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Eng, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2021) – 9 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This study proposes and compares three optimization algorithms in combination with a feedforward neural network for fatigue life prediction of wind turbine blades. The optimized prediction models were trained using the SNL/MSU database. The final model could be used afterward as an alternative to the costly laboratory tests, as well as to validate new experimental results. View this paper
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30 pages, 3886 KiB  
Review
Simulation and Sensitivity Analysis for Various Geometries and Optimization of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: A Review
by Mina Tonekabonimoghaddam and Ahmad Shamiri
Eng 2021, 2(3), 386-415; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng2030025 - 17 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4603
Abstract
Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are considered as one of the most promising fuel cell types for application as high efficiency power generators. This work reviews the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to maximise SOFC performance and life, and minimise cost, by [...] Read more.
Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are considered as one of the most promising fuel cell types for application as high efficiency power generators. This work reviews the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to maximise SOFC performance and life, and minimise cost, by considering numerous configurations and designs. A critical analysis of available literature proves that detailed research on the simulation of thermal stress and its damaging impact on the SOFC is still in its early stage of development. Numerical simulation is expected to help optimize the design, operating parameters and fuel cell materials. Therefore, sensitivity analysis of fuel cell parameters using simulation models is analysed to address the issue. Finally, the present status of the SOFC optimization efforts is summarized so that unresolved problems can be identified and solved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Eng)
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15 pages, 7784 KiB  
Article
Effect of Martensitic Transformation and Grain Misorientation on Surface Roughening Behavior of Stainless Steel Thin Foils
by Abdul Aziz, Ming Yang, Tetsuhide Shimizu and Tsuyoshi Furushima
Eng 2021, 2(3), 372-385; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng2030024 - 15 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2901
Abstract
The surface roughening (Ra), martensitic phase transformation (MPT), and grain misorientation (GMO) behavior of stainless steel 304 and 316 in various grain sizes (Dg) were studied experimentally, including five cycles of sequential uniaxial tensile stress testing and Scanning Electron Microscope-Electron Back Scattered Diffraction [...] Read more.
The surface roughening (Ra), martensitic phase transformation (MPT), and grain misorientation (GMO) behavior of stainless steel 304 and 316 in various grain sizes (Dg) were studied experimentally, including five cycles of sequential uniaxial tensile stress testing and Scanning Electron Microscope-Electron Back Scattered Diffraction (SEM-EBSD) investigation. The MPT and GMO characteristics were sequentially investigated using tensile testing and SEM-EBSD analysis. The correlation between MPT, GMO, martensitic volume fraction (Mf), and Ra behavior were investigated. The experimental results showed that increasing the total strain from 5.0% to 25.0% increased the MPT, GMO, and Mf, which were transformed from the metastable austenitic phase in stainless steel (SUS) 304. The increasing total strain increased Ra for all kinds of Dg. Furthermore, SUS 304 and SUS 316 were used to compare the roughening mechanism. The MPT was very high and spread uniformly in fine grain of SUS 304 thin foil, but the MPT was low and not uniform in coarse grain of SUS 304 thin foil. There was no MPT in SUS 316 thin foil, both in coarse and fine grain. The GMO in fine grains, both in SUS 304 and SUS 316 thin foils, spread uniformly. The GMO in coarse grains, both in SUS 304 and SUS 316 thin foils, did not spread uniformly. Surface roughness increased higher in coarse grain than fine grain for both of SUS 304 and SUS 316 thin foil. SUS 304 increased higher than SUS 316 thin foil. The effect of inhomogeneous deformation due to the MPT is a more important factor than GMO in coarse grain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Eng)
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17 pages, 4233 KiB  
Article
Ultrasonic Effects on Foam Formation of Fruit Juices during Bottling
by Julian Thünnesen, Bernhard Gatternig and Antonio Delgado
Eng 2021, 2(3), 356-371; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng2030023 - 14 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3613
Abstract
Non-carbonated fruit juices often tend to foam over during bottling. The resulting foam height corresponds to the equilibrium of foam formation and decay. Therefore, the foam unexpectedly occupies more space in the bottle and carries parts of the juice out of the bottle, [...] Read more.
Non-carbonated fruit juices often tend to foam over during bottling. The resulting foam height corresponds to the equilibrium of foam formation and decay. Therefore, the foam unexpectedly occupies more space in the bottle and carries parts of the juice out of the bottle, resulting in product loss under filled containers and hygienic problems in the plant. Chemical antifoams are likewise undesirable in most cases. Recent ultrasonic defoamers are effective but only capable outside the container and after the filling. In this article, a lateral ultrasonication through the bottle wall with frequencies between 42 and 168 kHz is used in-line for non-invasive foam prevention during filling. Foam formation during hot bottling of orange juice, apple juice, and currant nectar at 70 °C happens at flow rates between 124–148 mL/s. The comparably high frequencies have a particular influence on the fresh foams, where a large fraction of small resonant bubbles is still present. Foam volume reductions of up to 50% are reached in these experiments. A low power of 15 W was sufficient for changing the rise of entrained bubbles and minimizing the foam development from the start. The half-life of the remaining foam could be reduced by up to 45% from the reference case. The main observed effects were a changed rise of entrained bubbles and an increased drainage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Eng)
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16 pages, 677 KiB  
Article
Multi-Point Shape Optimization of a Horizontal Axis Tidal Stream Turbine
by Hassan el Sheshtawy, Ould el Moctar and Satish Natarajan
Eng 2021, 2(3), 340-355; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng2030022 - 30 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3041
Abstract
A method was developed to perform shape optimization of a tidal stream turbine hydrofoil using a multi-objective genetic algorithm. A bezier curve parameterized the reference hydrofoil profile NACA 63815. Shape optimization of this hydrofoil maximized its lift-to-drag ratio and minimized its pressure coefficient, [...] Read more.
A method was developed to perform shape optimization of a tidal stream turbine hydrofoil using a multi-objective genetic algorithm. A bezier curve parameterized the reference hydrofoil profile NACA 63815. Shape optimization of this hydrofoil maximized its lift-to-drag ratio and minimized its pressure coefficient, thereby increasing the turbines power output power and improving its cavitation characteristics. The Elitist Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) was employed to perform the shape optimization. A comparative study of two- and three-dimensional optimizations was carried out. The effect of varying the angle of attack on the quality of optimized results was also studied. Predictions based on two-dimensional panel method results were also studied. Predictions based on a two-dimensional panel method and on a computational fluid dynamics code were compared to experimental measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Eng)
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15 pages, 2362 KiB  
Review
Vortex Shedding Suppression: A Review on Modified Bluff Bodies
by Amir Teimourian and Hanifa Teimourian
Eng 2021, 2(3), 325-339; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng2030021 - 27 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4881
Abstract
Vortex shedding phenomenon behind bluff bodies and its destructive unsteady wake can be controlled by employing active and passive flow control methods. In this quest, researchers employed experimental fluid dynamics (EFD), computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and an analytical approach to investigate such phenomena [...] Read more.
Vortex shedding phenomenon behind bluff bodies and its destructive unsteady wake can be controlled by employing active and passive flow control methods. In this quest, researchers employed experimental fluid dynamics (EFD), computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and an analytical approach to investigate such phenomena to reach a desired outcome. This study reviews the available literature on the flow control of vortex shedding behind bluff bodies and its destructive wake through the modification of the geometry of the bluff body. Various modifications on the bluff body geometries namely perforated bluff bodies, permeable and porous mesh, corner modification and wavy cylinder have been reviewed. The effectiveness of these methods has been discussed in terms of drag variation, wake structure modifications and Strouhal number alteration. Full article
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13 pages, 1806 KiB  
Article
Adsorption of Estradiol by Natural Clays and Daphnia magna as Biological Filter in an Aqueous Mixture with Emerging Contaminants
by Andrés Pérez-González, Verónica Pinos-Vélez, Isabel Cipriani-Avila, Mariana Capparelli, Eliza Jara-Negrete, Andrés Alvarado, Juan Fernando Cisneros and Piercosimo Tripaldi
Eng 2021, 2(3), 312-324; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng2030020 - 26 Jul 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3309
Abstract
Among emerging pollutants, endocrine disruptors such as estradiol are of most concern. Conventional water treatment technologies are not capable of removing this compound from water. This study aims to assess a method that combines physicochemical and biological strategies to eliminate estradiol even when [...] Read more.
Among emerging pollutants, endocrine disruptors such as estradiol are of most concern. Conventional water treatment technologies are not capable of removing this compound from water. This study aims to assess a method that combines physicochemical and biological strategies to eliminate estradiol even when there are other compounds present in the water matrix. Na-montmorillonite, Ca-montmorillonite and zeolite were used to remove estradiol in a medium with sulfamethoxazole, triclosan, and nicotine using a Plackett–Burman experimental design; each treatment was followed by biological filtration with Daphnia magna. Results showed between 40 to 92% estradiol adsorption in clays; no other compounds present in the mixture were adsorbed. The most significant factors for estradiol adsorption were the presence of nicotine and triclosan which favored the adsorption, the use of Ca-montmorillonite, Zeolite, and time did not favor the adsorption of estradiol. After the physicochemical treatment, Daphnia magna was able to remove between 0–93% of the remaining estradiol. The combination of adsorption and biological filtration in optimal conditions allowed the removal of 98% of the initial estradiol concentration. Full article
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16 pages, 2482 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Electric Power Generation Growth in Pakistan: Falling into the Vicious Cycle of Coal
by Ali Ahmed Durrani, Irfan Ahmed Khan and Muhammad Imran Ahmad
Eng 2021, 2(3), 296-311; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng2030019 - 23 Jul 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 18086
Abstract
This paper aims to analyze national policies of Pakistan taking into account the complexity of electric power generation, growth, and complying with multilateral agreements. Systems thinking has been applied to understand the complexity of energy scenario of Pakistan by representing it with a [...] Read more.
This paper aims to analyze national policies of Pakistan taking into account the complexity of electric power generation, growth, and complying with multilateral agreements. Systems thinking has been applied to understand the complexity of energy scenario of Pakistan by representing it with a causal loop diagram (CLD) which displays the interconnectedness and feedbacks of the system. Analysis is based on systems archetypes to diagnose the system behavior, i.e., falling into the vicious cycle of coal. A stock-and-flow model was employed to capture dynamics of energy generation quantitatively, indicating that a 5% GDP growth rate could be sustained based on current planning to increase electric power generation in Pakistan. Thus, in order to achieve a 7% GDP growth rate, as targeted in Vision 2025 of Pakistan, energy generation targets would need to be revised in the view of the sensitivity of increase in energy demand associated with GDP growth rate, while ensuring compliance with multilateral agreements. Full article
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18 pages, 4329 KiB  
Article
Neural Network Optimization Algorithms to Predict Wind Turbine Blade Fatigue Life under Variable Hygrothermal Conditions
by Khaled Ziane, Adrian Ilinca, Sasan Sattarpanah Karganroudi and Mariya Dimitrova
Eng 2021, 2(3), 278-295; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng2030018 - 5 Jul 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3621
Abstract
Moisture and temperature are the most important environmental factors that affect the degradation of wind turbine blades, and their influence must be considered in the design process. They will first affect the resin matrix and then, possibly, the interface with the fibers. This [...] Read more.
Moisture and temperature are the most important environmental factors that affect the degradation of wind turbine blades, and their influence must be considered in the design process. They will first affect the resin matrix and then, possibly, the interface with the fibers. This work is the first to use a series of metaheuristic approaches to analyze the most recent experimental results database and to identify which resins are the most robust to moisture/temperature in terms of fatigue life. Four types of resin are compared, representing the most common types used for wind turbine blades manufacturing. Thermoset polymer resins, including polyesters and vinyl esters, were machined as coupons and tested for the fatigue in air temperatures of 20 °C and 50 °C under “dry” and “wet” conditions. The experimental fatigue data available from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for wind turbine-related materials have been used to build, train, and validate an artificial neural network (ANN) to predict fatigue life under different environmental conditions. The performances of three algorithms (Backpropagation BP, Particle Swarm Optimization PSO, and Cuckoo Search CS) are compared for adjusting the synaptic weights of the ANN and evaluating the efficiency in predicting the fatigue life of the materials studied, under the conditions mentioned above. For accuracy evaluation, the mean square error (MSE) is used as an objective function to be optimized by the three algorithms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stylistic Design Engineering (SDE))
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11 pages, 3227 KiB  
Article
Accounting Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Municipal Solid Waste Treatment by Composting: A Case of Study Bolivia
by Magaly Beltran-Siñani and Antonio Gil
Eng 2021, 2(3), 267-277; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng2030017 - 30 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2887
Abstract
Waste generation is one of the multiple factors affecting the environment and human health that increases directly with growing population and social and economic development. Nowadays, municipal solid waste disposal sites and their management create climate challenges worldwide, with one of the main [...] Read more.
Waste generation is one of the multiple factors affecting the environment and human health that increases directly with growing population and social and economic development. Nowadays, municipal solid waste disposal sites and their management create climate challenges worldwide, with one of the main problems being high biowaste content that has direct repercussions on greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. In Bolivia, as in the most developing countries, dumps are the main disposal sites for solid waste. These places usually are non-engineered and poorly implemented due to social, technical, institutional and financial limitations. Composting plants for treatment of biowaste appear as an alternative solution to the problem. Some Bolivian municipalities have implemented pilot projects with successful social results; however, access to the economic and financial resources for this alternative are limited. In order to encourage the composting practice in the other Bolivian municipalities it is necessary to account for the GHG emissions. The aim of the present study compiles and summarizes the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines methodology and some experimental procedures for accounting of the greenhouse gases emissions during the biowaste composting process as an alternative to its deposition in a dump or landfill. The GHG emissions estimation results by open windrow composting process determined in the present study show two scenarios: 38% of reduction when 50% of the biowaste collected in 2019 was composted; and 12% of reduction when 20% of the biowaste was composted. Full article
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