-Januszkiewicz
Agriculture 2022, 12(12), 2062; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12122062 - 1 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1797
Abstract
Hardy kiwifruit fits into consumer expectations, especially in terms of taste and nutritional value. The main reason for the loss of quality is that the fruit softens too quickly, but storage at low temperatures (0–1 °C) is not effective enough in maintaining high [...] Read more.
Hardy kiwifruit fits into consumer expectations, especially in terms of taste and nutritional value. The main reason for the loss of quality is that the fruit softens too quickly, but storage at low temperatures (0–1 °C) is not effective enough in maintaining high fruit quality. Two cultivars were evaluated for storage quality, i.e., ‘Geneva’ and ‘Ananasnaya’. Minikiwi were harvested at two stages of maturity. The fruit were treated with 1-methylcyclopropene at a concentration of 0.65 µL/L and then stored under common cold storage, ULO, and CA conditions. Fruit evaluation was carried out for 12 weeks, and firmness, soluble solids content, and titratable acidity were evaluated. Post-harvest treatments, as well as the conditions under which the fruit is stored, determine its quality after storage. The application of 1-MCP decisively inhibits the softening of mini kiwi even under normal atmospheric conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Environmental Factors on Fruit Quality)
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12 pages, 2232 KiB  
Article
The Effect of the Method of Plant Protection on the Quality of Remontant Strawberry Cultivars Grown in a Gutter System under Covers
by Jan Błaszczyk, Jacek Nawrocki and Grzegorz P. Łysiak
Agriculture 2022, 12(12), 2041; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12122041 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1468
Abstract
To maintain a constant supply of fresh fruit from May to November, producers increase the area of strawberry cultivation under shelters and grow strawberries that repeat fruiting. An additional problem is the reduction of available pesticides caused by the recommendations of the European [...] Read more.
To maintain a constant supply of fresh fruit from May to November, producers increase the area of strawberry cultivation under shelters and grow strawberries that repeat fruiting. An additional problem is the reduction of available pesticides caused by the recommendations of the European Green Deal. For these reasons, the authors undertook to compare cultivars to determine which had the best quality fruits and whichplant wasmost resistant to the most dangerous pests.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the method of plant protection on the health and quality of the fruit yield of three remontant strawberry cultivars grown in a soilless medium. This study evaluated fruit yield and fruit quality as well as the contribution of pathogens to yield losses. For this purpose, standard phytopathological methods were used to identify the causes of disease symptoms on the fruit. At the same time, laboratory tests were carried out on the quality of the harvested strawberries, i.e., firmness and acidity of the fruit, soluble solids content, and respiration rate. The applied protection methods had little effect on the marketable yield and fruit size but had a significant impact on reducing fruit losses caused by the most common diseases. The effectiveness of individual protection methods inreducing the incidence of the tested pathogens and the effect on fruit quality parameters depended on the cultivar and growing season. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Environmental Factors on Fruit Quality)
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20 pages, 1915 KiB  
Article
Weather Conditions, Orchard Age and Nitrogen Fertilization Influences Yield and Quality of ‘Łutówka’ Sour Cherry Fruit
by Krzysztof Rutkowski and Grzegorz P. Łysiak
Agriculture 2022, 12(12), 2008; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12122008 - 25 Nov 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1699
Abstract
Nitrogen fertilization is a basic agrotechnical orchard treatment, and affects quality and size of the crops. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of nitrogen fertilization on the yield and quality of sour cherry fruit of the ‘Łutówka’ cultivar. The [...] Read more.
Nitrogen fertilization is a basic agrotechnical orchard treatment, and affects quality and size of the crops. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of nitrogen fertilization on the yield and quality of sour cherry fruit of the ‘Łutówka’ cultivar. The course of climatic conditions in relation to the timing of flowering and fruiting was analyzed. The trials were carried out in three different experimental sour cherry orchards (quarters) with different planting dates (1999, 2001 and 2002) located at the experimental orchard of the Poznań University of Life Sciences in Poland. In each orchard, three levels of fertilization were used: control without fertilization, fertilization at a dose of 60 kg N ha−1 and fertilization at 120 kg N ha−1. Increasing the dose of N did not have a significant effect on sour cherry yield. However, it resulted in a reduction of fruit weight, extract content, acidity and TSS/TA ratio, whereas the brightness (L*) and redness (a*) of the fruit surface color increased. Temperature and precipitation had the greatest influence on the course of flowering, fruiting and fruit ripening. Particularly important was the course of climatic conditions at the beginning of the growing season, especially during flowering, when there is a high risk of spring frosts. The timing of flowering and fruiting was correlated with the sum of active temperatures. The greatest relationship for the flowering date was found for SAT (sum of active temperatures) when the base temperature equals 11 °C and the temperature for the harvest date equals 9 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Environmental Factors on Fruit Quality)
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11 pages, 676 KiB  
Article
Influence of Soil Chemical Features on Aromatic Profile of V. vinifera cv. Corvina Grapes and Wines: A Study-Case in Valpolicella Area (Italy) in a Calcareous and Non-Calcareous Soil
by Diego Tomasi, Patrick Marcuzzo, Tiziana Nardi, Andrea Lonardi, Lorenzo Lovat, Riccardo Flamini and Giovanni Mian
Agriculture 2022, 12(12), 1980; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12121980 - 23 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1864
Abstract
In the Valpolicella area (Verona, Italy) one of the most important Italian wines is being produced: Amarone, predominately made by Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina. This wine is subjected to a specific postharvest process, namely, withering, which aims to increase alcohol content and/or high [...] Read more.
In the Valpolicella area (Verona, Italy) one of the most important Italian wines is being produced: Amarone, predominately made by Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina. This wine is subjected to a specific postharvest process, namely, withering, which aims to increase alcohol content and/or high residual sugars while retaining richness in aromas and organoleptic compounds. In accordance with guidelines and strict Amarone protocol set by the Consorzio of Amarone-Valpolicella, withering must be carried out by setting the grapes in a suitable environment. In our study, the withering process was performed following the traditional methods, i.e., in open-air, natural environmental conditions, as generally performed by winegrowers, leading to a weight loss in grapes of up to 30%. Whilst the effect of different postharvest conditions is clear and studied, it is interesting to know how soil can affect both grapes and wine profile, in terms of aromas, which are of great importance for this crafted wine. For this purpose, for two study years, the influence of two different sites (with regards to the carbonates’ content) on aromas were investigated. Furthermore, microvinifications and the sensory profile of the resulting wines were analysed. Our results clearly indicated that different soils’ characteristics, particularly differences in carbonate content, had an important effect, not only on the aromatic compounds of grapes and wines, but on the sensory profile as well. This information will help winegrowers and winemakers in the process of determining site selection for future vineyards in order to obtain a final optimum Amarone wine, in terms of its aromatic composition—one that is able to respond to the market demand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Environmental Factors on Fruit Quality)
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14 pages, 316 KiB  
Article
Quality and Nutritional Value of ‘Chopin’ and Clone ‘JB’ in Relation to Popular Apples Growing in Poland
by Andrii Kistechok, Dariusz Wrona and Tomasz Krupa
Agriculture 2022, 12(11), 1876; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12111876 - 9 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1588
Abstract
The aim of the study was to describe the physicochemical properties, with particular emphasis on nutritional value, of apples ‘Chopin’ and clone ‘JB’. The new cultivars were compared with the cultivars commonly cultivated in Polish orchards, namely ‘Gala Brookfield’, ‘Šampion’, ‘Ligol’ and ‘Idared’. [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to describe the physicochemical properties, with particular emphasis on nutritional value, of apples ‘Chopin’ and clone ‘JB’. The new cultivars were compared with the cultivars commonly cultivated in Polish orchards, namely ‘Gala Brookfield’, ‘Šampion’, ‘Ligol’ and ‘Idared’. The study focuses on the evaluation of physicochemical characteristic (firmness, soluble solids content and titratable acidity) and the content of monosaccharides, sucrose and organic acids based on HPLC with an RI detector. In addition, the nutritional value of apples were described separately for the flesh and peel of the fruit, focusing on the assessment of the antioxidant activity and the content of total polyphenols, phenolic acids, flavonols using the HPLC technique. ‘Chopin’ and ‘JB’ clone apples are characterized by very high acidity, over 1%, which is related to the high content of malic acid. The red flesh ‘JB’ clone is characterized by a high content of bioactive compounds in both the peel and flesh of apples. High temperatures and a lack of precipitation contribute to a higher polyphenol content in apples, which proves that apart from the genetic features of the cultivars, the climatic conditions also determine the nutritional value of the fruit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Environmental Factors on Fruit Quality)
18 pages, 2258 KiB  
Article
Fruit Quality and Contents of Some Bioactive Compounds in Selected Czech Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) Cultivars under Conditions of Central Poland
by Ewa Szpadzik, Tomasz Krupa, Karolina Molska-Kawulok and Sebastian Przybyłko
Agriculture 2022, 12(11), 1859; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12111859 - 5 Nov 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2199
Abstract
Dynamic changes have taken place in the production of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) in Poland over the last 20 years. New cultivars with both early- and late-ripening dates have appeared, and modern high-intensity cultivation techniques are being implemented. The main attribute [...] Read more.
Dynamic changes have taken place in the production of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) in Poland over the last 20 years. New cultivars with both early- and late-ripening dates have appeared, and modern high-intensity cultivation techniques are being implemented. The main attribute of the fruit, in addition to its unique taste, is its health-promoting properties. In this research, which was conducted at the Warsaw University of Life Sciences in 2021, our main objectives were to evaluate seven selected Czech cherry cultivars (‘Jacinta’; ‘Horka’; ‘Tamara’; ‘Helga’; ‘Fabiola’; ‘Kasandra’; ‘Kordia’) with regard to their dessert quality and contents of biologically active compounds, and to indicate the most valuable cultivar under the conditions of central Poland. The cultivars tested differed in both the fruit quality and health-promoting properties. ‘Jacinta’, ‘Horka’, Tamara’ and ‘Fabiola’ had the largest fruits. The ‘Fabiola’ and ‘Kordia’ fruits had the highest firmness, while the ‘Jacinta’ and ‘Horka’ fruits had the highest soluble solid contents (SSCs) and titratable acidities (TAs). We found the highest SSC-to-TA ratio in the ‘Fabiola’ cultivar. ‘Jacinta’ proved to be the most valuable cultivar in terms of bioactive compounds, and it had the highest antioxidant activity (DPPH). Some of the traits were closely correlated with each other, mainly in relation to the biologically active compounds. Darker fruits contained more bioactive compounds and had a higher antioxidant activity. It was also proved that size of fruits as well as SSC and TA are also correlated with fruit color. Intensively colored fruit are larger and have higher SSC and TA. In sweet cherry fruit, the contents of polyphenols and flavonoids, as well as the high DPPH, are strongly determined by the high content of cyanidin-3-galactoside. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Environmental Factors on Fruit Quality)
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11 pages, 1222 KiB  
Article
Degree Days as a Method to Estimate the Optimal Harvest Date of ‘Conference’ Pears
by Grzegorz P. Łysiak
Agriculture 2022, 12(11), 1803; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12111803 - 29 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2199
Abstract
The European pear is a climacteric fruit species characterised by high storability. The ‘Conference’ pear can be stored in a CA (controlled atmosphere) room without major losses for half a year. However, for ‘Conference’ storage to be successful, the fruit must be harvested [...] Read more.
The European pear is a climacteric fruit species characterised by high storability. The ‘Conference’ pear can be stored in a CA (controlled atmosphere) room without major losses for half a year. However, for ‘Conference’ storage to be successful, the fruit must be harvested when fully developed before it enters the climatic maturation phase. Among the various methods used to determine the optimal harvest date, the degree-day method, which relies on the sum of active temperatures, seems to be relatively accurate and easy to apply. During 11 years of study, pears were harvested on four dates (every 4–5 days) chosen based on measurements and observations, and then, after a six-month storage period, the optimal harvest date was determined. During the growing season, the temperature was measured using an automatic weather station to calculate the sum of active temperatures from full bloom to the optimal harvest date. Measurements made after storage were analysed, and the sum of active temperatures needed for the proper development of the ‘Conference’ pear was calculated to be 2469 degree days. The calculations are very accurate because the dispersion calculated using the standard deviation was only 20°. The base temperature with the smallest error was 0 °C. This study shows that this method can be recommended as useful for determining the optimal harvest date. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Environmental Factors on Fruit Quality)
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14 pages, 994 KiB  
Article
Titanium Organic Complex Improves Pollination and Fruit Development of Remontant Strawberry Cultivars under High-Temperature Conditions
by Monika Bieniasz, Anna Konieczny, Jan Błaszczyk, Jacek Nawrocki, Michał Kopeć, Monika Mierzwa-Hersztek, Krzysztof Gondek, Tomasz Zaleski, Jarosław Knaga and Michał Pniak
Agriculture 2022, 12(11), 1795; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12111795 - 28 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1873
Abstract
Heat stress negatively affects pollination, fertilization, and consequently, the development of strawberry fruits. It was proved that foliar application of titanium organic complex improved pollination and fertilization processes of some plant species, which resulted in better fruit development. Therefore, a three-year experiment was [...] Read more.
Heat stress negatively affects pollination, fertilization, and consequently, the development of strawberry fruits. It was proved that foliar application of titanium organic complex improved pollination and fertilization processes of some plant species, which resulted in better fruit development. Therefore, a three-year experiment was designed to determine the effect of the titanium organic complex on pollination and fertilization processes and consequently on fruit development of three remontant strawberry cultivars grown under canopies, under conditions of high temperature. The experiment demonstrated that high temperature disrupted the flowering physiology of strawberry. Under such conditions, the viability and germination of pollen as well as the receptivity of stigma were significantly reduced. The application of titanium organic complex during flowering had a beneficial effect on the pollination and fertilization processes of strawberries. Plants treated with the titanium organic complex were characterized by higher pollen viability, better pollen germination, a higher number of achenes in fruit, and a higher weight of individual fruit, compared to the not treated plants. The obtained results suggest that application of titanium organic complex during flowering may alleviate the stress caused by high temperature and contribute to the improvement of the quantity and quality of a crop. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Environmental Factors on Fruit Quality)
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11 pages, 729 KiB  
Article
Health—Promoting Properties of Highbush Blueberries Depending on Type of Fertilization
by Agnieszka Lenart, Dariusz Wrona and Tomasz Krupa
Agriculture 2022, 12(10), 1741; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12101741 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 2011
Abstract
The purpose of the experiment was to demonstrate a comparison of fertilization with and without biostimulation. A study was carried out in an experimental blueberry field in central Poland (51°55′42.7″ N 20°59′28.7″ E) during the three growing seasons of 2019, 2020 and 2021, [...] Read more.
The purpose of the experiment was to demonstrate a comparison of fertilization with and without biostimulation. A study was carried out in an experimental blueberry field in central Poland (51°55′42.7″ N 20°59′28.7″ E) during the three growing seasons of 2019, 2020 and 2021, on ‘Bluecrop’ shrubs growing at a distance of 1 × 3 m. The plants were re-planted in the spring of each year and irrigated using drip irrigation. The experiment was conducted using a random block design (four fertilizer treatments × five replications × six bushes). The fruits were tested for antioxidant activity and amount of total polyphenols. Additionally, anthocyanin quantitative and qualitative analysis was performed. The results indicated a significant effect of fertilizer combinations on the values of the evaluated parameters. The positive effect of biostimulants on the content of antioxidant compounds in highbush blueberry fruit was significant. In most of the combinations in which additional biostimulants were used, higher values of the analyzed indicators (antioxidant activity and polyphenol content) were observed. The most noteworthy was the T4 fertilization program, where during treatment, soil and foliar fertilization were carried out with preparations that contained biostimulants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Environmental Factors on Fruit Quality)
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13 pages, 1736 KiB  
Article
Effects of Varieties, Cultivation Methods, and Origins of Citrus sinensis ‘hongjiang’ on Volatile Organic Compounds: HS-SPME-GC/MS Analysis Coupled with OPLS-DA
by Xiangwu Huang, Lihong Zhao, Sheng Pang, Yijun Liu, Jianrong Liu and Meiqian Zhang
Agriculture 2022, 12(10), 1725; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12101725 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2244
Abstract
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Citrus sinensis ‘hongjiang’ oranges significantly vary depending on the fruit variety, cultivation mode, and cultivation location. The effect of these three factors on VOCs was experimentally determined in this study. In total, 102 VOCs were separated via headspace [...] Read more.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Citrus sinensis ‘hongjiang’ oranges significantly vary depending on the fruit variety, cultivation mode, and cultivation location. The effect of these three factors on VOCs was experimentally determined in this study. In total, 102 VOCs were separated via headspace solid-phase microextraction and identified via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the differential components were analyzed by partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). The VOCs of ‘hongjiang’ mainly comprised alkenes, alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones. They were well clustered in OPLS-DA and principal component analysis (PCA), and the seven groups were distinctly differentiated. The results of the S-plot, variable importance in projection (VIP), and heatmap analyses showed that these factors had a significant impact on VOCs in ‘hongjiang’. The characteristic VOCs between the two pairs were significant, while the net room cultivation mode had the most substantial effect on VOCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Environmental Factors on Fruit Quality)
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19 pages, 2004 KiB  
Article
Exogenous Proline, Methionine, and Melatonin Stimulate Growth, Quality, and Drought Tolerance in Cauliflower Plants
by Hemat A. EL-Bauome, Emad A. Abdeldaym, Mahmoud A. M. Abd El-Hady, Doaa Bahaa Eldin Darwish, Moodi Saham Alsubeie, Mohamed M. El-Mogy, Mohammed A. Basahi, Salem Mesfir Al-Qahtani, Nadi Awad Al-Harbi, Fahad Mohammed Alzuaibr, Abdulrahman Alasmari, Ismail A. Ismail, Eldessoky S. Dessoky and Samar M. A. Doklega
Agriculture 2022, 12(9), 1301; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12091301 - 25 Aug 2022
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 3404
Abstract
The impact of proline, methionine, and melatonin on cauliflower plants under drought stress is still unclear in the available publications. So, this research aims to study these biochemical compounds’ effects on cauliflower plants grown under well-irrigated and drought-stressed conditions. The obtained results showed [...] Read more.
The impact of proline, methionine, and melatonin on cauliflower plants under drought stress is still unclear in the available publications. So, this research aims to study these biochemical compounds’ effects on cauliflower plants grown under well-irrigated and drought-stressed conditions. The obtained results showed that under drought-stressed conditions, foliar application of proline, methionine, and melatonin significantly (p ≤ 0.05) enhanced leaf area, leaf chlorophyll content, leaf relative water content (RWC), vitamin C, proline, total soluble sugar, reducing sugar, and non-reducing sugar compared to the untreated plants. These treatments also significantly increased curd height, curd diameter, curd freshness, and dry matter compared to untreated plants. Conversely, the phenolic-related enzymes including polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD), and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) were significantly reduced compared to the untreated plants. A similar trend was observed in glucosinolates, abscisic acid (ABA), malondialdehyde (MDA), and total phenols. Eventually, it can be concluded that the foliar application of proline, methionine, and melatonin can be considered a proper strategy for enhancing the growth performance and productivity of cauliflower grown under drought-stressed conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Environmental Factors on Fruit Quality)
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19 pages, 6586 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Climatic Conditions in Central Europe on the Growth and Yield of Cornelian Cherry Cultivars
by Iwona Szot and Grzegorz P. Łysiak
Agriculture 2022, 12(9), 1295; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12091295 - 24 Aug 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2375
Abstract
Fruit of Cornelian cherry can be used fresh or processed, and cultivation practices are developing in this direction. Due to the rarity of its cultivation, Cornelian cherry is harvested from natural sites of occurrence. However, the fruit from natural sites is of lower [...] Read more.
Fruit of Cornelian cherry can be used fresh or processed, and cultivation practices are developing in this direction. Due to the rarity of its cultivation, Cornelian cherry is harvested from natural sites of occurrence. However, the fruit from natural sites is of lower quality than the cultivars, as their seedlings differ in terms of fruit ripening. The objective of this experiment was the evaluation of approximately a dozen cultivars in terms of growth and fruit yield under the conditions of Central Europe. The effect of climatic conditions on the onset date of particular phenological stages was also assessed. All the analysed cultivars are suitable commodity crops, but they should be accurately selected depending on the direction of production. The first phenological stage of Cornelian cherry is the appearance of inflorescences before the development of leaves. The start of particular phenophases depends on the temperature and precipitation. Cornelian cherries cultivated under ecological conditions show satisfactory fruit size and generally a small percentage of stone. Most cultivars have an elongated fruit shape, and the shape factor decreases with their growth and ripening. The fruit grows along a double sigmoid, and its first intensive growth occurs following the extinction of intensive shoot growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Environmental Factors on Fruit Quality)
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11 pages, 781 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Harvest Date and Storage Conditions on the Quality of Remontant Strawberry Cultivars Grown in a Gutter System under Covers
by Jan Błaszczyk, Monika Bieniasz, Jacek Nawrocki, Michał Kopeć, Monika Mierzwa-Hersztek, Krzysztof Gondek, Tomasz Zaleski, Jarosław Knaga and Stanisław Bogdał
Agriculture 2022, 12(8), 1193; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12081193 - 10 Aug 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3160
Abstract
The storage characteristics of three remontant strawberry cultivars San Andreas®, Albion® and Murano® were studied in 2018–2020. The short-term storage conditions (7 days) of strawberries used in the study significantly affected fruit quality indicators. The highest quality of stored [...] Read more.
The storage characteristics of three remontant strawberry cultivars San Andreas®, Albion® and Murano® were studied in 2018–2020. The short-term storage conditions (7 days) of strawberries used in the study significantly affected fruit quality indicators. The highest quality of stored strawberries was provided by controlled atmosphere (CA) conditions, as evidenced by the typically highest fruit firmness and the lowest natural loss of strawberry weight. The modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) conditions obtained in the Xtend® bags provided a similar good storage effect for strawberries. Strawberries stored in MAP bags had the lowest respiratory intensity, and their firmness and the percentage of rotten fruit were the same as those stored in a controlled atmosphere. In addition, MAP bags were effective in reducing the weight loss of stored strawberries. The quality of strawberries stored in a conventional air storage (AA) was slightly lower compared to the fruit stored in a controlled and modified atmosphere. This was due to their lower firmness and significantly higher respiration intensity and higher weight loss. In addition, the percentage of rotten fruit, although low, has always been the highest among AA strawberries. The quality of the strawberries also depended on the date of fruit harvest. Strawberries harvested later, compared to those collected earlier, were generally characterized by higher firmness, lower acidity and lower respiration intensity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Environmental Factors on Fruit Quality)
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14 pages, 1482 KiB  
Article
Maintaining the Quality of ‘Red Jonaprince’ Apples during Storage by 1-Methylcyclopropene Preharvest and Postharvest Treatment
by Kazimierz Tomala, Dominika Guzek, Dominika Głąbska, Maria Małachowska, Łukasz Widłak, Tomasz Krupa and Krystyna Gutkowska
Agriculture 2022, 12(8), 1189; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12081189 - 10 Aug 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2065
Abstract
‘Red Jonaprince’ cultivar production is rapidly increasing; therefore, the interest in harvesting in various regions, as well as in improving and maintaining the quality of the apple, is also increasing. The aim of this study was to analyze the possibility of applying 1-MCP [...] Read more.
‘Red Jonaprince’ cultivar production is rapidly increasing; therefore, the interest in harvesting in various regions, as well as in improving and maintaining the quality of the apple, is also increasing. The aim of this study was to analyze the possibility of applying 1-MCP treatment in pre- and postharvest treatment for ‘Red Jonaprince’ apples for maintaining the quality of the apple after Ultra-Low Oxygen (ULO) storage. The studied apples were assessed in four groups: 0—control group without any specific treatment applied; group 1—1-MCP applied preharvest; group 2—1-MCP applied postharvest; group 3—1-MCP applied preharvest and postharvest. Measurements were conducted directly after 3, 5 and 6 months of ULO storage and additionally after 7 days of simulated distribution for each period of storage. The 24 groups obtained (four treatments × three storage periods × two simulated distribution periods) were evaluated for firmness, soluble solids content (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA). No statistically significant impact on the SSC of ‘Red Jonaprince’ for all groups was stated (p > 0.05), while for the firmness and TA values, there was a statistically significant impact of applied treatment (ULO storage period and simulated distribution) (p < 0.05). Longer ULO storage as well as longer simulated distribution were associated with decreasing firmness and decreasing TA of apples (p < 0.05). For samples subjected to 1-MCP treatment postharvest and those subjected to 1-MCP treatment preharvest and postharvest combined, the apples in the majority of analyses were protected against decreasing firmness and decreasing TA. It may be concluded that postharvest 1-MCP treatment applied for ‘Red Jonaprince’ apples allows maintaining its quality parameters, including firmness and TA of fruits. Taking this into account, our recommendation is that the postharvest 1-MCP treatment should be sufficient, in order to avoid unreasonable management of 1-MCP, which is not justified to be applied preharvest, or preharvest and postharvest combined, for ‘Red Jonaprince’ apples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Environmental Factors on Fruit Quality)
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18 pages, 1921 KiB  
Article
Flowering Biology of Selected Hybrid Grape Cultivars under Temperate Climate Conditions
by Barbara Anna Kowalczyk, Monika Bieniasz and Anna Kostecka-Gugała
Agriculture 2022, 12(5), 655; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12050655 - 30 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2484
Abstract
Climate change is being felt in all vineyards around the world, opening up new perspectives for regions with a growing winemaking industry. In this study, 11 hybrid grapevines grown in cold climates were assessed in terms of flowering biology and pollination efficiency. The [...] Read more.
Climate change is being felt in all vineyards around the world, opening up new perspectives for regions with a growing winemaking industry. In this study, 11 hybrid grapevines grown in cold climates were assessed in terms of flowering biology and pollination efficiency. The flowers were evaluated for the number of anthers and pollen grains in the flower; pollen viability and pollen grain size, the number of ovules in the ovary, and, consequently, the size and the weight of berries and the number of seeds in the berries were also analyzed. The flowers of Vitis vinifera L. usually have 5 stamens and 5 petals in their structure; this number for hybrid varieties ranged from 4 to 7, and in the case of the variety ‘Seyval Blanc’, it was 4 to 11 stamen and petals. Pollen grain size varied and ranged from 17.01 to 22.25 μm, while pollen grain pro-duction in flowers ranged from 5073 to 34,976 grain, which was calculated using a Bürker hemocytometer. The number of ovules in the ovary for the cultivars in question was highly variable, ranging from 3 to 7. One of the most important factors affecting flower pollination is stigma receptivity. Stigma receptivity appeared when the cap starts to fall off and disappeared at the browning of the cap. In connection with climatic changes, grapevine production is expanding to cool-climate countries. The aim of this study was to expand our knowledge about the flower morphology of 11 hybrid grapevine varieties most commonly cultivated in Poland. Knowledge of the flowering process can be important for improving yield and its quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Environmental Factors on Fruit Quality)
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18 pages, 2373 KiB  
Article
Effects of Biodegradable Liquid Film on Cabernet Sauvignon (V. vinifera L.) Grape Quality
by Xing Han, Fei Yao, Ying Wang, Xinyao Duan, Zhilei Wang, Yihan Li, Tingting Xue, Xu Liu, Hua Wang and Hua Li
Agriculture 2022, 12(5), 604; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12050604 - 25 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2326
Abstract
Biodegradable liquid film (BLF) improves soil structure and increases plant freezing tolerance after spraying on the surface of soil and plant. In this study, the effects of BLF on grape composition and volatile compounds in Cabernet sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) grapes were [...] Read more.
Biodegradable liquid film (BLF) improves soil structure and increases plant freezing tolerance after spraying on the surface of soil and plant. In this study, the effects of BLF on grape composition and volatile compounds in Cabernet sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) grapes were determined by spraying BLF during the dormant periods over three years. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential impact of BLF as an overwintering protection measure on grape fruit quality. In 2020 and 2021, BLF spraying increased reducing sugar content and 100-berry weight, decreased titratable acid content, and improved the maturity factor. Compared with the vines not sprayed with BLF, the content of total phenols and total anthocyanins in grape skins showed an increase over the three-year period, with the largest increases of 31.92% and 48.38%, respectively, and the content of total tannins and total flavan-3-ols increased in 2020 and 2021. BLF treatment also increased the total phenolic content in seeds for all three years, reaching a significant level in 2019, 16.38% higher than control treatment (CK). HPLC analysis showed that BLF treatment affected the content and composition of monomeric anthocyanins in grape skins, especially in 2021, BLF treatment significantly increased the content of nine monomeric anthocyanins, and the proportion of acetylated and coumaroylated anthocyanins. However, GC-MS analysis indicated that BLF had little effect on volatile compounds. These results suggest that BLF can be used as an overwintering protection measure in cold regions to promote the accumulation of sugars and polyphenolics, thereby improving overall grape quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Environmental Factors on Fruit Quality)
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Review

Jump to: Research

24 pages, 1392 KiB  
Review
The Use of Temperature Based Indices for Estimation of Fruit Production Conditions and Risks in Temperate Climates
by Grzegorz P. Łysiak and Iwona Szot
Agriculture 2023, 13(5), 960; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13050960 - 26 Apr 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3761
Abstract
Temperature is the basic factor that differentiates vegetation around the world. All field experiments require the indication of the range of temperatures occurring in a given growing season. Temperature is an important factor determining fruit plant production, both in the growing season and [...] Read more.
Temperature is the basic factor that differentiates vegetation around the world. All field experiments require the indication of the range of temperatures occurring in a given growing season. Temperature is an important factor determining fruit plant production, both in the growing season and in the winter dormant period. Various air temperature indicators were developed in a way that allowed the best possible description of adaptations of species, cultivars, and regions of adaptations to cultivation. They are based on experimentally obtained data and calculated optimal temperatures of growth and development of plants in particular development stages. In horticulture, the description of dependencies of the growth and development of plants on weather began to be accompanied with the development of simulation models. The aim of this manuscript was a new review of fruit plant temperature indices to predict abiotic and biotic hazards in fruit production for various selected types of fruit crops in a seasonal temperate climate. This is especially important due to the growing risk of climate change, which significantly alters local growing conditions. Therefore, it is very important to evaluate and present a set of specific indicators for producers, which we have reviewed from the current literature and presented as follows. Climatic conditions characteristic of a given region should be of key importance for the selection of species for commercial cultivation and planning of protection measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Environmental Factors on Fruit Quality)
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