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Volume 36, SIPMO 2019
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Proceedings, 2019, TropAg 2019

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Open AccessAbstract
Impact of Soil Water Stress at Seed Development Stage on Phenology, Fecundity and Seed Dormancy of Avena sterilis ssp. ludoviciana
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036001 - 24 Dec 2019
Viewed by 177
Abstract
Wild oat (Avena sterilis ssp. ludoviciana (Durieu) Nyman) is considered the most difficult-to-control winter weed in the northern grain region (NGR) of Australia particularly following the adoption of no-till conservation agriculture and the enhanced reliance on herbicides for weed control. A diversity [...] Read more.
Wild oat (Avena sterilis ssp. ludoviciana (Durieu) Nyman) is considered the most difficult-to-control winter weed in the northern grain region (NGR) of Australia particularly following the adoption of no-till conservation agriculture and the enhanced reliance on herbicides for weed control. A diversity of survival mechanisms is responsible for its persistence in no-till conservation cropping. Among them long-term, variable seed dormancy is the most important. A number of environmental stresses (for example drought) are known to affect the seed dormancy status. We hypothesized that the increasing frequency of hot and dry period in late winter/early spring season in the NGR might help to mature and shed less dormant wild oat seeds before the wheat crop is harvested. This early shedding of highly germinable seed better aids persistence in no-till conservation cropping systems. Our research showed that soil water stress applied at seed development stage resulted in lower number (16–22% less) of early maturing (5–20 days earlier) less dormant (28% less) seeds compared with control plants. This observation was made for a number of biotypes either coming from within one location or between locations within the NGR. Thus, the frequent hot and dry period at the time of seed development in the NGR is responsible for production of less dormant Avena sterilis ssp. ludoviciana seeds where no-till conservation cropping is helping to retain these seeds on the top soil. Under favourable germination conditions in the following season these less dormant seeds will immediately be available to re-infest the autumn/winter-sown wheat crop. Full article
Open AccessAbstract
The Role of Leadership and Local Ownership in Research 4 Development (R4D) Projects
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036002 - 24 Dec 2019
Viewed by 157
Abstract
All researchers for development struggle to achieve lasting results on the ground. Regardless of the introduced technology, the fundamental basis for achieving lasting results involves: 1) strategic project leadership, 2) local ownership of research objectives, research design, outputs and overall results, and 3) [...] Read more.
All researchers for development struggle to achieve lasting results on the ground. Regardless of the introduced technology, the fundamental basis for achieving lasting results involves: 1) strategic project leadership, 2) local ownership of research objectives, research design, outputs and overall results, and 3) local leadership and management of activities and finances. To support lasting results, research tools can assist in communicating the complexities of an introduced technology and can guide stakeholder interactions to bridge knowledge systems and create common understandings and new hybrid knowledge systems. We highlight a transdisciplinary process used to co-create a Research Discussion Tool and identification of 9 thematic areas which, in combination, enabled obstacles to technology uptake to be overcome and farmers to benefit from research-based innovations. The process involved assisting local researchers and extension agents to co-develop solutions, strategies and methods to improve technology uptake by farmers in Lao PDR, using a series of change management interventions. A complex ecology of factors involving farmers’ decision drivers and farmers’ decision enablers within farmers’ production systems influence technology uptake. The relative importance of each factor is dependent on the specific technology that is being introduced. Hence, projects that introduce new technologies grapple to address all relevant factors and often do not have the ability to deal with the complex array of factors that are at play. Co-constructed knowledge embeds local knowledge that becomes accessible to projects. The approach also has the potential to harness collaborative exchanges with other projects in similar geographical regions. Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Harnessing Asexual Seed Formation to Preserve Hybrid Vigour and Complex Yield Traits
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036003 - 24 Dec 2019
Viewed by 139
Abstract
Efficiencies in plant breeding can fast-track the development of high yielding, resilient seeds to
support food requirements of a growing world population. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Integrating Crop Modelling, Physiology, Genetics and Breeding to Aid Crop Improvement for Changing Environments in the Australian Wheatbelt
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036004 - 24 Dec 2019
Viewed by 154
Abstract
Despite recent progress in genetics, genomics, and phenotyping, trait selection is limited by our ability to predict genotype x environment interactions, and to identify impactful traits for target environments. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Recent Trends in Drought, Heat and Frost-Induced Yield Losses Across the Australian Wheatbelt
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036005 - 24 Dec 2019
Viewed by 125
Abstract
While global food demand is projected to grow by 50–80% by 2050, Australia is expected to continue its significant contribution to global food security. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Fall Armyworm Invasion and Impact in Africa
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036006 - 25 Dec 2019
Viewed by 162
Abstract
Maize is a major staple food crop grown in diverse ecological zones and consumed by many [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Prepartum Supplementation to Improve Transfer of Passive Immunity and Growth
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036007 - 26 Dec 2019
Viewed by 180
Abstract
Late pregnant cows often experience nutritional stress in northern Australia, which reduces
colostrum secretion, health, and likelihood of survival of neonatal calves [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Foliar Nutrient Management on Potato Grown under Zero Tillage and Mulching in Coastal Saline Soil of West Bengal, India
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036008 - 26 Dec 2019
Viewed by 188
Abstract
: The Costal Saline Zone (CSZ) of West Bengal, India is dominated by rice-fallow-fallow system cropping system. Only 4% of the cultivated area of the coastal zone can be irrigated with available sweet water. To cope up with the present situation is introduction [...] Read more.
: The Costal Saline Zone (CSZ) of West Bengal, India is dominated by rice-fallow-fallow system cropping system. Only 4% of the cultivated area of the coastal zone can be irrigated with available sweet water. To cope up with the present situation is introduction of new high value crops to catch the fallow winter period emphasizing on water saving technologies. In this way mono-cropped saline soils of coastal region can be converted into multiple cropping through the adoption of zero tillage potato technology. Soils of the CSZ show multi-nutritional deficiencies and these deficiencies adversely affect the crop. To address this issue, field experiment was conducted in winter season of 2016–2018 in CSZ of West Bengal, India with the focal objectives of studying the feasibility of potato under zero-tilled-mulched condition in CSZ of West Bengal; assessing the effect of foliar nutrient management practices on growth, yield, quality and economics of potato. The foliar nutritional supplementation with 2% Urea at 30 & 50 days after planting (DAP) of potato along with 0.1% Boron at 30 DAP not only increased tuber number and yield but also quality parameters of potato tuber such as TSS, tuber hardness, vitamin C etc. were significantly increased. It may thus be concluded that 2% Urea at 30 & 50 at DAP of potato along with 0.1% Boron at 30 DAP as foliar application is the best foliar nutrient management option for potato grown under zero tillage and mulching in coastal saline soils of West Bengal, India. Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Clay Nanoparticles Facilitate Delivery of Antiviral RNA for Crop Protection
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036009 - 26 Dec 2019
Viewed by 136
Abstract
Recently, nanotechnology, biotechnology and agriculture are gradually integrated into [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Iron Responsive Genes in Rice: The Multiple Roles of WRKY Factors
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036010 - 27 Dec 2019
Viewed by 166
Abstract
The rice crop is one of the most important worldwide. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract
RNAi-Mediated Management of Whitefly Bemisia tabaci by Oral Delivery of Double-stranded RNAs
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036011 - 27 Dec 2019
Viewed by 195
Abstract
The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a significant global pest of economically important vegetable, fibre, and ornamental crops. Whiteflies directly damage the plants by piercing and sucking essential nutrients, indirectly through honeydew secretion and by transmitting more than 200 plant viruses that [...] Read more.
The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a significant global pest of economically important vegetable, fibre, and ornamental crops. Whiteflies directly damage the plants by piercing and sucking essential nutrients, indirectly through honeydew secretion and by transmitting more than 200 plant viruses that cause millions of dollars in produce losses per year. Whitefly management is mostly reliant on the heavy use of chemical insecticides. However, this ultimately leads to increasing resistance development, detrimental effects on beneficial insects and biomagnification of ecologically harmful chemicals in the environment. Responding to consumer demands for more selective, less toxic, non-GM insect control strategies, RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a potential game-changing solution. The RNA interference (RNAi) is a homology-dependent mechanism of gene silencing that represents a feasible and sustainable technology for the management of insect pests. In the present study, twenty-two whitefly genes were selected based on their essential function in the insect and tested in artificial diet bioassays for mortality and gene silencing efficacy. The nine most effective dsRNA constructs showed moderate-to-high whitefly mortality as compared to negative controls six days post-feeding. qPCR analysis further demonstrated significant knockdown of target gene mRNA expression. Additionally, uptake and spread of fluorescently labelled dsRNA was evident beyond the midgut of the whitefly supporting the systemic spreading of RNAi effectors. Taken together, the oral delivery of dsRNA shows effective RNAi mediated gene silencing of target genes and offers a viable approach for the development of dsRNA biopesticides against hemipteran pest. Full article
Open AccessAbstract
The Effect of Water Stress Combined with a Heatwave on Reproduction and Yield of Roma-VF Tomatoes
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036012 - 27 Dec 2019
Viewed by 179
Abstract
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is one of the most consumed fruits, supplying humanity with both economic and nutritional benefits. However, its production is affected significantly by climatic conditions especially extreme weather events, such as heat waves, flooding and drought. The objective of [...] Read more.
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is one of the most consumed fruits, supplying humanity with both economic and nutritional benefits. However, its production is affected significantly by climatic conditions especially extreme weather events, such as heat waves, flooding and drought. The objective of this study was to evaluate the additively combined effects of heat and water stresses on the reproductive traits and yield of Roma-VF tomato variety. Pollen morphology, number of developed flowers, fruits and aerial biomass were monitored. At five weeks after sowing, the tomato plants were subjected to day/night temperatures of 28/20 °C as a control treatment and 35/23 °C as the heat stress treatment. The water stress was imposed by reducing the water received by plants in each 10-L plastic pot to 70% soil field capacity (moderate stress) and 40% (severe stress). The stress lasted for eight weeks, which was followed by five weeks of recovery period. Our results showed that plants under additively combined heat stress with either moderate or severe water stress produced flowers with no single pollens during the treatment period. We also found that Roma-VF tomato has a high plasticity in response to this particular heat stress for vegetative growth when well irrigated, but when heat and water stresses were additively combined the plants became highly susceptible. This is also the first report of yield response of Roma-VF tomatoes to the additively combined effect of heat and water stressors. Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Drivers of Phosphorus Efficiency in Tropical and Subtropical Cropping Systems
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036013 - 30 Dec 2019
Viewed by 119
Abstract
Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient but is commonly limiting for food production in tropical
and subtropical maize cropping [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Diversity of Domestication Loci in Wild Rice Populations
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036014 - 30 Dec 2019
Viewed by 133
Abstract
Domestication syndrome, i.e. seed shattering, seed dormancy and plant architecture have been selected during the domestication of wild rice around 10,000 years ago. These traits evolved through a series of genomic modifications, including selection of nucleotide polymorphisms resulting from spontaneous mutations, recombination, and [...] Read more.
Domestication syndrome, i.e. seed shattering, seed dormancy and plant architecture have been selected during the domestication of wild rice around 10,000 years ago. These traits evolved through a series of genomic modifications, including selection of nucleotide polymorphisms resulting from spontaneous mutations, recombination, and fixation of alleles and were incorporated into cultivated rice by hybridization or introgression. The Australian wild rice populations are geographically and genetically distinct and free from genetic exchange with cultivated rice unlike the wild populations in Asia. Furthermore, recent studies reveal they have numerous traits of value and unique alleles. Therefore, these populations seem to be suitable to use to investigate the genetic basis of domestication traits as well as other important traits. In this study, we aim to determine the origin and role of domestication loci using two Australian wild populations: Taxa A (like Oryza rufipogon) and Taxa B (like Oryza meridionalis) endemic near Cairns, Northern Queensland. To do so, firstly, we will analyse the variation of domestication loci in these two wild populations by the comparison with cultivated rice (Oryza sativa spp. japonica cv. Nipponbare) using the whole genome sequencing. Secondly, we will look at the gene expression of the domestication loci at different seed development stages using transcriptomics. Thirdly, we will determine the variation of starch synthesis related genes using whole genome sequencing. Next generation sequencing along with a set of bioinformatics tools will be applied. This research may enlighten our understanding about the domestication process as well as provide insights into how to domesticate these species through genetic manipulation for commercial purpose. Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Farmers’ Perceptions of Salinity for Ensuring Food Security: Evidence from Coastal Rice-Growing Areas of Bangladesh
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036015 - 30 Dec 2019
Viewed by 121
Abstract
Achieving SDGs by 2030 such as “No poverty, zero hunger, good health” is the main priority for policy planning in Bangladesh. Key challenges faced in achieving these goals is encountered in the agricultural sector. This research focused on farmers’ perception of salinity and [...] Read more.
Achieving SDGs by 2030 such as “No poverty, zero hunger, good health” is the main priority for policy planning in Bangladesh. Key challenges faced in achieving these goals is encountered in the agricultural sector. This research focused on farmers’ perception of salinity and their management strategies, and the implications for policy makers to sustain rice production in the coastal areas of Bangladesh. Household survey data was collected from randomly selected 108 rice farming families from two south-west south-east coastal sub-districts. Semi-structured and pre-tested questionnaire were used to collect data from the respondents. Majority of the respondents (89%) reported that salinity has increased over the last 20 years and they also believe that the current salinity level in their fields are high. In a 2nd field trip 36 farmers from the original sample had soil from their fields measured over two time periods. Farmers’ perceived salinity level was then compared with measured field salinity in their rice field. Farmers’ perception of soil salinity level in their rice field aligns closely with the measured salinity level in the majority of the cases. It was also observed that farmers’ understanding of salinity level is strongly associated with in-field crop condition and soil appearance. 45% of respondents said their main signals of salinity were from the appearance of the plant and 22% of farmers also observed the inflorescence becoming white and grain unfilled in rice crops. Results also suggests that early transplanting of rice seedlings during Boro season rice and use of salt tolerant rice varieties having high tolerance during booting stage along with improved irrigation facilities can substantially reduce rice yield loss from salinity effects. Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Differential Gene Expression Among Genotypes of the Genus Saccharum Contrasting in Biomass Production
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036016 - 30 Dec 2019
Viewed by 147
Abstract
The development of biomass crops aims to meet industrial yield demands to become a profitable and sustainable activity. Achieving these goals in an energy crop such as sugarcane relies on breeding for sucrose accumulation, fiber content and tillering capacity. Sucrose storage depends on [...] Read more.
The development of biomass crops aims to meet industrial yield demands to become a profitable and sustainable activity. Achieving these goals in an energy crop such as sugarcane relies on breeding for sucrose accumulation, fiber content and tillering capacity. Sucrose storage depends on transport from leaves to culms driven by enzymes involved in sucrose synthesis and hydrolysis. High biomass genotypes often use photosynthesis products to produce lignocellulosic compounds to form the cell wall. To expand the understanding of the pathways related to these traits, we evaluated gene expression of two groups of genotypes contrasting in biomass yield, as well as testing for differences among members within the same group. First visible dewlap leaves were collected from six genotypes of each group to perform RNA-Seq. We found evidence that both groups differ with regard to genomic stress caused by polyploidy, as indicated by the enrichment of genes involved in transposition activity and defense response processes. Although carbon assimilation terms were not enriched, genes annotated with such terms were co-expressed with those coding for members of hormonal pathways. Sucrose phosphate synthase and hydrolytic enzymes coding genes were upregulated in leaves of sucrose-accumulating genotypes, as genes coding for enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of lignin. Compared to other high biomass accessions, the hybrid US85-1008 presented upregulation of photosynthesis-related genes probably due to its sink demand to store sugar in culms. This study expands the knowledge of gene expression in sugarcane leaves, revealing differences between and within phenotypically distinct groups. Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Determination of Phylogenetic Relationships of the Genus Sorghum Using Nuclear and Chloroplast Genome Assembly
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036017 - 30 Dec 2019
Viewed by 122
Abstract
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) is a multipurpose food. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Evaluation of Mungbean Varieties for Northwest Cambodian Lowland Rice Systems
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036018 - 30 Dec 2019
Viewed by 116
Abstract
Small-scale agriculture is the economic, social and cultural foundation of Cambodian rural communities. Crop diversification is not widespread in these traditionally rice-producing smallholder farms. Rice monoculture has led to a decline in farm productivity and farming household income. Mungbean is emerging as a [...] Read more.
Small-scale agriculture is the economic, social and cultural foundation of Cambodian rural communities. Crop diversification is not widespread in these traditionally rice-producing smallholder farms. Rice monoculture has led to a decline in farm productivity and farming household income. Mungbean is emerging as a high-value opportunity for crop diversification in smallholder farms in north-west Cambodia. However, its expansion is being constrained by the low quality of varieties available to farmers. This study aims to evaluate the locally available varieties with others from Cambodia and the region by comparing the varieties’ agronomic and economic characteristics. The varieties from Cambodia, CMB-3 and CARDI-Chey, had superior agronomic and quality characteristics compared with the varieties available to farmers. This was reflected in the price estimate and income of both varieties which had the highest gross margins. Hence, the varieties currently available to farmers are unsuitable for continued cultivation in the modern mungbean production environment. Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Promoting Social Learning in Soil Water and Nutrients Management Using Farmer—Friendly Monitoring Technology
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036019 - 30 Dec 2019
Viewed by 123
Abstract
Soil water management is typically by trial and error among smallholder farmers. Social learning in the use of farmer—friendly soil-water and nutrients monitoring tools were promoted in Malawi to improve productivity. A simple tool (chameleon) which was designed to fit the mental model [...] Read more.
Soil water management is typically by trial and error among smallholder farmers. Social learning in the use of farmer—friendly soil-water and nutrients monitoring tools were promoted in Malawi to improve productivity. A simple tool (chameleon) which was designed to fit the mental model of African farmers and to give an output that is linked to action was deployed to 198 farmers in nine irrigation schemes. Chameleon illustrates information on soil moisture status by colours—blue, green and red colours representing adequate moisture, moderate and dry soil status, respectively. The use of colours and not numbers promoted inclusiveness across illiterate and all gender categories. Farmers participated in sensors’ installation, soil moisture measurement, data visualization and learning by doing to get insights from their participation. The chameleon was combined with an on-line communication and learning system to improve water management at scheme level. The results indicated that: (1) the tool gave farmers new frames of reference; (2) it improved farmers on time, labour and water saving by reducing irrigation intervals; (3) it gave farmers new reference of experience to change their irrigation traditions; (4) it also reduced conflict for water in irrigation schemes between users apart from improving water productivity. Use of these tools made a rigor that make scientists easily communicate science to lay farmer and initiated the movement of farmers who know how to manage water. Social learning in sensor technology helped to increase farmers’ resilience to climate change and shaping the science of the future. Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Aflatoxin Contamination of Village Grains in Central Tanzania: Dietary and Agricultural Practices in Relation to Contamination and Exposure Risk
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036020 - 30 Dec 2019
Viewed by 150
Abstract
A study was conducted in the semi-arid Manyoni District of Central Tanzania, involving eight village communities to: (1) assess aflatoxin contamination of village grains; and (2) gain knowledge on grain food practices and habits associated with aflatoxin risk. To address the respective objectives, [...] Read more.
A study was conducted in the semi-arid Manyoni District of Central Tanzania, involving eight village communities to: (1) assess aflatoxin contamination of village grains; and (2) gain knowledge on grain food practices and habits associated with aflatoxin risk. To address the respective objectives, random immediate post-harvest (n = 134) and following 6 month or more after storage grain samples (n = 157) were screened (AFLACHECKTM -VICAM), followed by quantitative HPLC determination of samples containing ≥10 µg/kg total aflatoxins. Responses were sought from 76 randomly selected adults by a questionnaire covering pre-harvest, harvest and post-harvest practices, food preparation and knowledge on food toxins. Aflatoxin contamination was particularly more significant in maize and groundnut samples ranging up to 198 µg/kg (mean = 25.46 µg/kg) in post-harvest grains and up to 351 µg/kg (mean = 50.83 µg/kg) in stored grains, well above the maximum limit of 10 µg/kg tolerated in foods for human consumption in Tanzania. Respondent questionnaires revealed farmers: had no knowledge of food toxins; received limited extension services; did not generally use irrigation, fertilisers or pesticides; relied on inadequate harvesting, drying and storage technologies; and frequently consumed unpolished grains. Village grains in Central Tanzania may contain high concentration of aflatoxins of potential significance to community health. Existing practices and lack of aflatoxin knowledge may facilitate contamination and exposure. Therefore, village farmers in Central Tanzania may benefit from better extension services, using livestock manure as fertilizer, access to drought tolerant seeds and better grain drying and storage technologies to reduce aflatoxin risk. Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Genotypic Variation in Biomass Produced Is Linked to Differences in Radiation Acquisition in Mungbean
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036021 - 30 Dec 2019
Viewed by 120
Abstract
Mungbean has become an important cash and legume rotation crop in the Australian Northern Grains region. Thus, it is necessary to narrow the gap between potential productivity and actual production by understanding the crop physiological attributes contributing to the acquisition of radiation, and [...] Read more.
Mungbean has become an important cash and legume rotation crop in the Australian Northern Grains region. Thus, it is necessary to narrow the gap between potential productivity and actual production by understanding the crop physiological attributes contributing to the acquisition of radiation, and it’s conversion into total biomass. A field experiment was conducted at Gatton, during 2018-19 summer season, growing two commercial varieties of mungbean; Jade-AU and Satin II under irrigated conditions. The varieties were planted at 0.5m and 1.0m row spacing and different plant densities. Weekly biomass cuts were taken from a square meter and separated into its components. The area of a green leaf sub-sample was used to compute the leaf area of the canopy. Weekly Ceptometer measurements were taken above and below the canopy at noon on clear, sunny days to obtain a measure of Fraction of radiation interception (Fi). Total shoot dry matter (TDM), pod dry mater (PDM) and leaf area index (LAI) was investigated. There was a significant effect of canopy density on Fi. There was no significant difference in total dry matter between the two varieties, however, there was a highly significant effect of canopy density on TDM. . A highly significant variation in LAI amongst the two varieties and across canopy densities, with Satin II having a higher mean LAI compared to Jade-AU. There was significant effect of canopy density on PDM. Our data indicate variation in dry matter production across canopy densities and there is a need to examine varietal differences in radiation use efficiency which may provide better understanding of hot the captured radiation is utilized in biomass production in mungbean. Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Utilisation of Sludge from Ditches to Maintain Soil Nutrients and Increase Rice Yield in Rice-Shrimp Systems in Vietnam
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036022 - 30 Dec 2019
Viewed by 151
Abstract
An integration of a shrimp production cycle into the traditional system of rice farming is an adopted practice by farmers due to saline intrusion and changes of environmental condition in Vietnam. Aquacultural pond sludge or biological waste has the potential to cause environmental [...] Read more.
An integration of a shrimp production cycle into the traditional system of rice farming is an adopted practice by farmers due to saline intrusion and changes of environmental condition in Vietnam. Aquacultural pond sludge or biological waste has the potential to cause environmental pollution if it is not managed well. However, the sludge from shrimp ponds in rice-shrimp farming systems can provide nutrition and maintain soil fertility for the integrated rice crop production. A randomized block field experiment was conducted on a rice-shrimp farm to test the fertilizer value of sludge for rice over two consecutive seasons in Vietnam. Five treatments of sludge and fertilizer rates were applied in field experiments including control, sludge application alone, recommended fertilizer rate, reduced fertilizer rate, and combination of sludge and reduced fertilizer rate. The results consistently proved that the pond sludge can provide large quantities of plant available nutrients such as ammonium nitrogen, total nitrogen and organic matter. The use of sludge either alone or in combination with the reduced fertilizer rate produced optimal rice yields while fertilizer cost of rice production was reduced. This finding indicates that the use of sludge is able to save cost of production to rice-shrimp farmers and reduce adverse impacts of pond sludge released on the surrounding environment. Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Quantifying Gas Emissions and Denitrifying Genes in a Salt-Affected Soil
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036023 - 30 Dec 2019
Viewed by 113
Abstract
Salinity effects on microbial community relative to greenhouse gas emissions are not well understood in salt-affected soils. A better understanding of this interaction would be useful for agricultural practices to reduce nitrogen gas losses and manage environmental pollution. We hypothesized that elevated salinity [...] Read more.
Salinity effects on microbial community relative to greenhouse gas emissions are not well understood in salt-affected soils. A better understanding of this interaction would be useful for agricultural practices to reduce nitrogen gas losses and manage environmental pollution. We hypothesized that elevated salinity would increase the abundance of denitrifier genes resulting in a low rate of gas emissions. Objectives of this study were to measure induced-soil greenhouse gas emissions and to quantify denitrifying genes in a salt-affected soil over a 3-week incubation period. This incubation study was conducted by submerging field-moist samples of an acid sulphate soil in different saline solutions. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to quantify the abundance of resident bacterial denitrification genes in the salt-affected soil. It was found that increased salinity caused a decrease in both flux and cumulative emission of N2O from the incubated soil, relative to fresh water. Soil respiration was significantly reduced in salinity treatments compared to the treatment of distilled water. The study results showed that elevated salinity increased the denitrifying genes in the incubated acid sulfate soil. The abundance of the nir genes was usually high between the first and second week of incubation, while number copies of the nosZ gene were significantly low at those times. The study concludes that salinity controls the biological aspects of denitrification leading to a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Findings from this investigation extend our knowledge about the underlying molecular ecological mechanisms of denitrification that manage nitrogen cycling in salt-affected soils. Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Relationships between Iraqi Rice Varieties at the Nuclear and Plastid Genome Levels
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036024 - 31 Dec 2019
Viewed by 123
Abstract
Due to the importance of the rice crop in Iraq, this study was conducted to determine the origin of the major varieties and understand the evolutionary relationships between Iraqi rice varieties and other Asian-rice accessions that could be significant in the improvement of [...] Read more.
Due to the importance of the rice crop in Iraq, this study was conducted to determine the origin of the major varieties and understand the evolutionary relationships between Iraqi rice varieties and other Asian-rice accessions that could be significant in the improvement of this crop. Five varieties of Oryza sativa were obtained from Baghdad, Iraq; among these varieties, one, Amber33, is local and is one of the most highly valued varieties in Iraq because of its fragrance, and two varieties, Furat and Yasmin were introduced from Vietnam while the other two, Buhoot1 and Amber al-Baraka, were improved varieties; the whole genomic DNA was sequenced. Raw sequence reads of 33 domesticated Asian-rice accessions were obtained from the National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). The sequence of the whole chloroplast genome of 5 Iraqi varieties and 34 domesticated rice accessions was assembled while for nuclear genome analysis, only the sequences of 916 concatenated nuclear genes were assembled. The phylogenetic trees of both chloroplast and nuclear genomes were similar with insignificant differences at the end of the clades. Two main clusters, Indica and Japonica, and further five subclusters based upon their ecotype, indica, aus, tropical-japonica, temperate-japonica and basmati were created, where Amber33, Furat, Yasmin and Buhooth1 belonged to the basmati, indica and japonica ecotypes, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis of both chloroplast and nuclear genomes placed Amber33 in the basmati ecotype group as a sister of cultivars from Pakistan and India. This confirms the old traditional story that the Amber variety was transferred by a group of people who had migrated from India (the Southeast) and settled in southern Iraq a long time ago Full article
Open AccessAbstract
SNPs Linked to Key Traits in Hybrids between African and Asian Rice
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036025 - 31 Dec 2019
Viewed by 115
Abstract
Association analysis was performed to determine. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Remobilisation and Fate of Sulphur in Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea. L)
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036026 - 31 Dec 2019
Viewed by 100
Abstract
Understanding the basis of sulphur (S) use efficiency in higher S requiring crops such as brassicas can help develop more cost-effective cultivars. Oleriferous brassicas sequester reduced S in the mature seeds mainly as secondary metabolite-glucosinolate (GSL) and seed storage proteins (SSP). Glucosinolates have [...] Read more.
Understanding the basis of sulphur (S) use efficiency in higher S requiring crops such as brassicas can help develop more cost-effective cultivars. Oleriferous brassicas sequester reduced S in the mature seeds mainly as secondary metabolite-glucosinolate (GSL) and seed storage proteins (SSP). Glucosinolates have a wide range of positive aspects in food production, human nutrition and plant defence, and SSPs are a potential source of high quality vegetable proteins for human and livestock consumption. We carried out a developmental S audit to establish the net fluxes of S in two lines of B. juncea mustard where the level of seed GSL differed. We quantified S pools (sulphate, GSL and total S) in different organs at multiple growth stages until maturity. We have established that leaf S components accumulated as primary S sinks at early developmental stages in condiment type B. juncea become remobilised as a secondary S source to meet the demand of GSL as the dominant seed S sink at maturity. Our evidence for S remobilisation from leaves as primary S sink suggests that up or down regulation of signalling molecules which mediate between secondary S sinks and sources may help modulate economically valuable S compounds in brassica seed. Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Investigation of Insect Resistance Components in Wild Pigeonpea Cajanus Scarabaeoides
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036027 - 31 Dec 2019
Viewed by 120
Abstract
Cajanus scarabaeoides (L.) Thouars is the closest wild relative of cultivated pigeonpea, Cajanus cajan (L.) Millspaugh. However, unlike cultivated pigeonpea which is very susceptible to insects, especially Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner), this wild pigeonpea is strongly insect resistant. Since H. armigera causes damage [...] Read more.
Cajanus scarabaeoides (L.) Thouars is the closest wild relative of cultivated pigeonpea, Cajanus cajan (L.) Millspaugh. However, unlike cultivated pigeonpea which is very susceptible to insects, especially Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner), this wild pigeonpea is strongly insect resistant. Since H. armigera causes damage to many important crops resulting in economic losses up to 2 billion USD/year, improvement in resistance to this insect in crops is highly desirable. Here we investigate insect resistance components in C. scarabaeoides and explore the possibility of transferring one or more of those factors to cultivated pigeonpea. A detached leaf assay was used to assess antibiosis and antixenosis resistance mechanisms in C. scarabaeoides. Artificial diet supplemented with lyophilised leaf powder was employed to investigate the antibiosis resistance mechanism. Data on larval mortality and larval and pupal weights were collected. Time taken for neonate larvae to pupate and for pupae to develop to the moth stage were determined through daily observations. Preliminary results showed that H. armigera larval weight was significantly reduced and larval development stages were prolonged when reared on different accessions of C. scarabaeoides as compared to the susceptible check, C. cajan (ICPL 87). Interspecific hybridization was carried out between C. scarabaeoides and a commercial pigeonpea variety. Results from insect challenge assays and trichome identification indicate that the hybrids have similar levels of insect resistance to their wild parent. Proteomic analysis is being used to identify possible antibiosis factors. Full article
Open AccessAbstract
The Relationship Between Bulb Yield and Allicin Concentration in Garlic Varieties
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036028 - 31 Dec 2019
Viewed by 121
Abstract
Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is used as a vegetable and medicinal plant. It is a rich source of organosulfur compounds, in particular allicin, which contributes to the flavour and health benefits. Although worldwide garlic production is increasing, demand continues to outstrip supply. [...] Read more.
Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is used as a vegetable and medicinal plant. It is a rich source of organosulfur compounds, in particular allicin, which contributes to the flavour and health benefits. Although worldwide garlic production is increasing, demand continues to outstrip supply. Improving the yield of garlic will address the increasing demand, while increasing allicin concentration will improve its potential health benefits and flavour. It is unknown if increasing garlic bulb size (yield) has a negative effect on allicin concentration of garlic. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of the relationship between yield and allicin concentration is required. A field experiment was conducted at Gatton (QLD, Australia) with 32 varieties, of which 29 varieties were sourced from World Vegetable Centre and 3 varieties from existing Queensland sub-tropical varieties. The garlic cloves were planted in March 2018 with 4 replicates in a randomised complete block design and harvested when garlic had 70% senescence. Varieties showed large variation in bulb size, ranging from about 35 to 120 g, with fresh yield ranging from about 5.5 to 16 t/ha. The allicin concentration ranged from 3.5 to 6.6 mg g−1 fresh weight (FW) between varieties and more than 50% of varieties were under the minimum pharmaceutical standard for allicin concentration (>4.5 mg g−1 in FW). Across varieties there was an inverse relationship between yield and allicin concentration. However, there were some varieties which had both high allicin concentration and yield. Current field trials investigate the effect of agronomic practices on yield and allicin concentration in garlic varieties. Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Performance of Zero Tillage Potato Cultivation with Different Mulch Materials in the South-Western Saline Area of Bangladesh
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036029 - 31 Dec 2019
Viewed by 95
Abstract
Crop cultivation in the coastal saline area of Bangladesh during rabi season is limited due to late harvest of Aman rice, shorter winter period, difficulty in tillage, soil salinity, lack of fresh irrigation water etc. Zero tillage potato cultivation with mulching could minimize [...] Read more.
Crop cultivation in the coastal saline area of Bangladesh during rabi season is limited due to late harvest of Aman rice, shorter winter period, difficulty in tillage, soil salinity, lack of fresh irrigation water etc. Zero tillage potato cultivation with mulching could minimize these obstacles and thereby increase system productivity. However, selection of mulching material is crucial for higher yield and economic return. An experiment was conducted at coastal saline area of Bangladesh during rabi 2018–19 to observe zero tillage potato performance under different mulch materials. Three locally available mulch materials were employed in the trial viz. rice straw (T1), rice husk (T2) and compost (T3) as control. Additionally, treatment T1 and T2 also received same amount of compost as T3. Results from single factor randomized complete block design with three replications showed that leaf dry matter, leaf area index and number of tuber per plant did not varied significantly. Significantly highest stem and root dry matter were found from T1 (69.56 kg ha−1) and T3 (138.92 kg ha−1), respectively. Rice husk (T2) produced numerically highest leaf dry matter (372.74 kg ha−1) and significantly lowest root dry matter (87.92 kg ha−1), which ultimately produced highest tuber yield (13.99 t ha−1) followed by rice straw (T1) (11.08 t ha−1). However, weed growth was highest in rice husk (1.16 t ha−1). Mulch treatments conserved 3.5 to 7.45% more moisture and 4.3% less salinity than control. Between two mulches rice straw is suggested for its profitability since it remains unused and readily available. Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Effect of Mulch Materials and Nitrogen Source on the Performance of Tomato in the South-Western Coastal Area of Bangladesh
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036030 - 31 Dec 2019
Viewed by 102
Abstract
The major cropping pattern in the South-western coastal area of Bangladesh is transplanted aman rice followed by fallow during the rabi season (November to March) and kharif-I (April-July) season. Crop production during rabi season is limited due to various ecological factors including soil [...] Read more.
The major cropping pattern in the South-western coastal area of Bangladesh is transplanted aman rice followed by fallow during the rabi season (November to March) and kharif-I (April-July) season. Crop production during rabi season is limited due to various ecological factors including soil salinity, lack of fresh irrigation water, short winter period, late harvest of previous aman rice, heavy clay soil etc. Tomato is a popular winter crop in that area which is mainly cultivated around homestead and ridges of fish pond, where soil salinity and tillage is not a major problem. An attempt was taken to grow tomato in Khulna district of Bangladesh after T. Aman rice harvest during 2018–19 in order to investigate tomato performance at different mulch materials and Nitrogen sources. The two factors experiment was carried out in randomized complete block design with three replications. Mulch materials viz. rice straw (M1), black polythene (M2) and no mulch (M3) were employed as factor one and nitrogen source viz. prilled urea (N1) and urea super granule (N2) were assigned as factor two. Results showed that there was no interaction effect of mulch and nitrogen treatments. Single effect of mulch and nitrogen treatments showed that highest fruit yield was found from rice straw (M1) (17.32 t ha−1) and prilled urea (N2) (15.64 t ha−1), respectively. So, tomato can be grown with rice straw mulch along with prilled urea for higher economic return (MBCR 2.24). Full article
Open AccessAbstract
System Identification of Linearized Rice Growth Dynamic for Precision Irrigation
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036031 - 31 Dec 2019
Viewed by 101
Abstract
Modeling crop growth dynamics has been used to predict and analyze the effects of water stress on crop yields for different irrigation managements. In particular, rice, a water intensive crop, has been extensively modeled using simulation software such as ORYZA3, Aquacrop, and WARM. [...] Read more.
Modeling crop growth dynamics has been used to predict and analyze the effects of water stress on crop yields for different irrigation managements. In particular, rice, a water intensive crop, has been extensively modeled using simulation software such as ORYZA3, Aquacrop, and WARM. Despite these established simulation models, only soil water balance models are utilized for real time irrigation control. The reasons are twofold: the complexity in incorporating non-linear and highly interactive nature of crop physiological mechanisms in a control framework; and the difficulty in estimating these physiological mechanisms compared to using soil water sensors for soil water balance models. This work developed a system identification technique that improves accuracy in irrigation timing, amount and efficiency by integrating crop growth dynamics to estimate evapotranspiration as feedback in the soil water balance model. Sample simulation runs from ORYZA3 were used to build and validate a water limited growth dynamics. A two level regression technique was used resulting in reduced expressions for leaf area index, biomass, and soil water depletion. With advancements in wireless sensor technologies, the modeling framework maximizes use of field sensor information to adequately estimate the crop state. Thus, it can be adopted in advance control techniques for irrigation. Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Rescheduling of Wet Season (T. Aman) Rice Planting for Cropping Intensification in Coastal Bangladesh
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036032 - 02 Jan 2020
Viewed by 117
Abstract
About 1.0 million ha coastal lands in Bangladesh are mono-cropped suffer from varying degree of soil salinity, waterlogging and climate vulnerability. Low yielding, traditional T. Aman rice is grown only in wet season. Growing non-rice crop after late harvested T. Aman rice is [...] Read more.
About 1.0 million ha coastal lands in Bangladesh are mono-cropped suffer from varying degree of soil salinity, waterlogging and climate vulnerability. Low yielding, traditional T. Aman rice is grown only in wet season. Growing non-rice crop after late harvested T. Aman rice is not profitable. This study was aimed to introduce high yielding, short duration T. Aman rice varieties for advancing its harvesting time and to make the avenue for timely establishment of dry season crops. Varietal trials were made at Dacope and Amtali under ACIAR funded project during 2016-2018 and compared with local cultivars. Among tested varieties BRRI dhan76 followed by BRRI dhan77 and BRRI dhan54 in Dacope and BRRI dhan77 followed by BRRI dhan76 and BRRI dhan54 in Amtali were preferred for 0.5–1.0 tha−1 yield advantage and 15–25 days earliness compared to traditional varieties. Early harvesting of T. Aman created the avenue of timely establishment of rice and non-rice crops depending on availability of fresh water and thus crop intensification and land productivity was improved. The new cropping system increased annual rice yield and farmers’ profits by 1.5- to 2-folds compared with traditional system without environmental degradation. This technique can be replicated in similar coastal zones of Bangladesh. Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Air Temperature an Influential Climatic Factor for Growth and Reproduction of Dry Flower Pathogens of Macadamia
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036033 - 03 Jan 2020
Viewed by 157
Abstract
In order to assess the influence of climatic factors on abundance of conidia of dry flower pathogens, Pestalotiopsis macadamiae and Neopestalotiopsis macadamiae, a Burkard spore trap was used to determine daily aerial conidia concentration at Alstonville (28.852° S, 153.456° E), New South Wales, [...] Read more.
In order to assess the influence of climatic factors on abundance of conidia of dry flower pathogens, Pestalotiopsis macadamiae and Neopestalotiopsis macadamiae, a Burkard spore trap was used to determine daily aerial conidia concentration at Alstonville (28.852° S, 153.456° E), New South Wales, Australia. Weather data including minimum and maximum air temperatures, rainfall, wind speed and relative humidity were obtained from an automated weather station at the same location. The effect of each, and the combined climatic parameters on conidia abundance was analysed using the GLM procedure for the all-subset regression link functions. A model containing weekly maximum temperature and weekly rainfall produced the best significant effect on conidia abundance (R2 = 72.7%, P = 0.003) compared with the model containing daily data of both climatic parameters (R2 = 35.4%, P = 0.000). In vitro assays were established to examine the effect of different temperatures (12, 19, 22, 25, 29, 33, 37 and 41 °C) on growth and reproduction of the pathogens. The results showed that maximal mycelial growth, conidia production and germination occurred at 25 °C and declined significantly (P < 0.05) at cooler and warmer temperatures. Temperatures above 40 °C were lethal for growth and functioning of the pathogens. The results confirmed that air temperature significantly influenced growth and reproduction of both dry flower pathogens. These findings will underpin development of a disease prediction model for dry flower in macadamia. Full article
Open AccessAbstract
The Effect of Medium Type and Subculture Frequency on the Formation of Friable Embryogenic Callus for Coconut Cell Suspension Culture
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036034 - 03 Jan 2020
Viewed by 133
Abstract
Coconut, a multipurpose palm, is facing increasing demand for its fruit as well as the pressure
from industries to produce coconut-derived products. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Deploying New Technologies to Secure the Banana Industry
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036035 - 04 Jan 2020
Viewed by 133
Abstract
Bananas are Australia’s number-one selling supermarket product (in volume), with over five
million of them eaten daily [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation and Mitigation for Tropical Agriculture
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036036 - 04 Jan 2020
Viewed by 135
Abstract
As climate change gains pace globally, many of the first and most severe impacts are falling on
tropical regions [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Increasing the Diversity of Crops That Can Be Grown in Urban and Vertical Farms
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036037 - 05 Jan 2020
Viewed by 160
Abstract
The FAO estimates that more than 800 million people engage in urban agriculture producing more than 15% of the world’s food. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Effects of Pesticides on Nitrous Oxide Production in Sugarcane Cropping Soil
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036038 - 06 Jan 2020
Viewed by 190
Abstract
This study aimed to assess the non-target impacts of pesticides on soil biological processes, particularly N2O emissions and improve understanding of the contributions of nitrification and denitrification to N2O production in sugarcane soils. We conducted a laboratory incubation experiment, [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess the non-target impacts of pesticides on soil biological processes, particularly N2O emissions and improve understanding of the contributions of nitrification and denitrification to N2O production in sugarcane soils. We conducted a laboratory incubation experiment, in which a herbicide Roundup®, an insecticide Confidor®, a fungicide Shirtan®, and a fumigant metam sodium were added to a Ferrosol and then incubated at 25°C for 38 days at 2 moisture regimes (55 % and 90% water holding capacity (WHC)). At day 28, soil water contents in the 55% WHC treatments were also increased to 90% WHC to create a condition to favour denitrification. The 55% and 90% WHC treatments received NH4SO4 at 40µg N g−1 dry soil and KNO3 at 40µg N g−1 dry soil, respectively, with K15NO3 added at 2 µg N g−1 of dry soil in all treatments. Compared with the control treatment, Confidor application significantly increased net nitrification rates and N2O emissions at 55% WHC. After increasing water content from 55% to 90% WHC at day 28, net denitrification occurred in the metam sodium treatment; N2O emissions increased in the order: metam sodium > Shirtan > Glyphosate treatment, with little changes in the Confidor and control treatments. During the 38-day incubation at 90% WHC, the metam sodium treatment emitted more N2O emissions than other treatments in the first 15 days of the incubation but no significant differences were observed among the other treatments at the end of the incubation. Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Nanobubbles in Hydroponics
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036039 - 06 Jan 2020
Viewed by 174
Abstract
Maintaining oxygen levels in the nutrient solution of hydroponic systems, particularly those
using the deep flow technique (DFT), is essential for root uptake of nutrients and for cellular
respiration. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolour L.) Germination Dynamics at Extreme Temperatures
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036040 - 10 Jan 2020
Viewed by 71
Abstract
Water and heat stressors during flowering are predominant limitations of dryland sorghum yields across Australia’s north-eastern cropping zone. Crops sown early could flower before seasonal heatwaves, but the seed must uniformly germination and emerge at soil temperatures between approximately 10 to 15 °C. [...] Read more.
Water and heat stressors during flowering are predominant limitations of dryland sorghum yields across Australia’s north-eastern cropping zone. Crops sown early could flower before seasonal heatwaves, but the seed must uniformly germination and emerge at soil temperatures between approximately 10 to 15 °C. Furthermore, chemical coatings applied to commercial hybrid seed lots effectively protected the developing crop from pest, disease and herbicide damage but the combined influence of low temperatures and seed coatings on germination of hybrid sorghum seed batches is unknown. In this experiment, germination dynamics were modelled for 10 commercial sorghum hybrid-seed lots (with or without seed coating of a.i. thiamethoxam, oxabetrinil and thiram) incubated at continuous temperatures ranging from 9.4 to 46.1 °C. Results also show commercial seed treatments negatively affect final germination proportion especially at sub- and supra-optimal temperatures. Some hybrid-seed lots in current experiment were more sensitive to seed coatings at either sub- or supra-optimal temperatures regardless of seed germination capability (i.e., germination proportion at 25 °C). Seeds took 5 days to reach 50% germination (t50) at 9.4 °C but germinated within 24 h at constant temperatures between 20 and 40 °C. The spread of germination (time between 10 and 90% germination) increased from 0.5 days at 30 °C to 3.8 days at 9.4 °C. Therefore, some hybrid-seedlots are suited to early sowing because they can maintain high germination proportion (>90%) even at soil temperatures (9.4 °C) as long as the seedbed remains moist for a least 12 days. Research continues identify the basis of cold tolerance in some-hybrid seedlots. Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Dynamics of Mango Seedlings and Mango Varieties: A Case Study of Nurseries in Mango Production Center in Majalengka, West Java, Indonesia
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036041 - 11 Jan 2020
Viewed by 126
Abstract
Mango is a favorite tropical fruit in both domestic and international markets. Due to its features that are relatively easy to grow and more resistant to pests and diseases, the success rate of producing the seedlings is higher compared to the other perennial [...] Read more.
Mango is a favorite tropical fruit in both domestic and international markets. Due to its features that are relatively easy to grow and more resistant to pests and diseases, the success rate of producing the seedlings is higher compared to the other perennial fruit plants. Despite of these advantages, the sector is still facing several constrains. One of them is the low rate of certified seedling used that may affects the productivity of mango trees. Limited availability of superior certified mango seedlings that is faced by mango nurseries is suspected as one of the cause. This paper aims to describe the dynamic that occurs in mango nursery sector in one of mango production centres in West Java. The data was collected through survey of 260 nurseries in 2016 and was part of Indohort project research; a collaboration between Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR), Iindonesian Center for Horticulture Research and Development (ICHORD), and the University of Adelaide. The results showed that: (1) Only 7% of the total number of nurseries has a formal certification for seedlings that are produced, (2) in average, mango nurseries produce less mango seedlings in 2016 compared to 2011; (3) mango nursery’s specialization rate decreased from 32% in 2011 to 19% in 2016, (4) the share of Harumanis (mango variety that is most preferred in Indonesia) seedlings production per nursery, decreased from 89% in 2011 to 65% in 2016; (4) Further improvement related to mango seedlings marketting chain needs to be done to create a better mango seedling market structure along the chain. Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Assessing Food Safety and Quality Compliance: An Evidence from Vegetable Industry
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036042 - 12 Jan 2020
Viewed by 123
Abstract
The aim of present research was to assess and document the practices for prevailed food safety and quality standards as employed by small scale growers and market managers in the vegetable supply chains of Pakistan. For this purpose, cross-sectional data were collected from [...] Read more.
The aim of present research was to assess and document the practices for prevailed food safety and quality standards as employed by small scale growers and market managers in the vegetable supply chains of Pakistan. For this purpose, cross-sectional data were collected from two provinces (Sindh and Punjab) of Pakistan targeting commercial vegetables, i.e., potato, tomato, onion, and chilies. Information regarding the food safety and quality were recorded during field survey from all the supply chain participants, i.e., growers, harvesters, processors, traders, and exporters through well-designed questionnaires. The collected data adherence with the standard requirements and identifying constraints of chain actors were analyzed using descriptive analysis. Results showed that many practices such as soil and ground water contamination, pesticide and fungicide residuals, microbial contaminants, infected labour, diggers, packaging migrants, clothes, surfaces and non-food grade containers may enhance the chances of food borne diseases among consumers. Therefore, training needs have been identified for all stakeholders that need to be addressed which will develop their understanding about the quality requirements and safety regulations. It will create opportunity in the advanced markets at national and international levels and new opportunities may arise to enhance stakeholders’ income. Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Low Cost Glad Wrap Film Packaging Delays Postharvest Senescence and Maintains Fruit Quality of Green Chilies
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036043 - 12 Jan 2020
Viewed by 114
Abstract
Green chilies are highly perishable with limited postharvest life which substantially affects its quality and market potential. The present study was part of an ACIAR-funded project aiming at evaluating the effect low cost Glad wrap film packaging (GWFP) on eight commercial green chili [...] Read more.
Green chilies are highly perishable with limited postharvest life which substantially affects its quality and market potential. The present study was part of an ACIAR-funded project aiming at evaluating the effect low cost Glad wrap film packaging (GWFP) on eight commercial green chili cultivars (Kunri-1, Longi, Talhari, Skyline 1 and 3, Super-hot, Advanta and BSS-410) to help improve shelf life and quality during ambient storage at 18±2 °C. Chilies were weighed and filled in polyvinyl trays and wrapped with Glad wrap film. Chilies kept in Glad wrap film packaging improved marketability index and shelf life for 9 to 15 days compared to open top trays (control) with shelf life of 3 to 6 days depending on cultivar. GWFP storage of chili fruits markedly reduced weight loss, decay, disease incidence, wrinkling. red chili percentage and relative electrolyte leakage as compared with control. It was noted that chilies stored under GWFP displayed significantly higher firmness, soluble solid contents, acidity, ascorbic acid with maintained radical scavenging activity. In addition, total phenolic contents, enzymatic essays i.e. superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were significantly higher in GWFP kept chilies. Conclusively, the low cost Glad wrap film packaging can be employed as promising technique to reduce postharvest losses, extend shelf life and maintain postharvest quality of chilies leading to more profit for the growers and linked stakeholders. Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Genetic Tolerance in Capsicum Chinense to Low pH Constraints on Root Growth
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036044 - 12 Jan 2020
Viewed by 114
Abstract
Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are valuable cash crops in developing countries of the tropics and subtropics where acidic soils represent a substantial amount of arable land. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract
Economic, Environmental, and Social Sustainability Assessment of Queensland Industries
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036045 - 13 Jan 2020
Abstract
In ‘Our Future State: Advancing Queensland’s Priorities’ the Queensland Government outlined how industries and government should contribute to community well-being. Agriculture’s contribution lies in generating economic activity, job creation and the Great Barrier Reef protection. While lack of data prevents the measurement of [...] Read more.
In ‘Our Future State: Advancing Queensland’s Priorities’ the Queensland Government outlined how industries and government should contribute to community well-being. Agriculture’s contribution lies in generating economic activity, job creation and the Great Barrier Reef protection. While lack of data prevents the measurement of some attributes in the government plan, composite sustainability indices have been used worldwide to represent the wider objectives of “triple bottom line” economics (growth and throughput), social justice (fair and equitable distribution of the wealth) and environment-friendliness (compatibility with the preservation of natural ecosystems). One such approach is an innovative self-designed iSENSE index—indicators of Sustainability: ENvironmental, Social, and Economic—that is based on 15 indicators with a maximum overall score of 30. The featured indicators are based on a literature review and represent commonly accepted parameters. In this study, iSENSE indicators have been enumerated for the analysis of three Queensland sectors: Agriculture, Mining, and Manufacturing. The results show that while Mining leads the group in terms of economic indicators, it is Agriculture that is the most socially oriented and environment-friendly. Overall, iSENSE score is equal 16 for both Agriculture and Mining, whilst Manufacturing stands at 13. While these results should be taken with caution, they can be used as a guidance for prospective policy proposals in conjunction with the sound ex post impact assessments around Queensland industries. Applying composite assessment tools can help to identify challenges related to environmental, economic and social impact, in the course of developing sustainable agriculture. Full article
Open AccessAbstract
The Economic Benefits of Improvements in Online Licensing of The Chemical Use in Queensland Crop Industries
Proceedings 2019, 36(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019036046 - 13 Jan 2020
Abstract
The selective use of chemical products plays an important role in increasing production, improving the quality of Queensland’s agricultural produce and enabling producers to earn reasonable returns on their investments. Effective pest management, therefore, helps deliver high quality, healthy and affordable food for [...] Read more.
The selective use of chemical products plays an important role in increasing production, improving the quality of Queensland’s agricultural produce and enabling producers to earn reasonable returns on their investments. Effective pest management, therefore, helps deliver high quality, healthy and affordable food for all consumers. The efficiency of policy tools such as chemical use licensing hinges critically on supply-side knowledge levels. Although licence applications are available online, information can be difficult to find and often businesses need to contact the state authority to seek further assistance in completing their licence applications. The aim of this study is therefore to identify the benefits for the users of agricultural chemicals from improvements in licensing application process. Based on a rigorous literature review and statistical analysis of available data, this study modelled the per day/per application value of the use of crop protection products in Queensland. Results indicate a potential saving by farmers due to a faster process for chemical licence applications. Extreme values of these savings range from $87 thousand to $52 million per annum, with actual ones falling in between depending on the coincidence and level of individual risk factors. Since the chemicals subject to licensing are used beyond agriculture and are utilised not only for crop protection, the results of this analysis are thus underestimated, which implies even greater benefits for the economy. It therefore seems important to update the current licence application platform so that applicants can lodge their application in a more user-friendly and synchronised manner. Full article
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