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Heritage, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Located in Northeastern Arizona, USA, the Petrified Forest National Park (PEFO) presents a unique [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Image-Based Quantitative Analysis of Foxing Stains on Old Printed Paper Documents
Heritage 2019, 2(3), 2665-2677; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2030164 - 18 Sep 2019
Viewed by 358
Abstract
We studied the feasibility of image-based quantitative analysis of foxing stains on collections of old (16th–20th century) European books stored in the Rare Book Library of the Seoul National University in Korea. We were able to quantitatively determine the foxing affected areas on [...] Read more.
We studied the feasibility of image-based quantitative analysis of foxing stains on collections of old (16th–20th century) European books stored in the Rare Book Library of the Seoul National University in Korea. We were able to quantitatively determine the foxing affected areas on books from their photographs using a newly developed image processing software (PicMan) including cultural property characterization applications, specifically. Dimensional and color analysis of photographs were successfully done quantitatively. Histograms of RGB (red, green, blue) pixels of photographs clearly showed the change in color distribution of foxing stains compared to the other areas of the photographs. Several sample images of quantitative measurement of foxing stains and virtually restored images were generated to provide easy visual inspection and comparison between restored images and the original photographs. Image quality, resolution, and digital file format requirements for quantitative analysis are described. Image-based quantitative analysis of foxing stains on paper documents are found to be very promising towards automation for objective characterization of photographs of cultural properties. This technique can be used to create a cultural property digital database. Quantitative and statistical analysis techniques can be introduced to monitor the effect of storage and conservation environment on the cultural properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cultural Heritage—Science, Materials and Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Mineralogical Characterization and Firing Temperature Delineation on Minoan Pottery, Focusing on the Application of Micro-Raman Spectroscopy
Heritage 2019, 2(3), 2652-2664; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2030163 - 17 Sep 2019
Viewed by 237
Abstract
Ceramic objects in whole or in fragments usually account for the majority of findings in an archaeological excavation. Thus, through examination of the values these items bear, it is possible to extract important information regarding raw materials provenance and ceramic technology. For this [...] Read more.
Ceramic objects in whole or in fragments usually account for the majority of findings in an archaeological excavation. Thus, through examination of the values these items bear, it is possible to extract important information regarding raw materials provenance and ceramic technology. For this purpose, either traditional examination protocols could be followed, focusing on the macroscopic/morphological characteristics of the ancient object, or more sophisticated physicochemical techniques are employed. Nevertheless, there are cases where, due to the uniqueness and the significance of an object of archaeological value, sampling is impossible. Then, the available analytical tools are extremely limited, especially when molecular information and mineral phase identification is required. In this context, the results acquired from a multiphase clay ceramic dated on Early Neopalatioal period ΜΜΙΙΙA-LMIA (1750 B.C.E.–1490 B.C.E.), from the Minoan Bronze Age site at Philioremos (Crete, Greece) through the application of Raman confocal spectroscopy, a non-destructive/ non-invasive method are reported. The spectroscopic results are confirmed through the application of X-ray microdiffraction and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Moreover, it is demonstrated how it is made possible through the application of micro-Raman (μRaman) spectroscopy to examine and collect crucial information from very small inclusions in the ceramic fabric. The aim of this approach is to develop an analytical protocol based on μRaman spectroscopy, for extracting firing temperature information from other ceramic finds (figurines) where due to their uniqueness sampling and analyses through other techniques is not possible. This information can lead to dating but also to firing kiln technology extrapolations that are very significant in archaeology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cultural Heritage—Science, Materials and Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Multiscale Study of Interactions Between Corrosion Products Layer Formed on Heritage Cu Objects and Organic Protection Treatments
Heritage 2019, 2(3), 2640-2651; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2030162 - 16 Sep 2019
Viewed by 249
Abstract
In the framework of the protection of copper objects exposed to atmospheric corrosion, different solutions are envisaged, among them carboxylate treatments (HC10). In this study, an analytical approach based on complementary techniques from micrometer to nanometer scale (μRS, SEM-EDS, SAM) is [...] Read more.
In the framework of the protection of copper objects exposed to atmospheric corrosion, different solutions are envisaged, among them carboxylate treatments (HC10). In this study, an analytical approach based on complementary techniques from micrometer to nanometer scale (μRS, SEM-EDS, SAM) is used to describe the properties of the corrosion products layer (CPL) and determine the penetration depth of the HC10 protection treatment inside the CPL of copper samples issued from the roof of the Saint Martin church in Metz. The CPL consists in a thick brochantite layer (20 to 50 μm), mainly composed of Cu4SO4(OH)6, on top of a thinner (1 to 5 μm thick) cuprite layer, Cu2O, acting as a natural corrosion barrier on the metal. Application of the organic treatment is implemented by immersing the corroded samples in HC10 solution, consistent with future requirements for large scale applications. Even for short-term duration (one minute), the HC10 treatment penetrates to the cuprite/brochantite interface, but Cu(C10)2 precipitate is only detected locally, whereas for a longer immersion of thirty minutes, it is present in higher proportions in the whole brochantite layer, filling the pores, up to the cuprite/brochantite interface. Cu(C10)2 acts as a second inner barrier and prevents liquid infiltration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cultural Heritage—Science, Materials and Technologies)
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Open AccessCase Report
Society and Culture: Cultural Policies Driven by Local Authorities as A Factor in Local Development—The Example of the Municipality of Xanthi-Greece
Heritage 2019, 2(3), 2625-2639; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2030161 - 05 Sep 2019
Viewed by 273
Abstract
This research article examines cultural policies designed by local government authorities and their impact on social and regional development in the municipality of Xanthi, Thrace. It also analyzes and examines the cultural activities implemented by the Greek municipalities. In particular, it reflects upon [...] Read more.
This research article examines cultural policies designed by local government authorities and their impact on social and regional development in the municipality of Xanthi, Thrace. It also analyzes and examines the cultural activities implemented by the Greek municipalities. In particular, it reflects upon events, changes, and concerns that involve cultural affairs, and evaluates their socioeconomic, political, spatial, and regional dimensions. Considering that the locality is part of the totality, the process of achieving cultural development in Xanthi is particularly interesting, as it is fundamental to the entire Greek cultural image. The regional element of the area can be also identified as national. Consequently, local cultural development becomes an essential part of national development. This study could trigger a fertile and constructive process of reflection on the role of local cultural policy in further achieving social and economic development. The issues raised by the research contribute to scientific research and dialogue and highlight the role of municipalities as active cultural assets with distinct cultural identities in the context of a Europe of Regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cultural Heritage: Current Threats and Opportunities)
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of Lithol Red Synthetic Organic Pigment Reveals the Cause of Paint Layer Degradation on the Lazar Vozarević Painting “Untitled” with Copper Plates
Heritage 2019, 2(3), 2612-2624; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2030160 - 04 Sep 2019
Viewed by 215
Abstract
Out of a total of 56 paintings in the collection of the Lazar Vozarević Gallery in Sremska Mitrovica, only one Lazar Vozarević painting from 1961, titled “Untitled”, has been subject to atypical degradation that has resulted in damage of completely atypical [...] Read more.
Out of a total of 56 paintings in the collection of the Lazar Vozarević Gallery in Sremska Mitrovica, only one Lazar Vozarević painting from 1961, titled “Untitled”, has been subject to atypical degradation that has resulted in damage of completely atypical appearance. Such a problem had never before been noticed in Yugoslavian paintings of the 20th century. Discolored areas were found in various locations on the paint layer of the painting “Untitled” (especially on the lower and central parts of the painting), which disturbed the visual experience of the artistic work. To discover the cause of this discoloration, the composition of the paint layer was investigated, with the assumption that the true cause of degradation was hidden therein. Moreover, this painting belongs to a specific period in Vozarević’s activity, characterized by the use of non-traditional painting materials. To identify pigments from the highly degraded painting “Untitled”, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS) and micro-Raman spectroscopy were applied. Lithol red, a synthetic organic pigment known to give paintings a red tone, was identified as the main reason for the painting’s degradation. Lithol red is not only highly light-sensitive but is also chemically unstable, toxic, and sensitive to heat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Artistic Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle
Nanotechnology in Roman Opaque Red Glass from the 2nd Century AD. Archaeometric Investigation in Red Sectilia from the Decoration of the Lucius Verus Villa in Rome
Heritage 2019, 2(3), 2597-2611; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2030159 - 03 Sep 2019
Viewed by 401
Abstract
This work aims to characterise the chemical composition of Roman opaque red glass sectilia dated to the 2nd century A.D and to shed light on Roman glassmaking production of different shades of red, from red to reddish-brown. Due to the lack of technical [...] Read more.
This work aims to characterise the chemical composition of Roman opaque red glass sectilia dated to the 2nd century A.D and to shed light on Roman glassmaking production of different shades of red, from red to reddish-brown. Due to the lack of technical historical sources for this period many questions about technological aspects still remain. In this project a multi-disciplinary approach is in progress to investigate the red glass sectilia with several red hues from the Imperial Villa of Lucius Verus (161–169 A.D.) in Rome. First, colorimetric measurements were taken to identify the various red hues. The second step was chemical characterization of the samples and the identification of crystalline colouring phases. Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) analysis was used to investigate the chemical composition of these glass samples, while the crystalline phases were identified by Raman Spectroscopy and Scanning Electrons Microscope with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (SEM-EDS). Using SEM-EDS nanoparticles were detected as a colouring agent, the chemical composition and the morphology of which has been studied in depth. This information has been compared with the colorimetric analysis to establish any correlation with the different colour hues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cultural Heritage—Science, Materials and Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
DeCACHe: Supporting Designers in Creating Cognition-Centered Adaptive Cultural Heritage Activities
Heritage 2019, 2(3), 2573-2596; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2030158 - 31 Aug 2019
Viewed by 268
Abstract
Cultural heritage (CH) institutions attract wide and heterogeneous audiences, which should be efficiently supported and have access to meaningful CH content. This introduces numerous challenges when delivering such experiences, given that people have different cognitive characteristics which influence the way we process information, [...] Read more.
Cultural heritage (CH) institutions attract wide and heterogeneous audiences, which should be efficiently supported and have access to meaningful CH content. This introduces numerous challenges when delivering such experiences, given that people have different cognitive characteristics which influence the way we process information, experience, behave, and acquire knowledge. Our recent studies provide evidence that human cognition should be considered as a personalization factor within CH contexts, and thus we developed a framework that delivers cognition-centered personalized CH activities. The efficiency and the efficacy of the framework have been successfully assessed through two user studies, but non-technical professionals (e.g., CH designers) may face difficulties when attempting to use it and create personalized CH activities. In this paper, we present DeCACHe, which supports CH designers in creating cognition-centered personalized CH activities throughout different phases of the design lifecycle. We also report a user study with seventeen professional CH designers, who used our tool to design CH activities for people with different cognitive characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle
The Chiaravalle Cross: Results of a Multidisciplinary Study
Heritage 2019, 2(3), 2555-2572; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2030157 - 30 Aug 2019
Viewed by 292
Abstract
The Chiaravalle Cross, a masterpiece of Mediaeval goldsmithery, went under restoration in 2016. This was a unique opportunity to undertake an in-depth multidisciplinary study. Several issues were addressed, as for example the chronology of the Cross, lacking any official document about it. The [...] Read more.
The Chiaravalle Cross, a masterpiece of Mediaeval goldsmithery, went under restoration in 2016. This was a unique opportunity to undertake an in-depth multidisciplinary study. Several issues were addressed, as for example the chronology of the Cross, lacking any official document about it. The scientific investigations included in situ and laboratory measurements, and the analyses, part of a multidisciplinary protocol, completely characterized the gemstones adorning the Cross, the cameos, the gold, silver, jasper and glass parts, to derive indications on their provenance, authenticity and dating issues. All the results were shared with the whole collaboration of experts, which included art historians, a restorer, a conservator, a scholar in ancient glyptic, gemologists, archaeometallurgists, physicists and scientists in a very fruitful exchange of knowledge. This work is an example of a real multidisciplinary research, gathering good practices in the study of a complex piece of art. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cultural Heritage—Science, Materials and Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Deterioration of World Heritage Cave Monument of Ajanta, India: Insights to Important Biological Agents and Environment Friendly Solutions
Heritage 2019, 2(3), 2545-2554; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2030156 - 30 Aug 2019
Viewed by 275
Abstract
Heritage monuments across the world are affected by a variety of physical and biological stresses. Damage to heritage monuments due to insects and pests is growing with increasing anthropogenic pressure and changing climatic conditions. Cave monuments are habitats to microbes, algae, fungi, and [...] Read more.
Heritage monuments across the world are affected by a variety of physical and biological stresses. Damage to heritage monuments due to insects and pests is growing with increasing anthropogenic pressure and changing climatic conditions. Cave monuments are habitats to microbes, algae, fungi, and insects, and are unique biodiversity sites due to their low temperature, little to no sunlight, and high moisture conditions. This study takes stock of available information on important factors that facilitate the growth of insect pests and degrade heritage monuments. Ajanta Caves, a UNESCO world heritage site in India, is a human marvel, important archaeological and heritage site of immense cultural and historic values. The present paper is an attempt to understand a variety of stresses and factors with a focus on insect pests that have substantially affected Ajanta cave paintings in the last few decades. The study also provides information on available approaches for damage control including the need for an integrated insect pest management for protecting cave monuments against rapid degradation across the country in general and Ajanta caves in particular. A light-based approach is the key highlight of the study that can be used as an effective and efficient approach to protect archaeological sites especially cave paintings from insect pests without disturbing the pollinator diversity and surrounding environment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Towards a Shared Understanding of the Concept of Heritage in the European Context
Heritage 2019, 2(3), 2531-2544; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2030155 - 30 Aug 2019
Viewed by 231
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to develop an understanding of commonalities and differences in the concept of cultural heritage in Europe. This was achieved through a comprehensive academic and non-academic literature review focused on different definitions and conceptualisations related to cultural heritage [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to develop an understanding of commonalities and differences in the concept of cultural heritage in Europe. This was achieved through a comprehensive academic and non-academic literature review focused on different definitions and conceptualisations related to cultural heritage internationally and in the European context. This is complemented with a comparative study in three European countries. This paper frames cultural heritage using the foundation set up by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO). It further discusses the European actors involved in defining heritage today. Finally, it focuses on three European countries and verifies that they share an understanding of cultural heritage including classifications, categorisation and heritage values. Findings from the overall study show how the definition of cultural heritage across Europe is reasonably homogeneous, and this is confirmed by the analysis of the three chosen test case studies. This finding is relevant to policy makers as it allows the support of potential common frameworks for heritage management at the European level, including risk management and risk reduction common methodologies. Further studies will shed light on the implementation issues which may arise from the creation of a common European framework for cultural heritage management, with emphasis on risk management and risk reduction of cultural heritage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle
Magic Lantern Glass Slides Materials and Techniques: The First Multi-Analytical Study
Heritage 2019, 2(3), 2513-2530; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2030154 - 29 Aug 2019
Viewed by 331
Abstract
This paper presents the first systematic investigation of hand-painted magic lantern glass slides using multi-analytical techniques combined with a critical analysis of historical written sources of the painting materials and techniques used to produce them. The magic lantern was an optical instrument used [...] Read more.
This paper presents the first systematic investigation of hand-painted magic lantern glass slides using multi-analytical techniques combined with a critical analysis of historical written sources of the painting materials and techniques used to produce them. The magic lantern was an optical instrument used from the seventeenth to the twentieth century that attained great success and impact on the entertainment industry, science, religion, and advertisement industry. The glass, colorants, and organic media of five magic lantern slides from the Museum of Natural History and Science of the University of Lisbon were studied. By means of energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, the glass was characterized and the oxide quantification unveiled that the glass substrate was possibly produced between 1870 and 1930. Ultraviolet-Visible, Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies allowed the characterization of the colorants: Prussian blue, an anthraquinone red lake pigment of animal origin (such as cochineal), an unidentified organic yellow, and carbon black. The remaining colors were achieved through mixtures of the pure pigments. Infrared analysis detected a complex fingerprint in all colors, nevertheless, a terpenoid resin such as shellac was identified. Metal carboxylates were also detected, contributing to the assessment of the state of conservation of the paints. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cultural Heritage—Science, Materials and Technologies)
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Open AccessCommunication
Glass Crystal Models: A First Approach to a Hidden Treasure of Teaching and Scientific Heritage
Heritage 2019, 2(3), 2495-2512; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2030153 - 29 Aug 2019
Viewed by 229
Abstract
Glass crystal models arrived in Portugal around the late 19th century, when high schools, universities, and polytechnics were gradually provided with teaching collections to support science education. Therefore, they are an important material evidence of teaching methodologies of mineral and geology science in [...] Read more.
Glass crystal models arrived in Portugal around the late 19th century, when high schools, universities, and polytechnics were gradually provided with teaching collections to support science education. Therefore, they are an important material evidence of teaching methodologies of mineral and geology science in the 20th century. The Passos Manuel high school in Lisbon, owns a significant collection of scientific heritage, currently on a long-term loan at the National Museum of Natural History and Science and the University of Lisbon, which includes a set of 98 glass crystal models. Besides glass, these models are composed by adhesives, paper, cardboard, textile threads, paper/textile adhesive tapes, and metal nuts and screws. Also, they show several levels of intervention and different conservation states. In this paper, the first results of a multi-analytic approach to chemically characterize these objects’ material composition will be presented. Characterization was done based on portable equipment (pXRF), or by collecting small samples further analyzed using optical microscopy and FTIR-ATR techniques. This study allowed for a first distinction between original materials from the old repairs; to develop a more accurate assessment of the conservation condition; and finally, as one of the main aims of this work, to determine preventive conservation measures in order to better preserve these cultural objects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cultural Heritage—Science, Materials and Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Multi-Scale Investigation of Body-Glaze Interface in Ancient Ceramics
Heritage 2019, 2(3), 2480-2494; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2030152 - 28 Aug 2019
Viewed by 309
Abstract
Bernard Palissy is a French Renaissance ceramist renowned for his masterpieces called Rustiques Figulines on which dozens of glazes of different chemistries (and thus firing behaviors) coexist harmoniously. This study aims at gathering information on the master procedure -never revealed- by investigating the [...] Read more.
Bernard Palissy is a French Renaissance ceramist renowned for his masterpieces called Rustiques Figulines on which dozens of glazes of different chemistries (and thus firing behaviors) coexist harmoniously. This study aims at gathering information on the master procedure -never revealed- by investigating the body-glaze interface region (focusing on iron-colored honey transparent glaze-white body system). Optical and electron microscopies including transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are used to characterize the micro and nanostructure of both archaeological and replicas interfaces elaborated in controlled conditions (firing time, cooling rate, addition of Al in the glazing mixture). Both types of interfaces are comparable: a modified paste area from which are growing a relatively continuous layer of interfacial crystals identified as lead feldspars (K,Ca)PbAl2Si2O8 micro-sized single-crystals incorporating mullite 3Al2O3.2SiO2 nano-sized single-crystals. Modification of the firing parameters and removal of Al from the glazing mixture change essentially the interface extension and the micro-crystals morphology. By comparing archaeological and replica interfaces and considering previous studies, we can now state that Palissy was very likely adding clay (Al) in his frit. Moreover, he was probably working with a firing time of more than 1 h followed by slow cooling in the oven. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cultural Heritage—Science, Materials and Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Using 3D Spatial Visualisation to Interpret the Coverage of Anti-Aircraft Batteries on a World War II Battlefield
Heritage 2019, 2(3), 2457-2479; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2030151 - 26 Aug 2019
Viewed by 304
Abstract
Heritage Building Information Modeling (HBIM) focuses on the documentation and visualization of heritage properties which are confined in their permanent terrestrial space. This paper extended the concept of Heritage Building Information Modeling to the airspace above the sites. It presented a methodology for [...] Read more.
Heritage Building Information Modeling (HBIM) focuses on the documentation and visualization of heritage properties which are confined in their permanent terrestrial space. This paper extended the concept of Heritage Building Information Modeling to the airspace above the sites. It presented a methodology for the 3D spatial visualisation of the aerial space controlled by anti-aircraft (AA) guns, taking into account the masking effects of the underlying terrain and the technological capabilities of the guns (rate of fire, projectile weight, etc.). The tool permits a nuanced analysis of the interplay between attacking aircraft and the siting of anti-aircraft guns and thus, allows for the analysis of the cultural landscape of World War II-era battle fields, which has to take into account the influence of aerial warfare. The applicability was illustrated by the case example of the Japanese WWII base on Kiska (Aleutian Islands). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Architectural Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Simple Method for Labeling and Identification of Protein Binders in Art
Heritage 2019, 2(3), 2444-2456; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2030150 - 16 Aug 2019
Viewed by 383
Abstract
Easel paintings are assets with an important historic and cultural value. They usually possess a multi-tiered structure, composed of different layers some of which may present protein binders, making it important to identify these materials for restoration and conservation purposes. We propose the [...] Read more.
Easel paintings are assets with an important historic and cultural value. They usually possess a multi-tiered structure, composed of different layers some of which may present protein binders, making it important to identify these materials for restoration and conservation purposes. We propose the identification of different protein binders by a new fluorescent labeling method employing a coumarin based chromophore, C392STP (sodium(E/Z)-4-(4-(2-(6,7-dimethoxycoumarin-3-yl)vinyl)benzoyl)-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzenesulfo-nate). The method was optimized using commercial proteins and was further tested on proteins extracted from hen’s egg yolk, white bovine milk, and rabbit skin glue. To model more realistic conditions, paint models of easel paintings were prepared. The paint models were made with hen’s egg yolk, white bovine milk, and rabbit skin glue, mixed with different pigments and submitted to artificial aging. Then the extracted proteins from the paint models were labeled with C392 which allowed a sensitive and selective identification by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of the different protein binders used. As a final test, three 19th century easel paintings, from the Italian painter Giorgio Marini, were analyzed. The results show the potential of the proposed method for the identification of protein binders present in easel paintings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cultural Heritage—Science, Materials and Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Urban Heritage Conservation of China’s Historic Water Towns and the Role of Professor Ruan Yisan: Nanxun, Tongli, and Wuzhen
Heritage 2019, 2(3), 2417-2443; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2030149 - 13 Aug 2019
Viewed by 427
Abstract
Between the 13th and the 19th century, hundreds of water towns flourished in China along the Grand Canal and to the south of the Yangtze river, the latter being the focus of this paper. Despite their long history, water towns still lack a [...] Read more.
Between the 13th and the 19th century, hundreds of water towns flourished in China along the Grand Canal and to the south of the Yangtze river, the latter being the focus of this paper. Despite their long history, water towns still lack a comprehensive account of their urban history and development, yet they have become world famous as tourist destinations. Initially branded under titles such as the “Venice of the East” or the “Venice of China”, they are visited nowadays, for their own sake and not as surrogates of Venice, by millions of Chinese tourists. Focusing on the urban form and heritage of the three historic water towns of Nanxun, Tongli and Wuzhen, and on their conservation planning as promoted by Professor Ruan Yisan since the mid-1980s, the aim of this paper is twofold. On one hand, the aim is to identify and examine, through personal observation and secondary sources, the urban patterns and morphology of these places; on the other hand, to explore through his publications the impact of Professor Ruan Yisan—a (if not the) key figure -- in their conservation and tourist development. The paper’s broader aim is to contribute to a more systematic analytical approach towards the urban form of Chinese historic water towns as a basis for further research and heritage conservation planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle
Museum Practices as Tools to (Re)Define Memory and Identity Issues Through Direct Experience of Tangible and Intangible Heritage
Heritage 2019, 2(3), 2408-2416; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2030148 - 12 Aug 2019
Viewed by 441
Abstract
In the liquid-like times of post-modernity, where the notions of memory, identity, and culture are undergoing a process of redefinition, transition, and interpenetration, the role of museums as institutions responsible for heritage preservation and distribution needs to be revised in terms of their [...] Read more.
In the liquid-like times of post-modernity, where the notions of memory, identity, and culture are undergoing a process of redefinition, transition, and interpenetration, the role of museums as institutions responsible for heritage preservation and distribution needs to be revised in terms of their engagement with exhibitions, audiences, and strategies. The following text will analyze some examples of those tendencies implemented in contemporary museums practices observed in two cities: Gdańsk, Poland and Berlin, Germany. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cultural Heritage: Current Threats and Opportunities)
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Open AccessArticle
Non-Invasive Investigation of Pigments of Wall Painting in S. Maria Delle Palate di Tusa (Messina, Italy)
Heritage 2019, 2(3), 2398-2407; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2030147 - 12 Aug 2019
Viewed by 405
Abstract
The characterization of materials used in the archaeological field needs an experimental approach in order to avoid the destruction or perturbation of artworks. In order to afford this purpose, a multi-analytical spectroscopic approach is regularly used. We combined non-invasive analysis by using handheld [...] Read more.
The characterization of materials used in the archaeological field needs an experimental approach in order to avoid the destruction or perturbation of artworks. In order to afford this purpose, a multi-analytical spectroscopic approach is regularly used. We combined non-invasive analysis by using handheld spectroscopic instrumentations (mainly XRF and Raman spectrometers) in order to characterize the wall painting preserved in the church of S. Maria delle Palate at Halaesa Arconidea archeological site (Tusa, Messina, Italy). The aim of the work is the characterization of the nature of pigments used for the realization of the wall painting. The wall painting, probably representing St. Francis in the act of receiving the stigmata, has been subject to cleaning and restoration. Thanks to use of in situ measurement, we have identified hematite and goethite for the red and yellow respectively, and lazurite for the blue. In addition, some relevant information about the black pigment, the technique used for the realization and the conservation state were also obtained. The results obtained during the diagnostic campaign have been a support for the work of restorers. For the first time, the wall painting has been studied, increasing the knowledge of Halaesa Arconidea archaeological site. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Combined Methodologies for the Survey and Documentation of Historical Buildings: The Castle of Scalea (CS, Italy)
Heritage 2019, 2(3), 2384-2397; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2030146 - 09 Aug 2019
Viewed by 446
Abstract
In the last few years, new technologies have become indispensable tools for specialists in the field of cultural heritage for the analysis, reconstruction and interpretation of data but also for promotion of artefacts or buildings sometimes inaccessible or in a bad state of [...] Read more.
In the last few years, new technologies have become indispensable tools for specialists in the field of cultural heritage for the analysis, reconstruction and interpretation of data but also for promotion of artefacts or buildings sometimes inaccessible or in a bad state of conservation. The discipline of geomatics offer many opportunities and solutions for integrated digital surveys and the documentation of heritage (point-based methods, image-based photogrammetry and their combination): These data can be processed in order to derive metric information and share them using databases or GIS (geographic information system) tools. This paper is focused on the description of combined survey methodologies adopted for the geometric and architectural documentation of the site and surviving structures of the Castel of Scalea (Cosenza, Italy). It is a typical context where traditional survey procedures do not fully succeed or require a longer amount of time and great effort if a high level of accuracy is requested: For this reason, aerial close-range digital photogrammetry enhanced by the GNSS (global navigation satellite system), and total station positioning systems have been used at various levels of detail for the production of a detailed 3D model and 2D thematic maps with an excellent level of in the positioning of the structures and in the architectural drawing. Thanks to the collected dataset, it was possible to better identify the building units (CF), to digitize the limits of the masonry stratigraphic units (USM), and to draw up a first constructive diachronic sequence hypothesis on which to base chronology. Moreover, some particular masonry techniques have been sampled and compared at the regional level with the aim to better dating of constructive expedients. It was finally demonstrated how the use of integrated methodologies allows us to obtain a complete and detailed documentation including information regarding not only architectural and geometrical features but also archaeological and historical elements, building materials and decay evidences—all useful as support of the interpretation of data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
How Many Secret Details Could a Systematic Multi-Analytical Study Reveal About the Mysterious Fresco Trionfo della Morte?
Heritage 2019, 2(3), 2370-2383; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2030145 - 07 Aug 2019
Viewed by 424
Abstract
The “Trionfo della morte” is a detached fresco painting dated at the half of the XV century. Its history is strictly connected with the history of Palermo and it is considered a symbol of the late Gothic period. Some small areas of the [...] Read more.
The “Trionfo della morte” is a detached fresco painting dated at the half of the XV century. Its history is strictly connected with the history of Palermo and it is considered a symbol of the late Gothic period. Some small areas of the fresco were analyzed using a combination of non-invasive techniques and hand-held instrumentations (multispectral imaging analysis, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and IR spectroscopy). The characterization of the nature of pigments used in its realization and restoration works was performed and some indications about its conservation state were obtained. More interestingly, some hidden details were revealed on the mysterious painting. They constitute additional evidence of the preciousness of the fresco. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Glass Beads, Markers of Ancient Trade in Sub-Saharan Africa: Methodology, State of the Art and Perspectives
Heritage 2019, 2(3), 2343-2369; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2030144 - 06 Aug 2019
Viewed by 529
Abstract
Glass beads have been produced and traded for millennia all over the world for use as everyday items of adornment, ceremonial costumes or objects of barter. The preservation of glass beads is good and large hoards have been found in archaeological sites across [...] Read more.
Glass beads have been produced and traded for millennia all over the world for use as everyday items of adornment, ceremonial costumes or objects of barter. The preservation of glass beads is good and large hoards have been found in archaeological sites across the world. The variety of shape, size and colour as well as the composition and production technologies of glass beads led to the motivation to use them as markers of exchange pathways covering the Indian Ocean, Africa, Asia, Middle East, the Mediterranean world, Europe and America and also as chronological milestones. This review addresses the history of glass production, the methodology of identification (morphology, colour, elemental composition, glass nanostructure, colouring and opacifying agents and secondary phases) by means of laboratory based instruments (LA-ICP-MS, SEM-EDS, XRF, NAA, Raman microspectroscopy) as well as the mobile instruments (pXRF, Raman) used to study glass beads excavated from sub-Saharan African sites. Attention is paid to the problems neglected such as the heterogeneity of glass (recycled and locally reprocessed glass). The review addresses the potential information that could be extracted using advanced portable methods of analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Archaeological Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle
Application of Image Analysis for the Identification of Prehistoric Ceramic Production Technologies in the North Caucasus (Russia, Bronze/Iron Age)
Heritage 2019, 2(3), 2327-2342; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2030143 - 06 Aug 2019
Viewed by 467
Abstract
The recent advances in microscopy and scanning techniques enabled the image analysis of archaeological objects in a high resolution. From the direct measurements in images, shapes and related parameters of the structural elements of interest can be derived. In this study, image analysis [...] Read more.
The recent advances in microscopy and scanning techniques enabled the image analysis of archaeological objects in a high resolution. From the direct measurements in images, shapes and related parameters of the structural elements of interest can be derived. In this study, image analysis in 2D/3D is applied to archaeological ceramics, in order to obtain clues about the ceramic pastes, firing and shaping techniques. Images were acquired by the polarized light microscope, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and 3D micro X-ray computed tomography (µ-CT) and segmented using Matlab. 70 ceramic sherds excavated at Ransyrt 1 (Middle-Late Bronze Age) and Kabardinka 2 (late Bronze–early Iron Age), located in in the North Caucasian mountains, Russia, were investigated. The size distribution, circularity and sphericity of sand grains in the ceramics show site specific difference as well as variations within a site. The sphericity, surface area, volume and Euler characteristic of pores show the existence of various pyrometamorphic states between the ceramics and within a ceramic. Using alignments of pores and grains, similar pottery shaping techniques are identified for both sites. These results show that the image analysis of archaeological ceramics can provide detailed information about the prehistoric ceramic production technologies with fast data availability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Archaeological Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle
“Still covered in sand.looked very old.”—Legal Obligations in the Internet Market for Antiquities
Heritage 2019, 2(3), 2311-2326; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2030142 - 06 Aug 2019
Viewed by 755
Abstract
The global internet antiquities market exists in a complex cultural heritage framework, comprised of international law and domestic legislation. In this paper, the questions I seek to answer are the following: how do internet antiquities dealers engage with their legal obligations, and how [...] Read more.
The global internet antiquities market exists in a complex cultural heritage framework, comprised of international law and domestic legislation. In this paper, the questions I seek to answer are the following: how do internet antiquities dealers engage with their legal obligations, and how is this engagement translated to the ethics of their businesses? This paper presents a comparative examination of 45 antiquities dealers split across three categories—internet dealers, eBay dealers and social media dealers—revealing three key insights about the internet antiquities market: firstly, that the level of legal literacy in the market is depicted as being quite poor; secondly, that the performance of legal awareness does not always correspond with ethical dealer practices; and finally, some dealers utilise a suite of justifications for their behaviours, practices and values (known as neutralisation techniques) to undermine their legal obligations. Such results confirm existing claims of the failure of self-regulation in the internet antiquities market and reveal a demand for educational campaigns targeted at raising consumer awareness by challenging misleading market narratives and highlighting the ethical and legal issues involved with the trade of cultural heritage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Art and Antiquities Crime)
Open AccessArticle
Built Information Modeling for the 3D Reconstruction of Modern Railway Stations
Heritage 2019, 2(3), 2298-2310; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2030141 - 06 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 441
Abstract
The BIM process applied to the built environment represents a much debated topic in the last decade, but it still contains unanswered questions. National and international frameworks introduced standards mainly focused on the levels of detail definition related to new project, leaving a [...] Read more.
The BIM process applied to the built environment represents a much debated topic in the last decade, but it still contains unanswered questions. National and international frameworks introduced standards mainly focused on the levels of detail definition related to new project, leaving a wide interpretation on the 3D reconstruction of existing building. On the other hand, the increase in the use of this modeling approach and the possible expansion of this application in the nearly future lead to predict a significant rise in built field, requiring a general assessment both on global methodology and on its peculiarities. Starting from the complete description and analysis of two modern railway architectures, based on integrated survey, 2D representation up to 3D modeling in BIM environments, the article tries to highlight the limits in the 3D BIM modeling applied on existing construction, suggesting possible solutions in relation with the obtained results. The process is critically evaluated in each passage, in order to focus the BIM research areas useful for built environment analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heritage Building Information Modeling (HBIM))
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Open AccessArticle
The Study of Historical Indoor Microclimate (HIM) to Contribute towards Heritage Buildings Preservation
Heritage 2019, 2(3), 2287-2297; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2030140 - 02 Aug 2019
Viewed by 402
Abstract
Knowledge of building techniques, materials and their decay is nowadays quite vast, as well as on the solutions and methodologies of a restoration project, which depends on the goal of the restoration itself. Even the choices on the new usage of historic buildings [...] Read more.
Knowledge of building techniques, materials and their decay is nowadays quite vast, as well as on the solutions and methodologies of a restoration project, which depends on the goal of the restoration itself. Even the choices on the new usage of historic buildings are often well considered. In the last few years, we have conducted some monitoring campaigns to obtain data related to four distinct buildings, differing in construction times, typology, location, current and historical uses. What has been discovered is that these buildings appear to be able to guarantee historical microclimates surprisingly overlapping to the parameters nowadays considered appropriate to conserve them and the historical patrimony they contain. In this article we show some explanatory results of four case studies from our research. The monitoring control, moreover, allowed us to develop the analysis further, from survey to virtual simulation. In this way it was possible to verify the effects of minimal variations in the architectural characteristics, such as opening or closing a window, covering an open yard, or else removing a cover, reducing the source of light etc. All of these managerial and architectural interventions have a significant effect on the indoor environment of buildings and can improve the conservation status of architecture, sometimes to such an extent that more costly and invasive restorations become unnecessary. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Post-Processing of VIS, NIR, and SWIR Multispectral Images of Paintings. New Discovery on the The Drunkenness of Noah, Painted by Andrea Sacchi, Stored at Palazzo Chigi (Ariccia, Rome)
Heritage 2019, 2(3), 2275-2286; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2030139 - 02 Aug 2019
Viewed by 429
Abstract
IR Reflectography applied to the identification of hidden details of paintings is extremely useful for authentication purposes and for revealing technical hidden features. Recently, multispectral imaging has replaced traditional imaging techniques thanks to the possibility to select specific spectral ranges bringing out interesting [...] Read more.
IR Reflectography applied to the identification of hidden details of paintings is extremely useful for authentication purposes and for revealing technical hidden features. Recently, multispectral imaging has replaced traditional imaging techniques thanks to the possibility to select specific spectral ranges bringing out interesting details of the paintings. VIS–NIR–SWIR images of one of the The Drunkenness of Noah versions painted by Andrea Sacchi, acquired with a modified reflex and InGaAs cameras, are presented in this research. Starting from multispectral images we performed post-processing analysis, using visible and infrared false-color images and principal component analysis (PCA) in order to highlight pentimenti and underdrawings. Radiography was performed in some areas to better investigate the inner pictorial layers. This study represents the first published scientific investigation of The Drunkenness of Noah’s artistic production, painted by Andrea Sacchi. Full article
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Open AccessTechnical Note
Cultural Heritage and Communication through Simulation Videogames—A Validation of Minecraft
Heritage 2019, 2(3), 2262-2274; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2030138 - 01 Aug 2019
Viewed by 432
Abstract
The use of world-simulation videogames for cultural heritage (CH) communication presents one of the greatest opportunities for engaging people with the safeguarding of cultural resources. However, not all simulation videogames have the capacity to transmit heritage values efficiently. This article reviews the use [...] Read more.
The use of world-simulation videogames for cultural heritage (CH) communication presents one of the greatest opportunities for engaging people with the safeguarding of cultural resources. However, not all simulation videogames have the capacity to transmit heritage values efficiently. This article reviews the use of serious and commercial videogames in CH to frame and properly identify characteristics for the selection and assessment of videogames in the context of cultural communication. Based on the analysis of the capacities of videogames to motivate, immerse and represent reality, the videogame Minecraft is identified as one of the optimal solutions to represent and promote engagement with the cultural built environment. As such, the authors assessed the capacity of the videogame Minecraft to be used as an efficient tool to communicate built heritage environments, considering identified criteria on immersion, motivation, and fidelity on simulation. Full article
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Open AccessLetter
Detecting the NIR Fingerprint of Colors: The Characteristic Response of Modern Blue Pigments
Heritage 2019, 2(3), 2255-2261; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2030137 - 30 Jul 2019
Viewed by 408
Abstract
Reflectance spectroscopy in the ultraviolet (UV), visible (Vis), and near infrared (NIR) range is widely applied to art studies for the characterization of paints and pigments, with the advantages of non-invasive techniques. Isolating and detecting the fingerprint of pigments, especially in the NIR [...] Read more.
Reflectance spectroscopy in the ultraviolet (UV), visible (Vis), and near infrared (NIR) range is widely applied to art studies for the characterization of paints and pigments, with the advantages of non-invasive techniques. Isolating and detecting the fingerprint of pigments, especially in the NIR range, is quite challenging, since the presence of vibrational transitions of the most common organic functional groups prevents to relate the optical spectrum of a composite sample, as an artwork is, to each one of its elements (i.e., support, binder, and specific pigment). In this work, a method is presented to obtain the UV-Vis-NIR optical response of the single components of a model composite sample reproducing an artwork, i.e., the support, the binder, and the pigment or dye, by using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. This allowed us to obtain the NIR spectral fingerprint of blue pigments and to identify specific features possibly applicable for detecting cobalt and phthalocyanine blue colors in artwork analysis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Geomatics Techniques for Cultural Heritage Dissemination in Augmented Reality: Bronzi di Riace Case Study
Heritage 2019, 2(3), 2243-2254; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2030136 - 29 Jul 2019
Viewed by 558
Abstract
The Riace Bronzes are two full-size bronzes cast around the 5th century BC, located at the ‘Museo Archeologico Nazionale della Magna Grecia’ in Reggio Calabria; they truly represent significant sculptural masterpieces of Greek art in the world due to their outstanding manufacture. This [...] Read more.
The Riace Bronzes are two full-size bronzes cast around the 5th century BC, located at the ‘Museo Archeologico Nazionale della Magna Grecia’ in Reggio Calabria; they truly represent significant sculptural masterpieces of Greek art in the world due to their outstanding manufacture. This paper describes the methodology for the achievement of a 3D model of the two sculptures lead by the Geomatics Laboratory of the Department of Civil, Energetic, Environmental and Material Engineering (DICEAM) of the Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria. 3D modeling is based on the use of imaging techniques such as digital photogrammetry and computer vision. The achieved results demonstrate the effectiveness of the technique used in the cultural heritage field for the creation of a digital production and replication through 3D printing. Moreover, when considering renewed interest in the context of international museological studies, augmented reality (AR) innovation represents a new method for amplifying visitor numbers into museums despite concerns over returns on investment. Thus, in order to further valorize and disseminate archaeological heritage, we are developing an app for tourism purposes. The created app allows the user, in real time, to obtain additional information on the object of investigation, even allowing them to view the 3D model in AR. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Conservation of Cultural Heritage: Issues along the Thapathali-Teku stretch of the Bagmati River in Kathmandu, Nepal
Heritage 2019, 2(3), 2228-2242; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2030135 - 28 Jul 2019
Viewed by 915
Abstract
The Bagmati, an auspicious and sacred river, is adorned with Ghat, Dharmashalas, Pati, Sattals, Temples, Brahmanaal etc. at various stretches within the valley for the facilitations of the devotees from the daily ritual bath to the last right of [...] Read more.
The Bagmati, an auspicious and sacred river, is adorned with Ghat, Dharmashalas, Pati, Sattals, Temples, Brahmanaal etc. at various stretches within the valley for the facilitations of the devotees from the daily ritual bath to the last right of cremation. The Bagmati has been associated with the peoples of the Kathmandu valley, making it a highly significant cultural space of their devoutness. Authorities fail to recognize the significance of the site in terms of time, lack of proper policies, management plan, resources for safeguarding and conservation; several issues and challenges arise regarding the conservation of the site. Apart from technical issues such as material originality, financial issues, environmental issues, degradation of river water quality, development pressure and encroachment have ruined the site. This paper presents the significance of the 19th century cultural heritage sites along the Bagmati River from Thapathali to Teku Dobhan, which has not been prioritized for safeguarding. This also addresses the restoration, reconstruction, conservation and preparation of the management plan. In order to safeguard the past legacy of this site for the future generations, the holistic approach of conservation has to be opted for. Full article
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