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Vision, Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2020) – 13 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Exogeneous Spatial Cueing beyond the Near Periphery: Cueing Effects in a Discrimination Paradigm at Large Eccentricities
Vision 2020, 4(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision4010013 - 17 Feb 2020
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Abstract
Although visual attention is one of the most thoroughly investigated topics in experimental psychology and vision science, most of this research tends to be restricted to the near periphery. Eccentricities used in attention studies usually do not exceed 20° to 30°, but most [...] Read more.
Although visual attention is one of the most thoroughly investigated topics in experimental psychology and vision science, most of this research tends to be restricted to the near periphery. Eccentricities used in attention studies usually do not exceed 20° to 30°, but most studies even make use of considerably smaller maximum eccentricities. Thus, empirical knowledge about attention beyond this range is sparse, probably due to a previous lack of suitable experimental devices to investigate attention in the far periphery. This is currently changing due to the development of temporal high-resolution projectors and head-mounted displays (HMDs) that allow displaying experimental stimuli at far eccentricities. In the present study, visual attention was investigated beyond the near periphery (15°, 30°, 56° Exp. 1) and (15°, 35°, 56° Exp. 2) in a peripheral Posner cueing paradigm using a discrimination task with placeholders. Interestingly, cueing effects were revealed for the whole range of eccentricities although the inhomogeneity of the visual field and its functional subdivisions might lead one to suspect otherwise. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Individual Differences in Multisensory Interactions:The Influence of Temporal Phase Coherence and Auditory Salience on Visual Contrast Sensitivity
Vision 2020, 4(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision4010012 - 05 Feb 2020
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Abstract
: While previous research has investigated key factors contributing to multisensory integration in isolation, relatively little is known regarding how these factors interact, especially when considering the enhancement of visual contrast sensitivity by a task-irrelevant sound. Here we explored how auditory stimulus properties, [...] Read more.
: While previous research has investigated key factors contributing to multisensory integration in isolation, relatively little is known regarding how these factors interact, especially when considering the enhancement of visual contrast sensitivity by a task-irrelevant sound. Here we explored how auditory stimulus properties, namely salience and temporal phase coherence in relation to the visual target, jointly affect the extent to which a sound can enhance visual contrast sensitivity. Visual contrast sensitivity was measured by a psychophysical task, where human adult participants reported the location of a visual Gabor pattern presented at various contrast levels. We expected the most enhanced contrast sensitivity, the lowest contrast threshold, when the visual stimulus was accompanied by a task-irrelevant sound, weak in auditory salience, modulated in-phase with the visual stimulus (strong temporal phase coherence). Our expectations were confirmed, but only if we accounted for individual differences in optimal auditory salience level to induce maximal multisensory enhancement effects. Our findings highlight the importance of interactions between temporal phase coherence and stimulus effectiveness in determining the strength of multisensory enhancement of visual contrast as well as highlighting the importance of accounting for individual differences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multisensory Modulation of Vision)
Open AccessReview
Eye Movements and Fixation-Related Potentials in Reading: A Review
Vision 2020, 4(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision4010011 - 03 Feb 2020
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Abstract
The present review is addressed to researchers in the field of reading and psycholinguistics who are both familiar with and new to co-registration research of eye movements (EMs) and fixation related-potentials (FRPs) in reading. At the outset, we consider a conundrum relating to [...] Read more.
The present review is addressed to researchers in the field of reading and psycholinguistics who are both familiar with and new to co-registration research of eye movements (EMs) and fixation related-potentials (FRPs) in reading. At the outset, we consider a conundrum relating to timing discrepancies between EM and event related potential (ERP) effects. We then consider the extent to which the co-registration approach might allow us to overcome this and thereby discriminate between formal theoretical and computational accounts of reading. We then describe three phases of co-registration research before evaluating the existing body of such research in reading. The current, ongoing phase of co-registration research is presented in comprehensive tables which provide a detailed summary of the existing findings. The thorough appraisal of the published studies allows us to engage with issues such as the reliability of FRP components as correlates of cognitive processing in reading and the advantages of analysing both data streams (i.e., EMs and FRPs) simultaneously relative to each alone, as well as the current, and limited, understanding of the relationship between EM and FRP measures. Finally, we consider future directions and in particular the potential of analytical methods involving deconvolution and the potential of measurement of brain oscillatory activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eye Movements and Visual Cognition)
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Open AccessArticle
Aesthetic Image Statistics Vary with Artistic Genre
Vision 2020, 4(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision4010010 - 01 Feb 2020
Viewed by 187
Abstract
Research to date has not found strong evidence for a universal link between any single low-level image statistic, such as fractal dimension or Fourier spectral slope, and aesthetic ratings of images in general. This study assessed whether different image statistics are important for [...] Read more.
Research to date has not found strong evidence for a universal link between any single low-level image statistic, such as fractal dimension or Fourier spectral slope, and aesthetic ratings of images in general. This study assessed whether different image statistics are important for artistic images containing different subjects and used partial least squares regression (PLSR) to identify the statistics that correlated most reliably with ratings. Fourier spectral slope, fractal dimension and Shannon entropy were estimated separately for paintings containing landscapes, people, still life, portraits, nudes, animals, buildings and abstracts. Separate analyses were performed on the luminance and colour information in the images. PLSR fits showed shared variance of up to 75% between image statistics and aesthetic ratings. The most important statistics and image planes varied across genres. Variation in statistics may reflect characteristic properties of the different neural sub-systems that process different types of image. Full article
Open AccessCommunication
Musical Training Improves Audiovisual Integration Capacity under Conditions of High Perceptual Load
Vision 2020, 4(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision4010009 - 24 Jan 2020
Viewed by 195
Abstract
In considering capacity measures of audiovisual integration, it has become apparent that there is a wide degree of variation both within (based on unimodal and multimodal stimulus characteristics) and between participants. Recent work has discussed performance on a number of cognitive tasks that [...] Read more.
In considering capacity measures of audiovisual integration, it has become apparent that there is a wide degree of variation both within (based on unimodal and multimodal stimulus characteristics) and between participants. Recent work has discussed performance on a number of cognitive tasks that can form a regression model accounting for nearly a quarter of the variation in audiovisual integration capacity. The current study involves an investigation of whether different elements of musicality in participants can contribute to additional variation in capacity. Participants were presented with a series of rapidly changing visual displays and asked to note which elements of that display changed in synchrony with a tone. Results were fitted to a previously used model to establish capacity estimates, and these estimates were included in correlational analyses with musical training, musical perceptual abilities, and active engagement in music. We found that audiovisual integration capacity was positively correlated with amount of musical training, and that this correlation was statistically significant under the most difficult perceptual conditions. Results are discussed in the context of the boosting of perceptual abilities due to musical training, even under conditions that have been previously found to be overly demanding for participants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multisensory Modulation of Vision)
Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Vision in 2019
Vision 2020, 4(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision4010008 - 19 Jan 2020
Viewed by 204
Abstract
The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months, regardless of whether the papers are finally published or not [...] Full article
Open AccessReview
Effects of Normative Aging on Eye Movements during Reading
Vision 2020, 4(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision4010007 - 14 Jan 2020
Viewed by 261
Abstract
Substantial progress has been made in understanding the mostly detrimental effects of normative aging on eye movements during reading. This article provides a review of research on aging effects on eye movements during reading for different writing systems (i.e., alphabetic systems like English [...] Read more.
Substantial progress has been made in understanding the mostly detrimental effects of normative aging on eye movements during reading. This article provides a review of research on aging effects on eye movements during reading for different writing systems (i.e., alphabetic systems like English compared to non-alphabetic systems like Chinese), focused on appraising the importance of visual and cognitive factors, considering key methodological issues, and identifying vital questions that need to be addressed and topics for further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eye Movements and Visual Cognition)
Open AccessArticle
Individual Differences in Aesthetic Preferences for Multi-Sensorial Stimulation
Vision 2020, 4(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision4010006 - 06 Jan 2020
Viewed by 267
Abstract
The aim of the current project was to investigate aesthetics in multi-sensorial stimulation and to explore individual differences in the process. We measured the aesthetics of interactive objects (IOs) which are three-dimensional objects with electronic components that exhibit an autonomous behaviour when handled, [...] Read more.
The aim of the current project was to investigate aesthetics in multi-sensorial stimulation and to explore individual differences in the process. We measured the aesthetics of interactive objects (IOs) which are three-dimensional objects with electronic components that exhibit an autonomous behaviour when handled, e.g., vibrating, playing a sound, or lighting-up. The Q-sorting procedure of Q-methodology was applied. Data were analysed by following the Qmulti protocol. The results suggested that overall participants preferred IOs that (i) vibrate, (ii) have rough surface texture, and (iii) are round. No particular preference emerged about the size of the IOs. When making an aesthetic judgment, participants paid more attention to the behaviour variable of the IOs than the size, contour or surface texture. In addition, three clusters of participants were identified, suggesting that individual differences existed in the aesthetics of IOs. Without proper consideration of potential individual differences, aesthetic scholars may face the risk of having significant effects masked by individual differences. Only by paying attention to this issue can more meaningful findings be generated to contribute to the field of aesthetics. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Immunohistochemical Analysis of a Vitreous Membrane Removed from a Patient with Incontinentia Pigmenti-Related Retinal Detachment
Vision 2020, 4(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision4010005 - 02 Jan 2020
Viewed by 265
Abstract
This is a case history of a 23-year-old woman suffering from incontinentia pigmenti (IP). The patient’s vision in the left eye started to deteriorate due to cataract progression at the age of 22, and by the age of 23, it dropped from 0.9 [...] Read more.
This is a case history of a 23-year-old woman suffering from incontinentia pigmenti (IP). The patient’s vision in the left eye started to deteriorate due to cataract progression at the age of 22, and by the age of 23, it dropped from 0.9 to 0.04. Ultrasound examination confirmed tractional vitreoretinal membranes. Vitrectomy was performed, therefore, on her left eye. The histological evaluation of vitreous membrane revealed a complex immunophenotype (positivity for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), vimentin, S-100, anti-pan cytokeratin antibody (AE/AE3), and smooth muscle-specific actin (SMA) to various extents). The right eye remained unsymptomatic throughout this course. Besides being the first to analyze the tractional vitreoretinal membrane in IP with immunohistochemical methods, this case study points out that extreme cases of asymmetric side involvement in IP do exist, even to the point of one eye being completely unsymptomatic. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Visual Acuity of Rats in Touchscreen Setups
Vision 2020, 4(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision4010004 - 31 Dec 2019
Viewed by 334
Abstract
Touchscreen setups are increasingly used in rodents for a wide range of cognitive tasks, including visual discrimination. The greater automation and high throughput of this platform could greatly facilitate future vision research. However, little information is available regarding decision distance and on the [...] Read more.
Touchscreen setups are increasingly used in rodents for a wide range of cognitive tasks, including visual discrimination. The greater automation and high throughput of this platform could greatly facilitate future vision research. However, little information is available regarding decision distance and on the limitations of stimulus size. Especially when studying visual functions, the lack of control of basic visual properties is a drawback. Therefore, we determined the maximal number of cycles per screen gratings can have so that Long Evans rats can reliably perform orientation discrimination. To relate our results to literature on visual acuity we tried to make an estimate of the decision distance in the touchscreen platform. The rats can discriminate between orientations with 70% accuracy up to 44 cycles per screen. This could roughly translates to the previously reported visual acuity of 1 c/degree assuming a viewing distance of 12.5 cm. This could be useful when designing new stimuli based on published results in c/degree. One could assume a viewing distance of 12.5 cm and expect similar discrimination performance in the touchscreen setup as in other tasks with a predefined viewing distance. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Evolution of the Pulvinar Complex in Primates and Its Role in the Dorsal and Ventral Streams of Cortical Processing
Vision 2020, 4(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision4010003 - 30 Dec 2019
Viewed by 316
Abstract
Current evidence supports the view that the visual pulvinar of primates consists of at least five nuclei, with two large nuclei, lateral pulvinar ventrolateral (PLvl) and central lateral nucleus of the inferior pulvinar (PIcl), contributing mainly to the ventral stream of cortical processing [...] Read more.
Current evidence supports the view that the visual pulvinar of primates consists of at least five nuclei, with two large nuclei, lateral pulvinar ventrolateral (PLvl) and central lateral nucleus of the inferior pulvinar (PIcl), contributing mainly to the ventral stream of cortical processing for perception, and three smaller nuclei, posterior nucleus of the inferior pulvinar (PIp), medial nucleus of the inferior pulvinar (PIm), and central medial nucleus of the inferior pulvinar (PIcm), projecting to dorsal stream visual areas for visually directed actions. In primates, both cortical streams are highly dependent on visual information distributed from primary visual cortex (V1). This area is so vital to vision that patients with V1 lesions are considered “cortically blind”. When the V1 inputs to dorsal stream area middle temporal visual area (MT) are absent, other dorsal stream areas receive visual information relayed from the superior colliculus via PIp and PIcm, thereby preserving some dorsal stream functions, a phenomenon called “blind sight”. Non-primate mammals do not have a dorsal stream area MT with V1 inputs, but superior colliculus inputs to temporal cortex can be more significant and more visual functions are preserved when V1 input is disrupted. The current review will discuss how the different visual streams, especially the dorsal stream, have changed during primate evolution and we propose which features are retained from the common ancestor of primates and their close relatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of the Pulvinar in Visual Processing)
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Open AccessArticle
South American Values of the Optical Straylight Function
Vision 2020, 4(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision4010002 - 24 Dec 2019
Viewed by 214
Abstract
Purpose: To access retinal straylight in a Brazilian sample and to compare it with European norms. Methods: Absolute Straylight was assessed using C-Quant that uses an adaptive staircase based on a 2-Alternated Forced Choice task. A young (22.2 ± 2.4 yrs, n = [...] Read more.
Purpose: To access retinal straylight in a Brazilian sample and to compare it with European norms. Methods: Absolute Straylight was assessed using C-Quant that uses an adaptive staircase based on a 2-Alternated Forced Choice task. A young (22.2 ± 2.4 yrs, n = 20) and an old group (53.8 ± 7.4 yrs, n = 21) of subjects were tested. All refractive errors were corrected in the C-Quant device, and no subjects had ocular diseases or vision-threatening conditions (e.g., diabetes, unregulated blood pressure, high intraocular pressure, visible cataract). Eighty-five percent of all subjects in each age group had dark-pigmented eyes. Each eye was tested 3 times, yielding 6 straylight values (s). Only data fulfilling C-Quant reliability criteria were included. Results: There were no statistical differences between the three attempts on each eye (ANOVA, F = 0.993, p > 0.936) and between the two groups (ANOVA, F = 0.893, p > 0.725). Straylight values (s) were fit with an empirical equation to compare to European norms. There were no statistical differences between Brazilian straylight values and European norms for either young or old age groups (ANOVA, F = 5.114, p > 0.993). However, there was a tendency for our s values to be higher than the European norms, consistent with young Brazilian eyes having more light-scattering than age-matched European eyes. Conclusions: Consistent with European norms, light-scattering increases with age in the Brazilian sample. This increase is thought to be due, in large part, to age-related changes in lens structure and density. Although the differences between the populations are not significant, the tendency for Brazilian data to have higher s values than European values, especially at young subjects, is in the opposite direction from that expected from a dark-eyed population. This suggests the hypothesis that latitude-dependent (Sao Paulo, latitude 23° S, European latitudes between 40° N to 55° N) differences in the light environment could be associated with differences in s values. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Distinctive Spatial and Laminar Organization of Single Axons from Lateral Pulvinar in the Macaque
Vision 2020, 4(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision4010001 - 18 Dec 2019
Viewed by 329
Abstract
Pulvino-cortical (PC) projections are a major source of extrinsic input to early visual areas in the macaque. From bulk injections of anterograde tracers, these are known to terminate in layer 1 of V1 and densely in the middle cortical layers of extrastriate areas. [...] Read more.
Pulvino-cortical (PC) projections are a major source of extrinsic input to early visual areas in the macaque. From bulk injections of anterograde tracers, these are known to terminate in layer 1 of V1 and densely in the middle cortical layers of extrastriate areas. Finer, single axon analysis, as reviewed here for projections from the lateral pulvinar (PL) in two macaque monkeys (n = 25 axons), demonstrates that PL axons have multiple arbors in V2 and V4, and that these are spatially separate and offset in different layers. In contrast, feedforward cortical axons, another major source of extrinsic input to extrastriate areas, are less spatially divergent and more typically terminate in layer 4. Functional implications are briefly discussed, including comparisons with the better investigated rodent brain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of the Pulvinar in Visual Processing)
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