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Eng. Proc., 2021, AITA 2021

The 16th International Workshop on Advanced Infrared Technology & Applications

Online | 26–28 October 2021

Volume Editors: Giovanni Ferrarini, Paolo Bison and Gianluca Cadelano

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Cover Story (view full-size image): The 16th International Workshop on Advanced Infrared Technology and Applications (AITA 2021) was held online on 26–28 October 2021. The conference was focused on advanced technology and [...] Read more.
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Proceeding Paper
Micro-Scale Fatigue Damage Assessment of CFRP Laminates Using Lock-in Thermography
Eng. Proc. 2021, 8(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021008002 - 17 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 119
Abstract
This study proposes a new micro-scale damage assessment method of laminated carbon fiber-reinforced plastics based on the thermal diffusivity measurement. This measurement was conducted by the laser-spot-periodic-heating method using lock-in thermography. Measured samples were subjected to the tension fatigue test at a relatively [...] Read more.
This study proposes a new micro-scale damage assessment method of laminated carbon fiber-reinforced plastics based on the thermal diffusivity measurement. This measurement was conducted by the laser-spot-periodic-heating method using lock-in thermography. Measured samples were subjected to the tension fatigue test at a relatively low load and high cycle. As a result, the thermal diffusivity showed a decreasing trend with an increase in the load cycles. It was shown that this method can detect the effect of the minute fatigue damage at a level that cannot be seen with a microscope. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Dynamic Infrared Thermography (DIRT) in Biomedical Applications: DIEP Flap Breast Reconstruction and Skin Cancer
Eng. Proc. 2021, 8(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021008003 - 17 Nov 2021
Viewed by 139
Abstract
Infrared thermography technology has improved drastically in recent years and is regaining interest in medicine for applications such as deep inferior epigastric perforate flap breast reconstruction, breast cancer diagnosis, skin tissue identification, psoriasis detection, etc. However, there is still a need for an [...] Read more.
Infrared thermography technology has improved drastically in recent years and is regaining interest in medicine for applications such as deep inferior epigastric perforate flap breast reconstruction, breast cancer diagnosis, skin tissue identification, psoriasis detection, etc. However, there is still a need for an optimised measurement setup and protocol in order to capture the most suitable images for decision making and further processing. Nowadays, different cooling methods are being used; nevertheless, a general optimised cooling protocol is not yet defined. In this manuscript, several cooling techniques, as well as the measurement setups, are reviewed and optimised. It is possible to enhance the thermal images by selecting an appropriate cooling method and duration, and additionally, an optimised measurement setup enables a comparison between different inspections. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
SST Image Processing for Mesoscale Patterns Identification
Eng. Proc. 2021, 8(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021008005 - 17 Nov 2021
Viewed by 131
Abstract
Understanding the marine environment dynamics to accordingly design computational predictive tools, represents a factor of paramount relevance to implement suitable policy plans. In this framework, mesoscale marine events are important to study and understand since human related activities, such as commercial fishery, strongly [...] Read more.
Understanding the marine environment dynamics to accordingly design computational predictive tools, represents a factor of paramount relevance to implement suitable policy plans. In this framework, mesoscale marine events are important to study and understand since human related activities, such as commercial fishery, strongly depend on this type of phenomena. Indeed, the dynamics of water masses affect the local habitats due to nutrient and organic substance transport, interfering with the fauna and flora development processes. Mesoscale events can be classified based on the presence of specific hydrodynamics features, such as water filaments, counter-currents or meanders originating from upwelling wind action stress. In this paper, a novel method to study these phenomena is proposed, based on the analysis of Sea Surface Temperature imagery captured by satellite missions (METOP, MODIS Terra/Aqua). Dedicated algorithms are presented, with the goal to detect and identify different observed scenarios based on the extraction and analysis of discriminating quantitative features. Promising results returned by the application of the proposed method to data captured within the maritime region in front of the southwestern Iberian coasts are presented. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Study on Human Temperature Measurement by Infrared Thermography
Eng. Proc. 2021, 8(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021008004 - 17 Nov 2021
Viewed by 170
Abstract
Increased temperature in humans is one of symptoms of infectious diseases. Infrared thermography is a popular method for measuring temperature as it offers fast and non-contact temperature measurement. However, and despite many advantages, its real accuracy for human temperature measurement is not sufficient [...] Read more.
Increased temperature in humans is one of symptoms of infectious diseases. Infrared thermography is a popular method for measuring temperature as it offers fast and non-contact temperature measurement. However, and despite many advantages, its real accuracy for human temperature measurement is not sufficient in many cases. This study was focused on a statistical evaluation of human temperature measurement reliability. The goal of the experiment was to find limitations of thermography at near-laboratory conditions. More than 300 measurements were made simultaneously by a thermography and an arm-pit thermometer on a closed group of persons during several months. The results showed that standard deviations of the performed armpit and thermographic temperature measurement were about 0.15 and 0.36 °C, respectively, but that a temperature shift and a dependence on ambient conditions can occur due to the used experimental configuration. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Repeatability Study of Flash-Pulse Thermographic Inspection of CFRP Samples
Eng. Proc. 2021, 8(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021008001 - 17 Nov 2021
Viewed by 162
Abstract
Thermographic flash-pulse inspection is one of popular methods of non-destructive testing (NDT) of materials. Despite the automation of the NDT methods, most of them are based on visual inspections and results of these inspections are influenced by the skills of operators. The repeatability [...] Read more.
Thermographic flash-pulse inspection is one of popular methods of non-destructive testing (NDT) of materials. Despite the automation of the NDT methods, most of them are based on visual inspections and results of these inspections are influenced by the skills of operators. The repeatability and reproducibility (R&R) of these inspections are therefore more important compared to exact gauge-type methods. This study was focused on the statistical evaluation of flash pulse inspection. Space hardware representative carbon-fiber composite samples with 50 artificial defects were used as reference samples, which were independently inspected by three operators in two independent runs. A Gage R&R study was performed based on contrast to noise ratio defects identification. It was determined that at certain conditions, a total R&R variability 29% can be achieved, which can be assumed as acceptable for this application. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Evaluation of Fatigue Strength Based on Dissipated Energy for Laser Welds
Eng. Proc. 2021, 8(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021008006 - 19 Nov 2021
Viewed by 130
Abstract
To optimize welding conditions that ensure the safety and reliability of laser welds, this study established an evaluation method of the fatigue strength for the laser welds of steel sheets over a short period of time. This study focuses on a fatigue limit [...] Read more.
To optimize welding conditions that ensure the safety and reliability of laser welds, this study established an evaluation method of the fatigue strength for the laser welds of steel sheets over a short period of time. This study focuses on a fatigue limit estimation based on dissipated energy which is caused by micro plastic deformation. As a result, the area at which the temperature changes, due to dissipated energy, is locally high is the fracture origin of the laser welds. The fatigue limit of the laser welds is almost the same as the stress amplitude at which a temperature change occurs due to dissipated energy. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Comparison of Two IR Cameras for Assessing Body Temperature
Eng. Proc. 2021, 8(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021008007 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 107
Abstract
Infrared thermography is often used to assess body temperature. It is a useful diagnostic tool for detecting human diseases but, nowadays, is has found a new applicability as an instrument of control during the crisis of the COVID-19 pandemic. Some authors also used [...] Read more.
Infrared thermography is often used to assess body temperature. It is a useful diagnostic tool for detecting human diseases but, nowadays, is has found a new applicability as an instrument of control during the crisis of the COVID-19 pandemic. Some authors also used it to assess thermal comfort inside buildings. However, some understudied issues still remain regarding the influence on the measurement of the environmental conditions, the position of the subject and the equipment characteristics. This paper attempts to address some of these issues, highlighting that ambient temperature has an impact on image resolution. Additionally, the position of the subject is a key parameter when assessing body temperature, and different equipment deliver different results. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
A Physics-Informed Neural Network Method for Defect Identification in Polymer Composites Based on Pulsed Thermography
Eng. Proc. 2021, 8(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021008014 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 143
Abstract
Defect detection in composite materials using active thermography is a well-studied field, and many thermographic data analysis methods have been proposed to facilitate defect visibility enhancement. In this work, we introduce a deep learning method that is constrained by known heat transfer phenomena [...] Read more.
Defect detection in composite materials using active thermography is a well-studied field, and many thermographic data analysis methods have been proposed to facilitate defect visibility enhancement. In this work, we introduce a deep learning method that is constrained by known heat transfer phenomena described by a series of governing equations, also known in the literature as the physics-informed neural network (PINN). The accurate reconstruction of background information based on thermal images facilitates the identification of subsurface defects and reduction in noises caused by an uneven background and heating. The authors illustrate the method’s feasibility through experimental results obtained after pulsed thermography (PT) on a carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) specimen. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Evaluation of Effectiveness of Heat Treatments in Boron Steel by Laser Thermography
Eng. Proc. 2021, 8(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021008008 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 126
Abstract
The applicability of active thermography as a non-destructive method to distinguish heat treated from not-treated boron steel has been investigated. While the usual hardness semi-destructive tests influence the inspected surface, laser thermography is capable of verifying the effectiveness of heat treatment in boron [...] Read more.
The applicability of active thermography as a non-destructive method to distinguish heat treated from not-treated boron steel has been investigated. While the usual hardness semi-destructive tests influence the inspected surface, laser thermography is capable of verifying the effectiveness of heat treatment in boron steel in a non-destructive way without any surface modification. The procedure has been verified on two plates of boron steels with different structures (100% ferritic–pearlitic and 100% martensitic). Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Detection of Disease-Specific Volatile Organic Compounds Using Infrared Spectroscopy
Eng. Proc. 2021, 8(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021008015 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 108
Abstract
Many life-threatening diseases at an early stage remain unrecognized due to a lack of pronounced symptoms. It is also accepted that the early detection of disease is a key ingredient for saving many lives. Unfortunately, in most of the cases, diagnostics implies an [...] Read more.
Many life-threatening diseases at an early stage remain unrecognized due to a lack of pronounced symptoms. It is also accepted that the early detection of disease is a key ingredient for saving many lives. Unfortunately, in most of the cases, diagnostics implies an invasive sample collection, being problematic at the asymptomatic stage. Infrared spectroscopy of breath offers reliable noninvasive diagnostics at every stage and has already been tested for several diseases. This approach offers not only the detection of specific metabolites, but also the analysis of their imbalance and transportation. In this article, the power of infrared spectroscopy is demonstrated for diabetes, cerebral palsy, acute gastritis caused by bacterial infection, and prostate cancer. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Is It Possible to Estimate Average Heart Rate from Facial Thermal Imaging?
Eng. Proc. 2021, 8(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021008010 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 99
Abstract
The remote measurement of heart rate (HR) could have many applications, such as health and emotional conditions monitoring. Currently, methods based on visible cameras have been developed for HR estimation. However, the employment of such techniques with scarce illumination conditions could be challenging. [...] Read more.
The remote measurement of heart rate (HR) could have many applications, such as health and emotional conditions monitoring. Currently, methods based on visible cameras have been developed for HR estimation. However, the employment of such techniques with scarce illumination conditions could be challenging. Infrared Thermography (IRT) could be a valuable tool to overcome this limitation. This study investigated the possibility of estimating average HR with facial IRT through a cross-validated machine learning (ML) approach. The correlation coefficient between the estimated and the measured HR was 0.7. Although preliminary, these results demonstrate the feasibility of estimating HR with IRT. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Correlation of Land Surface Temperature with IR Albedo for the Analysis of Urban Heat Island
Eng. Proc. 2021, 8(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021008009 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 110
Abstract
Albedo and Land Surface Temperature (LST) are thermophysical parameters that define the behavior of cities in terms of Urban Heat Islands (UHIs). Both parameters are correlated in such a way that materials with low values of albedo (associated with low reflection rates of [...] Read more.
Albedo and Land Surface Temperature (LST) are thermophysical parameters that define the behavior of cities in terms of Urban Heat Islands (UHIs). Both parameters are correlated in such a way that materials with low values of albedo (associated with low reflection rates of solar radiation) result in higher heat absorption, and consequently, in higher LST values. This tendency reinforces the effect of UHI. Thus, the use of materials with high values of albedo in building envelopes can be a solution to reduce heat accumulation within cities and to subsequently improve the temperature reduction at nighttime. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Raman Spectroscopy and Oncology: Multivariate Statistics Methods for Cancer Grading
Eng. Proc. 2021, 8(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021008012 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 92
Abstract
Over the last decade, Raman spectroscopy was demonstrated as a label-free and destructive optical spectroscopy that was able to improve diagnostic accuracy in cancer diagnosis. This ability is principally based on the great amount of biochemical information produced by the Raman scattering while [...] Read more.
Over the last decade, Raman spectroscopy was demonstrated as a label-free and destructive optical spectroscopy that was able to improve diagnostic accuracy in cancer diagnosis. This ability is principally based on the great amount of biochemical information produced by the Raman scattering while investigating biological tissues. However, to achieve the relevant clinical requirements, the spectroscopic analysis and its ability to grade cancer tissues require sophisticated multivariate statistics. In this paper, we critically review multivariate statistics methods analyzed in light of their ability to process datasets generated by Raman spectroscopy in chondrogenic tumors, where distinguishing between enchondroma and the first grade of malignancy is a critical problem for pathologists. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Numerical Analysis of Micro-Lens Array to the Mid-IR Range
Eng. Proc. 2021, 8(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021008011 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 103
Abstract
New interferometric IR techniques have recently been developed to allow Sun-Jupiter-like detections in deep space. These techniques demand a high angular resolution, a high sensitivity towards signal detection buried in noise, and a well-defined bandwidth of spectral resolution. Micro-lens arrangements have helped increase [...] Read more.
New interferometric IR techniques have recently been developed to allow Sun-Jupiter-like detections in deep space. These techniques demand a high angular resolution, a high sensitivity towards signal detection buried in noise, and a well-defined bandwidth of spectral resolution. Micro-lens arrangements have helped increase the use of these parameters for IR detectors. In this paper we present a finite element method (FEM)-based simulation of a typical micro-lens array, to be used in mid-IR cameras, where the aperture geometry and radius of curvature are varied for design optimization. Moreover, we show the spot and optical aberrations produced by two types of geometrical arrangements. This procedure could be helpful in improving the IR detector signal in the exoplanets exploration, in systems placed outside of the earth’s atmosphere. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Learning Thermographic Models for Optimal Image Processing of Decorated Surfaces
Eng. Proc. 2021, 8(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021008013 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 99
Abstract
The use of infrared thermography presents unique perspectives in imaging of artifacts to help interrogate their surface and subsurface characteristics, highlight deviations and detect contrast. This research capitalizes on active and passive thermal imagery along with advanced machine learning-based algorithms for pre- and [...] Read more.
The use of infrared thermography presents unique perspectives in imaging of artifacts to help interrogate their surface and subsurface characteristics, highlight deviations and detect contrast. This research capitalizes on active and passive thermal imagery along with advanced machine learning-based algorithms for pre- and post-processing of acquired scans. Such codes operate efficiently (compress data) to help link the observed temperature variations and the thermophysical parameters of targeted samples. One such processing modality is dictionary learning, which infers a “frame dictionary” to help represent the scans as linear combinations of a small set of features, thus training data to show a sparse representation. This technique (along factorization and component analysis-based methods) was used in current research on ancient polychrome marquetries aimed at detecting aging anomalies. The presented research is unique in terms of the targeted samples and the applied approaches and should provide specific guidance to similar domains. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Identification of the Thermal Conductance of a Hidden Barrier from Outer Thermal Data
Eng. Proc. 2021, 8(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021008016 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 80
Abstract
Hidden defects affecting the interface in a composite slab are evaluated from thermal data collected on the upper side of the specimen. First we restrict the problem to the upper component of the object. Then we investigate heat transfer through, the inaccessible interface [...] Read more.
Hidden defects affecting the interface in a composite slab are evaluated from thermal data collected on the upper side of the specimen. First we restrict the problem to the upper component of the object. Then we investigate heat transfer through, the inaccessible interface by means of Thin Plate Approximation. Finally, a Fast Fourier Transform is used to filter data. In this way, we obtain a reliable reconstruction of simulated flaws in thermal contact conductance corresponding to appreciable defects of the interface. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Infrared Spectroscopy for the Quality Assessment of Habanero Chilli: A Proof-of-Concept Study
Eng. Proc. 2021, 8(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021008019 - 23 Nov 2021
Viewed by 93
Abstract
Habanero chillies (Capsicum chinense cv Habanero) are a popular species of hot chilli in Australia, with their production steadily increasing. However, there is limited research on this crop due to its relatively low levels of production at present. Rapid methods of assessing [...] Read more.
Habanero chillies (Capsicum chinense cv Habanero) are a popular species of hot chilli in Australia, with their production steadily increasing. However, there is limited research on this crop due to its relatively low levels of production at present. Rapid methods of assessing fruit quality could be greatly beneficial both for quality assurance purposes and for use in breeding programs or experimental growing trials. Consequently, this work investigated the use of infrared spectroscopy for predicting dry matter content, total phenolic content and capsaicin/dihydrocapsaicin content in 20 Australian Habanero chilli samples. Near-infrared spectra (908–1676 nm) taken from the fresh fruit showed strong potential for the estimation of dry matter content, with an R2cv of 0.65 and standard error of cross-validation (SECV) of 0.50%. A moving-window partial least squares regression model was applied to optimise the spectral window used for dry matter content prediction, with the best-performing window being between 1224 and 1422 nm. However, the near-infrared spectra could not be used to estimate the total phenolic content or capsaicin/dihydrocapsaicin content of the samples. Mid-infrared spectra (4000–400 cm−1) collected from the dried, powdered material showed slightly more promise for the prediction of total phenolics and the ratio of capsaicin-to-dihydrocapsaicin, with an R2cv of 0.45 and SECV of 0.32 for the latter. The results suggest that infrared spectroscopy may be able to determine dry matter content in Habanero chilli with acceptable accuracy, but not the capsaicinoid or total phenolic content. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Measurement of Line Distribution of Thermal Contact Resistance Using Microscopic Lock-In Thermography
Eng. Proc. 2021, 8(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021008018 - 23 Nov 2021
Viewed by 96
Abstract
This paper proposes a new thermal contact resistance measurement method using lock-in thermography. Using the lock-in thermography with an infrared microscope, the local temperature behavior in the frequency domain across the contact interface was visualized in microscale. Additionally, a new thermal contact resistance [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a new thermal contact resistance measurement method using lock-in thermography. Using the lock-in thermography with an infrared microscope, the local temperature behavior in the frequency domain across the contact interface was visualized in microscale. Additionally, a new thermal contact resistance measurement principle was constructed considering the superimposition of the reflected and transmitted temperature wave at the boundary and taking into account the intensity distribution of the heating laser as the gaussian distribution, and the specific geometrical condition of the laminated plate sample. As a result of the experiments, the one-dimensional distribution of the thermal contact resistance was obtained along the contact interface from the analysis of the phase lag. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Building Façade Protection Using Spatial and Temporal Deep Learning Models Applied to Thermographic Data. Laboratory Tests
Eng. Proc. 2021, 8(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021008020 - 23 Nov 2021
Viewed by 97
Abstract
This paper proposes a methodology that combines spatial and temporal deep learning (DL) models applied to data acquired by InfraRed Thermography (IRT). The data were acquired from laboratory specimens that simulate building façades. The spatial DL model (Mask Region-Convolution Neural Network, Mask R-CNN) [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a methodology that combines spatial and temporal deep learning (DL) models applied to data acquired by InfraRed Thermography (IRT). The data were acquired from laboratory specimens that simulate building façades. The spatial DL model (Mask Region-Convolution Neural Network, Mask R-CNN) is used to identify and classify different artificial subsurface defects, whereas the temporal DL model (Gated Recurrent Unit, GRU) is utilized to estimate the depth of each defect, all in an autonomous and automated manner. An F-score average of 92.8 ± 5.4% regarding defect identification and classification, and a root-mean-square error equal to 1 mm in the estimation of defect depth equal to 10 mm as the best defect depth estimation, are obtained with this first application of a combination of spatial and temporal DL models to the IRT inspection of buildings. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Improving Quality Inspection of Textiles by an Augmented RGB-IR-HS-AI Approach
Eng. Proc. 2021, 8(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021008021 - 23 Nov 2021
Viewed by 104
Abstract
The aim of this research topic and paper is to investigate the application possibilities of vision technology in the textile industry. These include RGB, active thermography and hyperspectral imaging techniques. In the future, this approach will be supplemented by a machine learning algorithm [...] Read more.
The aim of this research topic and paper is to investigate the application possibilities of vision technology in the textile industry. These include RGB, active thermography and hyperspectral imaging techniques. In the future, this approach will be supplemented by a machine learning algorithm (e.g., in Matlab or Python) to enable the detection of defects in textiles and to correctly categorize these defects. In the first place, the various options for building such a convolutional neural network are discussed. The focus was on the models used in the literature. Based on the effectiveness of these ML models and the feasibility to build them, choices can be made to determine the most suitable models. Sufficient samples are an important link to properly train a model. Because there is a shortage of open data, it is also discussed how samples obtained from the textile industry, were measured in the lab. At first, we will limit ourselves to the five most common defects. In a later phase of research, the results with this dataset and the open datasets are benchmarked against the results from the literature. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Laser Scanning Thermography for Coating Thickness Inspection
Eng. Proc. 2021, 8(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021008017 - 24 Nov 2021
Viewed by 159
Abstract
The paper deals with a new approach to laser thermography for the inspection of coating thickness. The approach is based on scanning the specimen surface point by point, using a low-power laser, and recording the temperature responses with an IR camera. A recorded [...] Read more.
The paper deals with a new approach to laser thermography for the inspection of coating thickness. The approach is based on scanning the specimen surface point by point, using a low-power laser, and recording the temperature responses with an IR camera. A recorded sequence is then transformed into a sequence similar to a flash pulse thermography sequence. Fast Fourier transform was used as a processing technique. The results are compared with a flash pulse thermography measurement. It was shown that the laser thermography measurement provides a higher sensitivity to thickness changes than flash pulse thermography measurement. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Three-Dimensional Non-Destructive Inspection Using Novel Infrared-Terahertz Fusion Approaches
Eng. Proc. 2021, 8(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021008024 - 24 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 109
Abstract
The imaging of structures with a complex material composition and geometry is still a challenge in the field of non-destructive testing (NDT). In this study, a non-invasive imaging technique is proposed for the non-destructive inspection of both cultural heritage and natural fiber composites. [...] Read more.
The imaging of structures with a complex material composition and geometry is still a challenge in the field of non-destructive testing (NDT). In this study, a non-invasive imaging technique is proposed for the non-destructive inspection of both cultural heritage and natural fiber composites. The proposed technique combines the surface information provided by infrared thermography (IRT) and the internal structure retrieved with terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy using an unsupervised deep residual fusion network. Experiments show that the fusion results contain more material information than a single modality. In addition, 3D imaging has been achieved using the fusion results on natural fiber composites. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Detection of Surface Breaking Cracks Using Flying Line Laser Thermography: A Canny-Based Algorithm
Eng. Proc. 2021, 8(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021008022 - 24 Nov 2021
Viewed by 103
Abstract
In this work, we introduce a new algorithm for effectual crack detection using flying line laser thermography, based on the well-known Canny approach. The algorithm transforms the input thermographic sequence into an edge map. Experimental measurements are performed on a metallic component that [...] Read more.
In this work, we introduce a new algorithm for effectual crack detection using flying line laser thermography, based on the well-known Canny approach. The algorithm transforms the input thermographic sequence into an edge map. Experimental measurements are performed on a metallic component that contains surface breaking cracks due to industrial use. The specimen is tested using flying line thermography at different scanning speeds and laser input powers. Results obtained with the proposed algorithm are additionally compared with a previously established algorithm for flying spot thermography. The proposed Canny-based algorithm can be used in automated systems for thermographic non-destructive testing. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Evaluation of Moisture Diffusion by IR Thermography
Eng. Proc. 2021, 8(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021008023 - 24 Nov 2021
Viewed by 102
Abstract
It is well known that IRT is among the preferred instruments in the qualitative monitoring of humidity in buildings. The evaporation of water leads to a sink of thermal energy that eventually manifests as a decreasing of the temperature. The imaging and non-contact [...] Read more.
It is well known that IRT is among the preferred instruments in the qualitative monitoring of humidity in buildings. The evaporation of water leads to a sink of thermal energy that eventually manifests as a decreasing of the temperature. The imaging and non-contact characteristics of IRT make the monitoring of this temperature decrease particularly easy and effective. Nonetheless, the quantitative extraction of some figures that make the qualitative observation more reliable is still an open problem. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Quantitative Deterioration Evaluation of Heavy-Duty Anticorrosion Coating by Near-Infrared Spectral Characteristics
Eng. Proc. 2021, 8(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021008026 - 25 Nov 2021
Viewed by 125
Abstract
Heavy-duty anticorrosion coatings are applied on the surface of steel bridges for protecting against corrosion. By aging deterioration, the coating is worn from the surface year by year. Appropriate re-painting construction programs should be adopted for the maintenance of the bridges according to [...] Read more.
Heavy-duty anticorrosion coatings are applied on the surface of steel bridges for protecting against corrosion. By aging deterioration, the coating is worn from the surface year by year. Appropriate re-painting construction programs should be adopted for the maintenance of the bridges according to the evaluation of wear extent. Experimental studies were conducted with the aim of quantitative estimation of the degree of abrasion of the top coat thickness. It was found that there was a correlation between the top coat thickness and the observed infrared intensity and that this calibration relationship could be used to estimate the top coat thickness. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Detection of “Legbreaker” Antipersonnel Landmines by Analysis of Aerial Thermographic Images of the Soil
Eng. Proc. 2021, 8(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021008025 - 25 Nov 2021
Viewed by 112
Abstract
An automatic detection methodology for “legbreaker” Antipersonnel Landmines (APL) was developed based on digital image processing techniques and pattern recognition, applied to thermal images acquired by means of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) equipped with a thermal camera. The images were acquired from [...] Read more.
An automatic detection methodology for “legbreaker” Antipersonnel Landmines (APL) was developed based on digital image processing techniques and pattern recognition, applied to thermal images acquired by means of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) equipped with a thermal camera. The images were acquired from the inspection of a natural terrain with sparse vegetation and under uncontrolled conditions, in which prototypes of “legbreaker” APL were buried at different depths. Remarkable results were obtained using a Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) classifier, reaching a 97.1% success rate in detecting areas with the presence of these artifacts. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Designing a Compressive Sensing Demonstrator of an Earth Observation Payload in the Visible and Medium Infrared: Instrumental Concept and Main Features
Eng. Proc. 2021, 8(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021008027 - 25 Nov 2021
Viewed by 132
Abstract
Increased spatial resolution and revisit time of payloads operating in the infrared spectral region can offer unprecedented advantages to Earth Observation. This, however, poses several technological challenges, such as large array detector availability and data bandwidth. In this paper, we present a super-resolved [...] Read more.
Increased spatial resolution and revisit time of payloads operating in the infrared spectral region can offer unprecedented advantages to Earth Observation. This, however, poses several technological challenges, such as large array detector availability and data bandwidth. In this paper, we present a super-resolved demonstrator—based on a compressive sensing architecture—which is being developed to address enhanced performance in terms of at-ground spatial resolution, on-board data processing and encryption functionalities for Earth Observation payloads. The demonstrator’s architecture is here presented, together with its working principle, main features and the approach used for image reconstruction. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
SISSI Project: A Feasibility Study for a Super Resolved Compressive Sensing Multispectral Imager in the Medium Infrared
Eng. Proc. 2021, 8(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021008028 - 29 Nov 2021
Viewed by 116
Abstract
This paper describes the activities related to a feasibility study for an Earth observation optical payload, operating in the medium infrared, based on super-resolution and compressive sensing techniques. The presented activities are running in the framework of the ASI project SISSI, aiming to [...] Read more.
This paper describes the activities related to a feasibility study for an Earth observation optical payload, operating in the medium infrared, based on super-resolution and compressive sensing techniques. The presented activities are running in the framework of the ASI project SISSI, aiming to improve ground spatial resolution and mitigate saturation/blooming effects. The core of the payload is a spatial light modulator (SLM): a bidimensional array of micromirrors electronically actuated. Thanks to compressive sensing approach, the proposed payload eliminates the compression board, saving mass, memory and energy consumption. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Defect Segmentation in Concrete Structures Combining Registered Infrared and Visible Images: A Comparative Experimental Study
Eng. Proc. 2021, 8(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021008029 - 01 Dec 2021
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Abstract
This study investigates the semantic segmentation of common concrete defects when using different imaging modalities. One pre-trained Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model was trained via transfer learning and tested to detect concrete defect indications, such as cracks, spalling, and internal voids. The model’s [...] Read more.
This study investigates the semantic segmentation of common concrete defects when using different imaging modalities. One pre-trained Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model was trained via transfer learning and tested to detect concrete defect indications, such as cracks, spalling, and internal voids. The model’s performance was compared using datasets of visible, thermal, and fused images. The data were collected from four different concrete structures and built using four infrared cameras that have different sensitivities and resolutions, with imaging campaigns conducted during autumn, summer, and winter periods. Although specific defects can be detected in monomodal images, the results demonstrate that a larger number of defect classes can be accurately detected using multimodal fused images with the same viewpoint and resolution of the single-sensor image. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Concentrated Thermomics for Early Diagnosis of Breast Cancer
Eng. Proc. 2021, 8(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021008030 - 06 Dec 2021
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Abstract
Thermography has been employed broadly as a corresponding diagnostic instrument in breast cancer diagnosis. Among thermographic techniques, deep neural networks show an unequivocal potential to detect heterogeneous thermal patterns related to vasodilation in breast cancer cases. Such methods are used to extract high-dimensional [...] Read more.
Thermography has been employed broadly as a corresponding diagnostic instrument in breast cancer diagnosis. Among thermographic techniques, deep neural networks show an unequivocal potential to detect heterogeneous thermal patterns related to vasodilation in breast cancer cases. Such methods are used to extract high-dimensional thermal features, known as deep thermomics. In this study, we applied convex non-negative matrix factorization (convex NMF) to extract three predominant bases of thermal sequences. Then, the data were fed into a sparse autoencoder model, known as SPAER, to extract low-dimensional deep thermomics, which were then used to assist the clinical breast exam (CBE) in breast cancer screening. The application of convex NMF-SPAER, combining clinical and demographic covariates, yielded a result of 79.3% (73.5%, 86.9%); the highest result belonged to NMF-SPAER at 84.9% (79.3%, 88.7%). The proposed approach preserved thermal heterogeneity and led to early detection of breast cancer. It can be used as a noninvasive tool aiding CBE. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Quantitative Estimation of Land Surface Temperature and Its Relationship with Land Use/Cover around Sonipat District, Haryana, India
Eng. Proc. 2021, 8(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021008031 - 08 Dec 2021
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Abstract
Urbanization is a human activity that changes the surface of the earth and degrades the surroundings of major cities all over the world. The problem is more acute in many developing cities with a high population and rapid economic growth. The present study [...] Read more.
Urbanization is a human activity that changes the surface of the earth and degrades the surroundings of major cities all over the world. The problem is more acute in many developing cities with a high population and rapid economic growth. The present study focuses on the effect of land use/land cover (LULC) on the land surface temperature (LST) in Sonipat district, Haryana India. The LULC derived from multispectral satellite data of two periods, 2011 and 2021, indicated a significant increase in urban areas by (3%) and barren and fallow land by (7%), whereas crop land has decreased by (11%) and water bodies have remained the same, in comparison with 2011. The LST, derived from a thermal infrared sensor, showed an overall increase in LST by 5 °C from 2011 to 2021. The results also showed that there was a significant LST difference across the LULC units. Pearson’s correlation analysis results showed an inverse correlation between LST and NDVI across urban areas and other land use classes, whereas a positive correlation over water bodies were observed in the study area. Therefore, LST and its relationship with NDVI via LULC, is a key parameter to investigate the thermal glitches in an urban ecosystem. This can be adopted as a useful tool for analyzing the environmental influence on the ecological unit. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
University Laval Infrared Thermography Databases for Deep Learning Multiple Types of Defect Detections Training
Eng. Proc. 2021, 8(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021008032 - 11 Dec 2021
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Abstract
Nowadays, automatic defect detection research by deep learning algorithms plays a crucial role, especially for non-destructive evaluation with infrared thermography. In deep learning research, the databases are the Achilles’ heel during the training in order to preserve optimized performance. In this work, we [...] Read more.
Nowadays, automatic defect detection research by deep learning algorithms plays a crucial role, especially for non-destructive evaluation with infrared thermography. In deep learning research, the databases are the Achilles’ heel during the training in order to preserve optimized performance. In this work, we will present the infrared thermography sequences databases from the Universite Laval Multipolar Infrared Vision Infrarouge Multipolaire (MIVIM) research group for regular and irregular defect analysis in order to provide the best data collection resources for the pretraining of convolutional neural network and feature extraction analysis with future researchers and engineers. The databases will include infrared thermography sequences from regular and irregular defects of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP), glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP), plexiglass, aluminum, and steel, which could be available online for public use and research purposes. Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Four-Dimensional Reconstruction of Leaked Gas Cloud Based on Computed Tomography Processing of Multiple Optical Paths Infrared Measurement
Eng. Proc. 2021, 8(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021008033 - 27 Dec 2021
Viewed by 36
Abstract
Currently, gas leakage source detection is conducted by the human senses and experience. The development of a remote gas leakage source detection system is required. In this research, an infrared camera was used to detect gas leakage. The gas can be detected by [...] Read more.
Currently, gas leakage source detection is conducted by the human senses and experience. The development of a remote gas leakage source detection system is required. In this research, an infrared camera was used to detect gas leakage. The gas can be detected by the absorption of infrared rays by the gas and the infrared rays emitted from the gas itself. A three-dimensional reconstruction of a leaked gas cloud was performed to identify the gas leakage source and the flow direction of the gas. The so-called four-dimensional reconstruction of the leaked gas cloud, i.e., reconstruction of three-dimensional images of a gas cloud varying with time, was successfully performed by applying the ART (Algebraic Reconstruction Techniques) method to the multiple optical paths of infrared measurement. Full article
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Editorial
16th International Workshop on Advanced Infrared Technology and Applications (AITA 2021)
Eng. Proc. 2021, 8(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021008034 - 06 Jan 2022
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Abstract
The 16th International Workshop on Advanced Infrared Technology and Applications (AITA 2021) was held online on 26–28 October 2021. Full article
Editorial
Statement of Peer Review
Eng. Proc. 2021, 8(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2021008035 - 13 Jan 2022
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Abstract
In submitting conference proceedings to Engineering Proceedings, the volume editors of the proceedings certify to the publisher that all papers published in this volume have been subjected to a peer review administered by the volume editors [...] Full article
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