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Heritage, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The article proposes a framework for the organization of information related to visual works on the [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Contemporary Landscape Structure within Monumental Zone-1 at Bagan Cultural Heritage Site, Myanmar
Heritage 2019, 2(2), 1748-1761; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2020107
Received: 21 May 2019 / Revised: 9 June 2019 / Accepted: 21 June 2019 / Published: 25 June 2019
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Abstract
This study examines the contemporary landscape structure of the Monumental Zone (MZ)-1 at the Bagan Cultural Heritage Site in the Dry Zone of Myanmar. With respect to hundreds of medieval monuments, how local residents in the residential areas within the MZ-1 manage the [...] Read more.
This study examines the contemporary landscape structure of the Monumental Zone (MZ)-1 at the Bagan Cultural Heritage Site in the Dry Zone of Myanmar. With respect to hundreds of medieval monuments, how local residents in the residential areas within the MZ-1 manage the landscape was the focus of the current study, conducted with two objectives: (1) Identifying land covers as features of the contemporary landscape on the basis of land use and (2) evaluating how the features interrelate. The landscape features were identified by the analysis of Landsat 8 satellite imagery, followed by variance analysis for comparison of the features’ areas, and interrelationships of features were evaluated by multivariate analysis. Vegetated features were identified in coexistence with non-vegetated ones, while crop coverage and non-vegetated features were smaller than the area of the other two vegetated features. Semi-natural woody vegetation was found in proximity to monuments and was dependent on the occurrence of the shrub-prone patch that, in turn, was triggered by the expansion of exposed land containing a large segment of cultivatable area. The current study suggests the need to prioritise timely land use and management, focusing on local agricultural activity for safeguarding the heritage as well as the historical settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Local People Opinion After World Heritage Site Designation, Case Study: Historic City of Yazd, Iran
Heritage 2019, 2(2), 1739-1747; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2020106
Received: 6 May 2019 / Revised: 4 June 2019 / Accepted: 20 June 2019 / Published: 23 June 2019
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Abstract
Local participation in the cultural heritage conservation has always been a concern since the Venice Charter (1964). It seems the assumption of the World Heritage Center, and particularly their State Parties, is that local people living in a nominated site are willing to [...] Read more.
Local participation in the cultural heritage conservation has always been a concern since the Venice Charter (1964). It seems the assumption of the World Heritage Center, and particularly their State Parties, is that local people living in a nominated site are willing to inscribe their properties on the World Heritage List. This research examines the points of view of a local community living in the buffer zone of the Historic City of Yazd in five categories: Willingness, quality of life, decision-making, benefits, and awareness after the designation as World Heritage Site. The main hypotheses are that local people did not agree to inscribe their properties on the World Heritage List, and their quality of life has not changed after registering. The methodology is based on both qualitative and quantitative methods by interviewing 400 people of both genders and different ages. The results show that the majority of local people living in the buffer zone were not satisfied to be on the list. In addition, more than 80% mentioned that the quality of life did not change at all after the inscription. There was a misunderstanding about the role of national and international organizations in World Heritage management and conservation among the local community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle
Chemical Compositional Signatures of Constituent Minerals of Iron Slags and Ores from the Khmer Monuments
Heritage 2019, 2(2), 1724-1738; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2020105
Received: 20 May 2019 / Revised: 14 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 20 June 2019
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Abstract
Iron slags and ores were collected from 22 sites (A to V) in Preah Khan of Kompong Svay, the area surrounding Phnom Daek, and the Angkor monuments. Iron ores were taken from two outcrops in Phnom Daek. The chemical compositions of fayalite and [...] Read more.
Iron slags and ores were collected from 22 sites (A to V) in Preah Khan of Kompong Svay, the area surrounding Phnom Daek, and the Angkor monuments. Iron ores were taken from two outcrops in Phnom Daek. The chemical compositions of fayalite and wüstite in the iron slags and magnetite in the iron ores were determined using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis using averaged chemical compositional data for fayalite allowed for the investigated slag dumps to be classified into two main groups: Groups 1 and 2. The slag dumps in the area surrounding Phnom Daek and those in the Angkor monuments were classified as Group 1, and those in Preah Khan of Kompong Svay were classified as Group 2, except for sites C and U, which were classified as Group 1. Radiocarbon dating was carried out on 10 charcoal fragments from slag dumps outside the Angkor area. The dating results indicate that iron making in Preah Khan of Kompong Svay was conducted in and after the 13th century except for sites C and U, where iron ores may have been supplied from Phnom Daek before the 13th century. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Archaeological Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle
Reconsidering Sustainable Mobility Patterns in Cultural Route Planning: Andreas Syngrou Avenue, Greece
Heritage 2019, 2(2), 1702-1723; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2020104
Received: 7 April 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 16 June 2019
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Abstract
Culture is frequently used as a means of promoting sustainable urban development. Indeed, in many areas across Europe, cultural and recreational routes or clusters have so far been utilized in order for urban regeneration and structural reconstruction to be pursued. Such routes have [...] Read more.
Culture is frequently used as a means of promoting sustainable urban development. Indeed, in many areas across Europe, cultural and recreational routes or clusters have so far been utilized in order for urban regeneration and structural reconstruction to be pursued. Such routes have been developed in Greek cities as well, e.g., in the cities of Volos, Thessaloniki, and Athens. In the Greek capital, Athens, a couple of axes are actually recognized as cultural ones. Andreas Syngrou Avenue, initially designed as a six/eight-lane freeway located at the heart of the Athens metropolitan area, is one distinguished example. By focusing on this axis as a cultural route/cluster, the goal of this article is to elaborate on smart and sustainable mobility patterns for strengthening its cultural/recreational identity and increasing its attractiveness. To accomplish this goal, critical problems confining citizens’ mobility and access to various cultural landmarks in this area are identified and are properly dealt with, stressing the importance of sustainable mobility in relevant cultural planning endeavors. Based on the study and an assessment of the current state of this route (land uses, traffic loads, design qualities, and environmental affordances), a sustainable mobility proposal is provided in order for a master plan that enhances and develops the cultural function and identity of this route. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Choir Books of San Giorgio Maggiore in Venice: Results of in Depth Non-Invasive Analyses
Heritage 2019, 2(2), 1684-1701; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2020103
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 11 June 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
This paper discusses a cross-disciplinary, international collaboration aimed at researching a series of 15th century choir books at the abbey of San Giorgio Maggiore on the homonymous island in Venice. Produced for the abbey itself, the books have never left the island during [...] Read more.
This paper discusses a cross-disciplinary, international collaboration aimed at researching a series of 15th century choir books at the abbey of San Giorgio Maggiore on the homonymous island in Venice. Produced for the abbey itself, the books have never left the island during their 500-year history, thereby allowing a unique opportunity to analyse historic artefacts, which have undergone little modification over time. Prompted by ongoing cataloguing work on the manuscripts, a week-long analytical campaign using a combination of non-invasive analytical methods used in portable configuration allowed the comprehensive characterisation of ten volumes. The manuscripts’ palette and painting techniques were analysed using near-infrared imaging, reflectance spectroscopy in the UV-vis-NIR range, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence mapping and digital microscopy. The paper will discuss the challenges linked to the fragility and the large dimensions of the volumes as well as the most interesting results of the investigation. These include the detection of unusual painting materials such as bismuth ink, as well as the discovery of a less homogeneous palette than originally expected, which prompted a partial revision of the attribution of the decoration in one of the volumes to a single artist. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Analytical Chemistry in Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle
Raman Microspectroscopic Imaging of Binder Remnants in Historical Mortars Reveals Processing Conditions
Heritage 2019, 2(2), 1662-1683; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2020102
Received: 26 April 2019 / Revised: 27 May 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
Binder remnants in historical mortars represent a record of the connection between the raw materials that enter the kiln, the process parameters, and the end product of the calcination. Raman microspectroscopy combines high structural sensitivity with micrometre to sub-micrometre spatial resolution and compatibility [...] Read more.
Binder remnants in historical mortars represent a record of the connection between the raw materials that enter the kiln, the process parameters, and the end product of the calcination. Raman microspectroscopy combines high structural sensitivity with micrometre to sub-micrometre spatial resolution and compatibility with conventional thin-sectional samples in an almost unique fashion, making it an interesting complementary extension of the existing methodological arsenal for mortar analysis. Raman spectra are vibrational fingerprints of crystalline and amorphous compounds, and contain marker bands that are specific for minerals and their polymorphic forms. Relative intensities of bands that are related to the same crystalline species change according to crystal orientations, and band shifts can be caused by the incorporation of foreign ions into crystal lattices, as well as stoichiometric changes within solid solution series. Finally, variations in crystallinity affect band widths. These effects are demonstrated based on the analysis of three historical mortar samples: micrometric distribution maps of phases and polymorphs, crystal orientations, and compositional variations of solid solution series of unreacted clinker grains in the Portland cement mortars of two 19th century castings, and the crystallinities of thermal anhydrite clusters in a high-fired medieval gypsum mortar as a measure for the applied burning temperature were successfully acquired. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Analytical Chemistry in Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle
Live Your Myth in Greece: Towards the Construction of a Heritage Identity
Heritage 2019, 2(2), 1640-1661; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2020101
Received: 18 March 2019 / Revised: 4 June 2019 / Accepted: 7 June 2019 / Published: 12 June 2019
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Abstract
Nowadays, top-rated tourist attractions in Greece are ancient archaeological places and islands with blue-and-white esthetics. The country’s projected impression is greatly based on these two distinguished representations, chosen for their distinctive architecture scattered in the Greek landscape. Both imageries seem to be officially [...] Read more.
Nowadays, top-rated tourist attractions in Greece are ancient archaeological places and islands with blue-and-white esthetics. The country’s projected impression is greatly based on these two distinguished representations, chosen for their distinctive architecture scattered in the Greek landscape. Both imageries seem to be officially promoted in order to configure today’s national identity. The classical antiquities are related to the birthplace of European civilization, whereas the notion of the unspoilt archipelago with the whitewashed Cycladic houses works as a symbol of purity and eternity. The present article focuses on the analysis of these two Greek heritage scenarios and, subsequently, on their deconstruction. It aims to investigate the interaction between myth and reality and their role in forming the perception of contemporary Greece. The article argues that there is not a unique architectural history to come to light and, therefore, the highlighting of specific periods of it probably conceals intentions concerning patrimony management: selective excavation among the layers of history, historic preservation of selected buildings, and laws which impose the maintenance of certain findings or specific colors are some indicative signs. It also investigates the ways in which national heritage is directed and affected according to certain policies—local or foreign—that aim at a cultural investment in the world history. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Re-Inventing the Mediterranean Tourist City)
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Open AccessTechnical Note
Reconnecting Nature and Culture—The INCREAte Approach and Its Practical Implementation in the Island of Kythera
Heritage 2019, 2(2), 1630-1639; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2020100
Received: 9 May 2019 / Revised: 29 May 2019 / Accepted: 3 June 2019 / Published: 5 June 2019
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Abstract
Integrated Nature CultuRE Approach (INCREAte) promotes the interconnection of culture and nature. this approach primarily targeted toward nature conservation managers but is also applicable to any agent working on nature–culture issues or area and resource management. The focus of this approach is to [...] Read more.
Integrated Nature CultuRE Approach (INCREAte) promotes the interconnection of culture and nature. this approach primarily targeted toward nature conservation managers but is also applicable to any agent working on nature–culture issues or area and resource management. The focus of this approach is to guide users to design more integrated and efficient conservation projects by working on issues related to culture while also addressing stakeholders’ participation and human wellbeing. Allowing users to be selective and flexible, such issues can also be incorporated in ongoing projects, making the INCREAte approach a practice-oriented guidance and toolkit rather than a "take it or leave it" option. It was developed by the Scientific Secretariat of the Mediterranean Institute for Nature and Anthropos (MedINA) that, since 2003, promotes joint management of natural and cultural heritage and the strengthening of the diachronic relationship between humankind and nature. This approach has been successfully tested in Kythera, where a strategy for tourism has been designed through a sequence of its relevant steps. The main focus of the strategy is the development of an integrated and innovative trail network, which, coupled with the accompanying activities of the programme, is designed to reveal and sustain the natural and cultural heritage of the island. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cultural Heritage: Current Threats and Opportunities)
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Open AccessArticle
New Insights into Synthetic Copper Greens: The Search for Specific Signatures by Raman and Infrared Spectroscopy for Their Characterization in Medieval Artworks
Heritage 2019, 2(2), 1614-1629; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2020099
Received: 16 April 2019 / Revised: 22 May 2019 / Accepted: 23 May 2019 / Published: 4 June 2019
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Abstract
A systematic investigation of medieval copper green pigments was carried out based on written sources: 21 manuscripts, dating from 50–70 to 1755 AD, were sourced and 77 recipes were selected, translating into 44 experiments. Reconstructions from medieval recipes were prepared and characterized through [...] Read more.
A systematic investigation of medieval copper green pigments was carried out based on written sources: 21 manuscripts, dating from 50–70 to 1755 AD, were sourced and 77 recipes were selected, translating into 44 experiments. Reconstructions from medieval recipes were prepared and characterized through a multianalytical approach to disclose the original pigment formulation that is often described as verdigris. Based on the results obtained, we propose three main groups of copper green pigments, group 1, in which only Cu(CH3COO)2·H2O is formed; group 2, where this acetate is found together with copper oxalates; group 3, in which atacamite is present as the major green component or as a signature compound. The products formed are in perfect agreement with that predicted by the state-of-the-art research on the mechanisms of atmospheric corrosion of copper. This knowledge, together with our experience on craft recipes to prepare medieval paint materials, allowed us to recover a lost medieval recipe to produce a copper green pigment based mainly on atacamite, a basic copper chloride, which has been recently detected, by Raman and infrared spectroscopy, in artworks ranging from Catalonia and the Crown of Aragon panel painting to Islamic manuscripts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Analytical Chemistry in Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle
Sustainable Management of Underwater Cultural Heritage: The Route from Discovery to Engagement—Open Issues in the Mediterranean
Heritage 2019, 2(2), 1588-1613; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2020098
Received: 28 March 2019 / Revised: 29 May 2019 / Accepted: 30 May 2019 / Published: 3 June 2019
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Abstract
Fatal events taking place in World War (WW) I and II have left behind important historical evidence as an underwater cultural heritage (UCH) (e.g., shipwrecks, submerged aircraft, war artifacts), lying in peace at the bottom of, among others, the Mediterranean Sea. The article [...] Read more.
Fatal events taking place in World War (WW) I and II have left behind important historical evidence as an underwater cultural heritage (UCH) (e.g., shipwrecks, submerged aircraft, war artifacts), lying in peace at the bottom of, among others, the Mediterranean Sea. The article aims at exploring the challenges for UCH protection/preservation and sustainable exploitation with emphasis on this sea. UCH is so far dealt with in a “silo” approach by marine archaeologists or heritage professionals, who often ignore its potential for serving local sustainable development goals. The paper elaborates on the value, but also the complexity, multi- and inter-disciplinary as well as multi-actors’ nature of UCH management and sustainable exploitation, perceiving these as a “wicked” planning problem. It attempts to illuminate various important dimensions of this problem, such as its glocal (global/local) context; the conflicting and, in certain cases, inconsistent UCH legal protection framework, touching upon a variety of spatial scales; the contemporary policy frameworks favoring UCH management; etc. Exploration of these dimensions reveals open issues or gaps that need to be filled, and sets the ground for a more holistic and integrated UCH research and management approach for building up the yet largely untold, Mediterranean WW I and II UCH narrative; and shifting this area from a sea graveyard to a place of memory and cultural enrichment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Chemistry for Audio Heritage Preservation: A Review of Analytical Techniques for Audio Magnetic Tapes
Heritage 2019, 2(2), 1551-1587; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2020097
Received: 30 April 2019 / Revised: 20 May 2019 / Accepted: 21 May 2019 / Published: 31 May 2019
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Abstract
Vast and important cultural resources are entrusted to magnetic tape around the world, but they are susceptible to degradation, which may lead to severe replay problems. Audio magnetic tapes are complex and multicomponent devices containing organic compounds and metal systems, which can be [...] Read more.
Vast and important cultural resources are entrusted to magnetic tape around the world, but they are susceptible to degradation, which may lead to severe replay problems. Audio magnetic tapes are complex and multicomponent devices containing organic compounds and metal systems, which can be potential catalysts for many degradative reactions in the presence of water, light, or heating. The aim of this review is to collect the literature concerning the analytical determinations and instrumental approaches that can achieve the chemical identification of the components in the tape and the degradation state. Thus, a combination of destructive (such as acetone extraction) and non-destructive techniques (such as ATR FTIR spectroscopy) have been proposed, together with SEM, ESEM, XRD and TGA analyses to assess the chemical and physical characterization of the tape with the purpose to individualize restoration treatments and optimize conditions for preservation. The impact of the studies reviewed in this paper may go beyond audio, being potentially relevant to video, data, instrumentation, and logging tapes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Analytical Chemistry in Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle
ArcheoGIS for the Roman Thermal Bath of Sofiana: Informative Support for a Digital Restoration
Heritage 2019, 2(2), 1530-1550; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2020096
Received: 3 April 2019 / Revised: 17 May 2019 / Accepted: 19 May 2019 / Published: 30 May 2019
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Abstract
In connection to the vast archaeological area of Sofiana, which is still periodically subjected to excavation campaigns, the investigated thermal complex represents the first emersion that occurred in the 1950s and testifies to all the limits of a premature methodological acquisition of both [...] Read more.
In connection to the vast archaeological area of Sofiana, which is still periodically subjected to excavation campaigns, the investigated thermal complex represents the first emersion that occurred in the 1950s and testifies to all the limits of a premature methodological acquisition of both the documentation for cognition as well as the interventions of detection and restoration. This zone, considered by archaeologists as a concluded episode, was used by us as a test bench for a method of investigation from which to start again in order to supply missing information. We set aside all the information acquired over time with other traditional and innovative tools and visions and used a more accurate dimensional geometric survey with a laser scanner, a typological analysis confronted with similar experiences, and a constructive technical study enriched with diagnostic investigations, to provide new data to be collected and processed. Thus, a geographic information system (GIS) platform was chosen as an information technology (IT) tool to contain direct information and data processing. The outcomes of ArcheoGIS were used to derive the initial answers to the questions we asked ourselves, namely, how can the constantly evolving knowledge of this archaeological find be spread and what path can be taken to propose philological restorations of the portions of Sofiana to which a correct virtual disassembly is feasible? Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Capri’s Touristification. A Millennial Cultural Landscape Reinvented by Luxury Tourism
Heritage 2019, 2(2), 1509-1529; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2020095
Received: 1 March 2019 / Revised: 19 May 2019 / Accepted: 21 May 2019 / Published: 27 May 2019
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Abstract
In recent years the issue of touristification has been progressively discussed in relation to its impact on historic towns. In this regard, physical transformations and gentrification consequences are both issues often addressed. In Italy, consciousness on the subject primarily grew in relation to [...] Read more.
In recent years the issue of touristification has been progressively discussed in relation to its impact on historic towns. In this regard, physical transformations and gentrification consequences are both issues often addressed. In Italy, consciousness on the subject primarily grew in relation to Florence and Venice, both national cases widely discussed also on newspapers. The awareness of a wider range of cases affected by this problem, from big cities to small holiday destinations, is even more recent. The aim of the present paper is to address Capri’s touristification process, which started in the last decades of the nineteenth century and exploded in the second half of the twentieth century, from the point of view of the field of study of history and conservation of cultural heritage and landscape. Therefore, this process and some of its consequences on the island’s cultural landscape and identity are thoroughly analyzed. The paper starts with a brief introduction to the island and its history, which is necessary in order to highlight its rich cultural heritage and the slow pace at which Capri has grown over time as a fishermen island to suddenly transforming into a touristic destination during the last century. Finally, the current touristic vocation and the consequences on Capri’s natural and built environment are discussed, with the aim of individuating if and why there have already been losses and what should be done to prevent this negative process from going on. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Re-Inventing the Mediterranean Tourist City)
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Open AccessArticle
Archeological Heritage in the Area of the Jewish Ghetto in Rome: Surveying and Reading Among Archetypes and Memories of the Past
Heritage 2019, 2(2), 1499-1508; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2020094
Received: 9 April 2019 / Revised: 13 May 2019 / Accepted: 14 May 2019 / Published: 26 May 2019
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Abstract
This paper, part of a larger project of the Faculty of Should it be 00186Engineering of the International Telematic University UNINETTUNO (PRIN2010PEA4H8, Research Plan of National Interest, co-financed by the Italian Ministry for University Research), aims to provide documentation on the historical and [...] Read more.
This paper, part of a larger project of the Faculty of Should it be 00186Engineering of the International Telematic University UNINETTUNO (PRIN2010PEA4H8, Research Plan of National Interest, co-financed by the Italian Ministry for University Research), aims to provide documentation on the historical and archeological relevance of the Jewish Ghetto area in Rome, which is a site with numerous extraordinary features and memory traces of the past. The methodology adopted was mainly based on surveying activity—urban, architectural, and archeological—as well as the subsequent comparison of data obtained, investigating, and cataloging this tangible historical heritage and its relations with the archaeological heritage using the instruments of representation and surveying. Additionally, a different approach aimed at identifying a link between the subjective narration of the historical city and its objective description through the integration of digital methods of the cataloging and management of cultural heritage is applied. Full article
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Open AccessReview
A Survey of Geospatial Semantic Web for Cultural Heritage
Heritage 2019, 2(2), 1471-1498; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2020093
Received: 23 April 2019 / Revised: 13 May 2019 / Accepted: 16 May 2019 / Published: 20 May 2019
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Abstract
The amount of digital cultural heritage data produced by cultural heritage institutions is growing rapidly. Digital cultural heritage repositories have therefore become an efficient and effective way to disseminate and exploit digital cultural heritage data. However, many digital cultural heritage repositories worldwide share [...] Read more.
The amount of digital cultural heritage data produced by cultural heritage institutions is growing rapidly. Digital cultural heritage repositories have therefore become an efficient and effective way to disseminate and exploit digital cultural heritage data. However, many digital cultural heritage repositories worldwide share technical challenges such as data integration and interoperability among national and regional digital cultural heritage repositories. The result is dispersed and poorly-linked cultured heritage data, backed by non-standardized search interfaces, which thwart users’ attempts to contextualize information from distributed repositories. A recently introduced geospatial semantic web is being adopted by a great many new and existing digital cultural heritage repositories to overcome these challenges. However, no one has yet conducted a conceptual survey of the geospatial semantic web concepts for a cultural heritage audience. A conceptual survey of these concepts pertinent to the cultural heritage field is, therefore, needed. Such a survey equips cultural heritage professionals and practitioners with an overview of all the necessary tools, and free and open source semantic web and geospatial semantic web platforms that can be used to implement geospatial semantic web-based cultural heritage repositories. Hence, this article surveys the state-of-the-art geospatial semantic web concepts, which are pertinent to the cultural heritage field. It then proposes a framework to turn geospatial cultural heritage data into machine-readable and processable resource description framework (RDF) data to use in the geospatial semantic web, with a case study to demonstrate its applicability. Furthermore, it outlines key free and open source semantic web and geospatial semantic platforms for cultural heritage institutions. In addition, it examines leading cultural heritage projects employing the geospatial semantic web. Finally, the article discusses attributes of the geospatial semantic web that require more attention, that can result in generating new ideas and research questions for both the geospatial semantic web and cultural heritage fields. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Unexpected Architectures. Restorations in Romagna Between the Two World Wars
Heritage 2019, 2(2), 1460-1470; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2020092
Received: 10 April 2019 / Revised: 12 May 2019 / Accepted: 14 May 2019 / Published: 19 May 2019
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Abstract
The research here presented is a critical appraisal of some restoration works carried out between the two World Wars in a particular geographic context, which is the Romagna district, in the Northeast of Italy. Starting from two case studies (the Casa del Fascio [...] Read more.
The research here presented is a critical appraisal of some restoration works carried out between the two World Wars in a particular geographic context, which is the Romagna district, in the Northeast of Italy. Starting from two case studies (the Casa del Fascio in Forlì and the Malatesta Library in Cesena) and thanks to the analysis of bibliographical sources, archival documents, and drawings, this research aims at understanding how broader and major theories about architectural restoration are articulated in peripheral background. What emerges are unexpected results: Late and deeply contextualized operations, strongly linked with the national panorama but at the same time chasing for the revival of their own history. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heritage Preservation: Art-Architecture-Archaeology-Landscape)
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Open AccessCase Report
A Multidisciplinary Conservation Project for the Cavallerizza Courtyard, Palazzo Ducale di Mantova
Heritage 2019, 2(2), 1441-1459; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2020091
Received: 1 April 2019 / Revised: 29 April 2019 / Accepted: 13 May 2019 / Published: 16 May 2019
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Abstract
The “Palazzo Ducale” museum complex in Mantua has been the object of intermittent interventions, which have not represented, over the last 30 years, a consistent strategy in terms of conservation. In the light of new financial and technological possibilities, a renewed management synergy [...] Read more.
The “Palazzo Ducale” museum complex in Mantua has been the object of intermittent interventions, which have not represented, over the last 30 years, a consistent strategy in terms of conservation. In the light of new financial and technological possibilities, a renewed management synergy has been activated: better operative decisions and the application of innovative tools are the core of this attitude. The article illustrates the path of knowledge activated in the museum’s “Cortile della Cavallerizza”: from archival research, geometrical survey and diagnostic analysis, up to the executive design of its conservative project. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Rapid Condition Surveys of Archaeological Excavations: Training Professionals in Two Minoan Sites on East Crete, Greece
Heritage 2019, 2(2), 1423-1440; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2020090
Received: 31 March 2019 / Revised: 11 May 2019 / Accepted: 13 May 2019 / Published: 16 May 2019
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Abstract
Over the past century, monumental architecture has been at the center of attention of heritage professionals, stakeholders, and the public. On the contrary, vernacular architecture, which constitutes the majority of our built heritage, especially at rural sites in the provinces of Greece and [...] Read more.
Over the past century, monumental architecture has been at the center of attention of heritage professionals, stakeholders, and the public. On the contrary, vernacular architecture, which constitutes the majority of our built heritage, especially at rural sites in the provinces of Greece and other Mediterranean countries, has been mostly neglected and often has fallen into disarray. As a result, we now witness the severe degradation of several important settlements, which are threatened due to long exposure to the elements and lack of conservation, maintenance, and management plans. Since 2015, the Architectural Conservation Laboratory, University of West Attica, organizes a field-training program at the Minoan sites of Mochlos and Pseira on East Crete, aimed at addressing the challenges of vernacular architecture and raising awareness. The program provides on-the-job training opportunities to heritage professionals in surveying, assessing, and documenting the condition of architectural remains and finally establishing the conservation priorities. This paper discusses the approaches and the goals of the program, as well as the potential for the integration of cost-effective digital documentation techniques, such as photogrammetry, into the systematic monitoring of archaeological sites under threat. The preliminary results of the condition survey of Pseira and the challenges in the application of image-based 3D modeling on site are also reported. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mapping Cultural Heritage in Coastal Areas with UAS: The Case Study of Lesvos Island
Heritage 2019, 2(2), 1404-1422; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2020089
Received: 31 March 2019 / Revised: 5 May 2019 / Accepted: 6 May 2019 / Published: 12 May 2019
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Abstract
Dynamic processes in coastal zones and human activities in the coastal environment produce pressure on cultural heritage, especially in touristic places. Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are used as an additional tool for monitoring cultural heritage sites in sensitive coastal areas. UASs provide low-cost [...] Read more.
Dynamic processes in coastal zones and human activities in the coastal environment produce pressure on cultural heritage, especially in touristic places. Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are used as an additional tool for monitoring cultural heritage sites in sensitive coastal areas. UASs provide low-cost accurate spatial data and high-resolution imagery products in various spatial and temporal scales. The use of UAS for mapping cultural heritage sites in the coastal zone is of increasing interest among scientists and archaeologists in terms of monitoring, documentation, mapping, and restoration. This study outlines the integration of UAS data acquisition and structure from motion (SfM) pipeline for the visualization of selected cultural heritage areas (ancient harbors) in the coastal zone. The UAS-SfM methodology produces very detailed orthophoto maps for mapping and detecting cultural heritage sites. Additionally, a metadata cataloging system has been developed in order to facilitate online searching operations for all products of the data acquisition, SfM pipeline, and cartographic processes. For this reason, a specific metadata profile was implemented, based on the European INSPIRE framework. As a result, datasets reusability and catalogs interoperability are promoted. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Recognizing the Values of Kashan Historic Urban Context for Achieving Appropriate Regeneration (Case Study: Sarpelleh Passageway)
Heritage 2019, 2(2), 1390-1403; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2020088
Received: 26 February 2019 / Revised: 27 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 April 2019 / Published: 10 May 2019
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Abstract
This paper aims to identify the values of the historical context of Kashan city (Iran) and apply them in its regeneration process, and develop planning methods based on international perspectives and local experiences in Iran. The values and features should be carefully examined [...] Read more.
This paper aims to identify the values of the historical context of Kashan city (Iran) and apply them in its regeneration process, and develop planning methods based on international perspectives and local experiences in Iran. The values and features should be carefully examined by evaluation methods, allowing for the transmission of urban context values to the future. This study will use an appropriate methodology to achieve a validated document based on values and their indicators, allowing for regeneration of the Sarpelleh historic neighborhood. We have divided the purposes of the current research into two levels: First, identification of the values of the historic context of Kashan and then providing an appropriate compatible pattern with contemporary contextual values in different dimensions; second, focusing on designing a cultural and historical axis to represent the values that are compatible with contemporary needs. The outcomes of this research are a clear indication of the values of the Sarpelleh historic neighborhood in three main categories: (1) historical and social values; (2) environmental and physical values; and (3) economic values—the regeneration plans of which are proposed in three alternatives. Note that the proposed regeneration plan balances all of the identified values, without neglecting any of them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heritage Preservation: Art-Architecture-Archaeology-Landscape)
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Open AccessArticle
Permeability and Surface Hardness Surveying of Stone Damaged by Ballistic Impact
Heritage 2019, 2(2), 1369-1389; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2020087
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 25 April 2019 / Accepted: 5 May 2019 / Published: 8 May 2019
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Abstract
Recent instances of the destruction of cultural assets in conflict zones have demonstrated the need to develop methods which will allow for the assessment of damage to heritage stone in the field. In particular, non-destructive methods would be invaluable when working on sites [...] Read more.
Recent instances of the destruction of cultural assets in conflict zones have demonstrated the need to develop methods which will allow for the assessment of damage to heritage stone in the field. In particular, non-destructive methods would be invaluable when working on sites damaged by contemporary ballistics. Permeability (TinyPerm 3) and surface hardness (Equotip) surveys of stone damaged by 7.62 × 39 mm (AK-47) projectiles were undertaken to determine the ability of these methods to identify the spatial distribution of damage patterns such as shear faces and surface fractures. Results demonstrate the ability of surface hardness surveys to distinguish between non-impacted surfaces of the target stone and surfaces which shattered/sheared upon impact. Whilst spatial distribution analysis (“heat mapping”) of Equotip data did not correlate directly with surface fractures, permeability data heat maps were found to be indicative of surface fracture distribution. The data suggests that compaction of the stone matrix at the impact crater results in a lesser reduction of hardness in this area relative to the wider damaged surface. Surveys of impacted stone using the methods outlined here can identify damage patterns that are not visible to the naked eye, thus aiding in damage identification on fragile sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geology and Heritage: From Natural to Built Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle
A Usable and People-Friendly Cultural Heritage: MAGNA Project, on the Route from Greece to Magna Graecia
Heritage 2019, 2(2), 1350-1368; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2020086
Received: 26 March 2019 / Revised: 2 May 2019 / Accepted: 3 May 2019 / Published: 7 May 2019
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Abstract
The Western civilization is deeply rooted in the Ancient Greece culture; political, scientific, technological and philosophic knowledge were born in this epoch. Their diffusion was improved upon by the Greek expansionist policy in colonies of Magna Graecia in Mediterranean Basin, leaving important archaeological [...] Read more.
The Western civilization is deeply rooted in the Ancient Greece culture; political, scientific, technological and philosophic knowledge were born in this epoch. Their diffusion was improved upon by the Greek expansionist policy in colonies of Magna Graecia in Mediterranean Basin, leaving important archaeological traces for the community. In this context, the European project “MAGNA, on the route from Greece to Magna Graecia” seeks to develop a transnational thematic touristic route between Greece and the Ionian coast of Calabria (Southern Italy), an ancient Magna Graecia colony, on the basis of cultural and historical connections between these two Mediterranean areas. The project aims to promote the touristic development of the Greek and Calabrian archaeological sites through dissemination activities. These will concern scientific subjects regarding the conservation of cultural heritage, both in sub-aerial and underwater environments; and study of the sea floor, and pollution of seawater by microplastics. This touristic product consists of cruises on a ship equipped with scientific instruments that offer unique cultural experiences, accompanied by multimedia supports. Experts drive people in the proposed activities, creating more awareness of sustainable and responsible tourism. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ground Penetrating Radar Investigation of Corvin Castle (Castelul Corvinilor), Hunedoara, Romania
Heritage 2019, 2(2), 1316-1349; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2020085
Received: 14 March 2019 / Revised: 15 April 2019 / Accepted: 22 April 2019 / Published: 6 May 2019
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Abstract
Corvin Castle, located in Hunedoara County (Transylvania), is an important Romanian cultural site. Originally, a fort constructed in the 14th century, it was first converted into a castle by Ioan de Hunedoara in the 15th century, frequently changing owners (with significant construction in [...] Read more.
Corvin Castle, located in Hunedoara County (Transylvania), is an important Romanian cultural site. Originally, a fort constructed in the 14th century, it was first converted into a castle by Ioan de Hunedoara in the 15th century, frequently changing owners (with significant construction in the 15th and 17th centuries) until it was abandoned in the mid-19th century. After undergoing various ill-fated reconstruction efforts in the late 19th century, the castle reopened in the 1950s when the Romanian government renewed its interest in cultural sites and undertook a series of sparsely-documented archaeological investigations and conservation projects. Presently, restoration efforts require renewed investigation of Corvin Castle’s construction and history. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a promising tool for investigating the construction phases of heritage structures like Corvin Castle, where invasive methods are inappropriate and extensive historical modification has left incomplete records. In 2017, a comprehensive GPR survey of the castle was conducted. The survey recognizes features mentioned in texts, discovers previously unknown constructions, locates areas of moisture ingress around the courtyard, and identifies the extent and composition of the building foundations. Information gained from these scans, especially combined with printed sources, is an asset in planning restoration efforts and understanding the effects of past modifications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
New and Emerging Challenges to Heritage and Well-Being: A Critical Review
Heritage 2019, 2(2), 1300-1315; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2020084
Received: 20 April 2019 / Revised: 30 April 2019 / Accepted: 2 May 2019 / Published: 4 May 2019
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Abstract
In the past decade, scholarship has documented the ways in which interacting with different forms of heritage impact individual and/or community well-being, as well as the harm to human well-being that occurs when heritage is damaged or destroyed. We bring the results of [...] Read more.
In the past decade, scholarship has documented the ways in which interacting with different forms of heritage impact individual and/or community well-being, as well as the harm to human well-being that occurs when heritage is damaged or destroyed. We bring the results of a review of this literature together, defining both heritage and well-being in relation to each other and exploring the relationship between heritage and well-being. New and emerging threats to heritage and, in turn, well-being are outlined, as well as new ways of preserving heritage for future generations. The future of heritage is discussed along with the importance of the concept of “living heritage”. We conclude that heritage is essential for contemporary and future well-being, and that if we do not better care for heritage then human health will be negatively impacted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle
‘Gavdos: The House’. A Theatre/Archaeology Narrative and Pieces of Knowledge of Diachronic Home Life
Heritage 2019, 2(2), 1286-1299; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2020083
Received: 1 February 2019 / Revised: 24 April 2019 / Accepted: 26 April 2019 / Published: 1 May 2019
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Abstract
At the site called Katalymata, on the island of Gavdos off the south western Cretan shores, the University of Crete is excavating a spacious building complex dating back to the Bronze Age (3rd and mainly 2nd millennia BC). In this paper, we discuss [...] Read more.
At the site called Katalymata, on the island of Gavdos off the south western Cretan shores, the University of Crete is excavating a spacious building complex dating back to the Bronze Age (3rd and mainly 2nd millennia BC). In this paper, we discuss a theatrical performance inspired by this discovery and investigation, which was first presented in situ on the field in 2012. The play was created by young members of the research team, who are themselves both archaeologists and actors. It is based on the accounts in the excavation notebooks of the prehistoric activities revealed in the building’s stratigraphy and enlivened by the memories of the modern islanders of their happenings at home. It also draws upon wider cognitive pieces of relevant knowledge—philosophical, literary and other. This combination was moulded to produce a structured narrative of domestic life on the island through time, and illustrate some specific aspects and overall meanings, material and symbolic, of ‘dwelling’ down the ages. Since its Gavdiot premiere, the work has been adapted for different media to travel in Greece and elsewhere in Europe, as a performative guided tour played in historic houses, as a lecture performance for conferences and art venues, and as an audiovisual installation in museums of contemporary art. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Senses of Place, Senses of Past: The Case of Antikythera and its Castle, Greece
Heritage 2019, 2(2), 1274-1285; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2020082
Received: 20 March 2019 / Revised: 12 April 2019 / Accepted: 25 April 2019 / Published: 29 April 2019
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Abstract
This article explores local perceptions towards an archaeological site on the Greek island of Antikythera, known as ‘Castle’, within the context of recent calls for the development of the island through heritage tourism. As the identification of such perceptions is a fundamental step [...] Read more.
This article explores local perceptions towards an archaeological site on the Greek island of Antikythera, known as ‘Castle’, within the context of recent calls for the development of the island through heritage tourism. As the identification of such perceptions is a fundamental step in tourism planning we will reflect on data gathered during an ethnographic study funded by the post-doctoral scheme of the Greek State Scholarship Foundation. Our purpose was to examine how local perceptions of the island and its landscape, as a whole, define the ways in which the archaeological ‘Castle’ of Antikythera is perceived. We observed that positive or negative attitudes towards the archaeology of the island are strongly interlinked with positive or negative feelings for the island in general. Since most studies focus on the role of heritage in shaping a sense of place, we hope that this article will offer a new insight into the role of place in shaping heritage perceptions. We also hope that the findings of the research will inform future decisions on tourism development and its impact (potential risks or opportunities) on the sense of place. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Re-Inventing the Mediterranean Tourist City)
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Open AccessArticle
Giving Diligence Its Due: Accessing Digital Images in Indigenous Repatriation Efforts
Heritage 2019, 2(2), 1260-1273; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2020081
Received: 18 February 2019 / Revised: 12 April 2019 / Accepted: 22 April 2019 / Published: 27 April 2019
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Abstract
An increasing volume of images is available online, but barriers such as digital locks, proprietary interests and narrow scope of information uploaded to image databases maintain structures that have impeded repatriation efforts in the real world. Images of objects (cultural material) in the [...] Read more.
An increasing volume of images is available online, but barriers such as digital locks, proprietary interests and narrow scope of information uploaded to image databases maintain structures that have impeded repatriation efforts in the real world. Images of objects (cultural material) in the digital environment support cultural heritage. Institutions are developing complex solutions relevant in the network environment to further repatriation initiatives. These solutions facilitate discovery, opening avenues for research into the ethics of ownership that cross the physical/digital divide. There have been calls for strengthening the potential for use of pertinent information in order to protect and recover cultural heritage through increased visibility. However, some museums still limit access to images. We examine the issues and their implications referencing case studies specific to Indigenous, Inuit and Métis peoples of Canada. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Effect of Fire on Building Materials: The Case-Study of the Varnakova Monastery Cells in Central Greece
Heritage 2019, 2(2), 1233-1259; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2020080
Received: 21 February 2019 / Revised: 16 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 20 April 2019
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Abstract
The evaluation of the fire impact on building materials is of great scientific and socio-economic importance since fire can result in materials’ chemical and mechanical alterations, which leads to structural stability problems of historical and/or modern construction. This highly increases the cost of [...] Read more.
The evaluation of the fire impact on building materials is of great scientific and socio-economic importance since fire can result in materials’ chemical and mechanical alterations, which leads to structural stability problems of historical and/or modern construction. This highly increases the cost of rehabilitation interventions. The case study of the Byzantine Monastery of Panagia (Virgin Mary) Varnakova is an example of the fire effect on both historical and newer stone masonries. The Varnakova Monastery is a typical 19th century monastic complex and, during its long history, it has undergone multiple reconstructions after major catastrophic events that have taken place due to its strategic geographical position and its financial and spiritual significance for the region. The last big-scale renovation of the Monastery was conducted between the years 1992 to 2014. However, in January 2017, a devastating fire destroyed the largest part of the monastic cells’ quarter. In this work, a diagnostic study of the different construction phases’ materials comprising the masonries of the monastery cells in their present state is presented. The examination of a series of samples through analytical techniques, such as optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, and total immersion tests, along with the use of non-destructive techniques in situ, such as Infra Red Thermography, Digital Microscopy, and Schmidt Hammer Rebound tests, shed light on the preservation state and on the decay of the diverse building materials. In addition, the impact of the fire on their properties was investigated. The results reveal the diversity of the materials used in the historical masonries throughout the centuries, while the combination of analytical and non-destructive techniques demonstrates the damages induced by the fire. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Multidisciplinary Approach for Historic Buildings Diagnosis: The Case Study of the Kaisariani Monastery
Heritage 2019, 2(2), 1211-1232; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2020079
Received: 22 February 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 20 April 2019
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Abstract
In this work, a multi-disciplinary approach regarding diagnostic study processes is presented, using as an example the Catholicon of Kaisariani Monastery in Attica, Greece. Kaisariani Monastery is considered one of the most important Byzantine architectural complexes in Greece. The Catholicon of Kaisariani Monastery [...] Read more.
In this work, a multi-disciplinary approach regarding diagnostic study processes is presented, using as an example the Catholicon of Kaisariani Monastery in Attica, Greece. Kaisariani Monastery is considered one of the most important Byzantine architectural complexes in Greece. The Catholicon of Kaisariani Monastery was built during the middle Byzantine period, and has undergone many reconstructions during the centuries. It is a semi-complex, four-columned, cross-in-square church, with a cloisonné masonry. The suggested diagnostic processes included the creation of multidisciplinary thematic maps in Computer Aided Design (CAD) environment, which incorporated: (a) data of historical and architectural documentation; (b) data of geometric documentation; and (c) data of building materials characterization and decay diagnosis. The historical and general architectural data were acquired by thorough bibliographical/archival research. Geometric documentation data were acquired by three-dimensional (3D) laser scanner for the creation of the Catholicon section drawings, whereas image based photogrammetric techniques were utilized for the creation of a 3D textured model, from which orthoimages and architectural drawings of the Catholicon façades were developed. In parallel, characterization of building materials and identification of decay patterns took place after the onsite application of the nondestructive techniques of digital microscopy, infrared thermography and ground penetrating radar. These vast array kinds of data were elaborated and integrated into the architectural drawings, developing thematic maps that record and represent the current preservation state of the monument, a concerning major construction phases, the most important conservation intervention projects, building materials and decay. Furthermore, data quantification regarding the extent of building materials and decay at each monument’s façade took place. Therefore, correlation and better understanding of the environmental impact on building materials according to façade orientation and historical data, e.g., construction phases, was accomplished. In conclusion, the presented processes are multidisciplinary tasks that require collaboration among architects, surveyor engineers and materials scientists/engineers. They are also prerequisites for the planning and application of compatible and efficient conservation/restoration interventions, for the ultimate goal of the sustainable protection of a monument. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Ontological Approach to the Description of Visual and Iconographical Representations
Heritage 2019, 2(2), 1191-1210; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2020078
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 7 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 20 April 2019
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Abstract
The perception of our heritage is based on sign-functions, which relate visual representations to cognitive types, allowing us to make perceptual judgements over physical objects. The recording of these types of assertions is paramount for the comprehension and analysis of our heritage. The [...] Read more.
The perception of our heritage is based on sign-functions, which relate visual representations to cognitive types, allowing us to make perceptual judgements over physical objects. The recording of these types of assertions is paramount for the comprehension and analysis of our heritage. The article investigates a theoretical framework for the organization of information related to visual works on the basis of the identity and symbolic value of their single constituent elements. The framework developed is then used as a driver for the grounding of a new ontology called VIR (Visual Representation), constructed as an extension of CIDOC-CRM (CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model). VIR sustains the recording of statements about the different structural units and relationships of a visual representation, differentiating between object and interpretative act. The result, tested with data describing Byzantine and Renaissance artworks, presents solutions for describing symbols and meanings of iconographical objects, providing new clustering methods in relation to their constitutive elements, subjects or interpretations. Full article
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