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Vision, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2018)

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Displaying articles 1-13
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Open AccessReview A Review of Depth of Focus in Measurement of the Amplitude of Accommodation
Received: 12 July 2018 / Revised: 24 August 2018 / Accepted: 31 August 2018 / Published: 6 September 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this review is to investigate the role of depth of focus (DoF) as a potential confounding variable in the measurement of the amplitude of accommodation (AoA). The role of DoF in human vision is briefly summarised, and it is noted
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The aim of this review is to investigate the role of depth of focus (DoF) as a potential confounding variable in the measurement of the amplitude of accommodation (AoA). The role of DoF in human vision is briefly summarised, and it is noted that the prevalent method of measuring AoA is the push-up method. Factors influencing the effect of DoF on the push-up and other methods of measuring AoA are reviewed in detail. DoF is shown to add substantial measurement error in the routine assessment of accommodation when the AoA is measured by methods involving subjective judgement of an object’s clarity. Reliable compensation for this source of error is not realistically possible because of the complexity of the aetiology of DoF, and its inter-individual and intra-individual variation. The method of measurement also influences the extent of the error. It is concluded that methods of measurement of AoA that exclude DoF should be preferred. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physiological Optics of Accommodation and Presbyopia)
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Open AccessArticle Cognitive Demand and Accommodative Microfluctuations
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 6 September 2018
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Abstract
Previous studies have shown cognition to have an influence on accommodation. Temporal variation in the accommodative response occurs during the fixation on a stationary target. This constantly shifting response has been called accommodative micro-fluctuations (AMFs). The aim of this study is to determine
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Previous studies have shown cognition to have an influence on accommodation. Temporal variation in the accommodative response occurs during the fixation on a stationary target. This constantly shifting response has been called accommodative micro-fluctuations (AMFs). The aim of this study is to determine the effects of increasing task cognitive demand on the ocular accommodation response. AMFs for 12 myopes and 12 emmetropes were measured under three conditions of varying cognitive demand and comprising reading of numbers (Num), simple arithmetic (SA), and complex arithmetic (CA). Fast Fourier transforms were used to analyze the different frequency band components of the AMFs. Other aspects of AMFs including root mean square accommodation values and chaos analysis was applied. A repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant main effect of cognition in the mean power of the high frequency component (HFC) (F2,44 = 10.03, p < 0.005). Pairwise analyses revealed that these differences exist between SA and CA tasks (p < 0.005) and the Num and CA (p < 0.005) tasks with the HFC power being the highest for the CA condition. It appears that the difficulty of a task does affect active accommodation but to a lesser extent than other factors affecting accommodation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physiological Optics of Accommodation and Presbyopia)
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Open AccessArticle Accurate Model-Based Point of Gaze Estimation on Mobile Devices
Received: 1 July 2018 / Revised: 17 August 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 24 August 2018
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Abstract
The most accurate remote Point of Gaze (PoG) estimation methods that allow free head movements use infrared light sources and cameras together with gaze estimation models. Current gaze estimation models were developed for desktop eye-tracking systems and assume that the relative roll between
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The most accurate remote Point of Gaze (PoG) estimation methods that allow free head movements use infrared light sources and cameras together with gaze estimation models. Current gaze estimation models were developed for desktop eye-tracking systems and assume that the relative roll between the system and the subjects’ eyes (the ’R-Roll’) is roughly constant during use. This assumption is not true for hand-held mobile-device-based eye-tracking systems. We present an analysis that shows the accuracy of estimating the PoG on screens of hand-held mobile devices depends on the magnitude of the R-Roll angle and the angular offset between the visual and optical axes of the individual viewer. We also describe a new method to determine the PoG which compensates for the effects of R-Roll on the accuracy of the POG. Experimental results on a prototype infrared smartphone show that for an R-Roll angle of 90 ° , the new method achieves accuracy of approximately 1 ° , while a gaze estimation method that assumes that the R-Roll angle remains constant achieves an accuracy of 3.5 ° . The manner in which the experimental PoG estimation errors increase with the increase in the R-Roll angle was consistent with the analysis. The method presented in this paper can improve significantly the performance of eye-tracking systems on hand-held mobile-devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Advanced Eye-tracking Technologies and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Validation of Novel Metrics from the Accommodative Dynamic Profile
Received: 17 July 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 August 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
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Abstract
Objective and subjective methods of assessing time taken for accommodative change (ToAC) include accommodative dynamics (AD) and accommodative facility (AF). This study investigates the validity of novel metrics derived from the AD-profile and explores their relationship with AF. AD were assessed using a
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Objective and subjective methods of assessing time taken for accommodative change (ToAC) include accommodative dynamics (AD) and accommodative facility (AF). This study investigates the validity of novel metrics derived from the AD-profile and explores their relationship with AF. AD were assessed using a modified open-field autorefractor in 43 healthy adults. Non-linear regression curves were fitted to the data to derive: latency-of-accommodation (nLoA) and -disaccomodation (nLoD), Time-for-accommodation (ToA) and -disaccommodation (ToD), and objective-ToAC (oToAC). Latencies were also calculated through visual inspection of the AD data as in previous studies (pLoA and pLoD). AF was used to assess subjective-ToAC. Statistical analysis explored the relationships between the AD-metrics and AF. Subjects were assessed on three visits to examine intra- and inter-observer repeatability. nLoA and nLoD were greater than pLoA (p = 0.001) and pLoD (p = 0.004) respectively. nLoA and nLoD also demonstrated greater intra- and inter-observer repeatability than pLoA and pLoD. AF demonstrated a moderate, inverse correlation with ToA (p = 0.02), ToD (p = 0.007), and oToAC (p = 0.007). ToD was the single best accommodative predictor of AF (p = 0.011). The novel method for deriving latency was more repeatable, but not interchangeable with the techniques used in previous studies. ToD was the most repeatable metric with the greatest association with AF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physiological Optics of Accommodation and Presbyopia)
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Open AccessArticle Optical Coherence Tomography Reveals Sigmoidal Crystalline Lens Changes during Accommodation
Received: 20 July 2018 / Revised: 15 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
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Abstract
This study aimed to quantify biometric modifications of the anterior segment (AS) during accommodation and to compare them against changes in both accommodative demand and response. Thirty adults, aged 18–25 years were rendered functionally emmetropic with contact lenses. AS optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT)
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This study aimed to quantify biometric modifications of the anterior segment (AS) during accommodation and to compare them against changes in both accommodative demand and response. Thirty adults, aged 18–25 years were rendered functionally emmetropic with contact lenses. AS optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) images were captured along the 180° meridian (Visante, Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany) under stimulated accommodative demands (0–4 D). Images were analysed and lens thickness (LT) was measured, applying a refractive index correction of 1.00. Accommodative responses were also measured sequentially through a Badal optical system fitted to an autorefractor (Shin Nippon NVision-K 5001, Rexxam, Japan). Data were compared with Dubbelman schematic eye calculations. Significant changes occurred in LT, anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens centroid (i.e., ACD + LT/2), and AS length (ASL = ACD + LT) with accommodation (all p < 0.01). There was no significant change in CT with accommodation (p = 0.81). Measured CT, ACD, and lens centroid values were similar to Dubbelman modelled parameters, however AS-OCT overestimated LT and ASL. As expected, the accommodative response was less than the demand. Interestingly, up until approximately 1.5 D of response (2.0 D demand), the anterior crystalline lens surface appears to be the primary correlate. Beyond this point, the posterior lens surface moves posteriorly resulting in an over-all sigmoidal trajectory. he posterior crystalline lens surface demonstrates a sigmoidal response with increasing accommodative effort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physiological Optics of Accommodation and Presbyopia)
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Open AccessArticle Apparent Motion Perception in the Praying Mantis: Psychophysics and Modelling
Received: 19 June 2018 / Revised: 23 July 2018 / Accepted: 8 August 2018 / Published: 10 August 2018
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Abstract
Apparent motion is the perception of motion created by rapidly presenting still frames in which objects are displaced in space. Observers can reliably discriminate the direction of apparent motion when inter-frame object displacement is below a certain limit, Dmax. Earlier studies of
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Apparent motion is the perception of motion created by rapidly presenting still frames in which objects are displaced in space. Observers can reliably discriminate the direction of apparent motion when inter-frame object displacement is below a certain limit, Dmax . Earlier studies of motion perception in humans found that Dmax is lower-bounded at around 15 arcmin, and thereafter scales with the size of the spatial elements in the images. Here, we run corresponding experiments in the praying mantis Sphodromantis lineola to investigate how Dmax scales with the element size. We use random moving chequerboard patterns of varying element and displacement step sizes to elicit the optomotor response, a postural stabilization mechanism that causes mantids to lean in the direction of large-field motion. Subsequently, we calculate Dmax as the displacement step size corresponding to a 50% probability of detecting an optomotor response in the same direction as the stimulus. Our main findings are that the mantis Dmax scales roughly as a square-root of element size and that, in contrast to humans, it is not lower-bounded. We present two models to explain these observations: a simple high-level model based on motion energy in the Fourier domain and a more-detailed one based on the Reichardt Detector. The models present complementary intuitive and physiologically-realistic accounts of how Dmax scales with the element size in insects. We conclude that insect motion perception is limited by only a single stage of spatial filtering, reflecting the optics of the compound eye. In contrast, human motion perception reflects a second stage of spatial filtering, at coarser scales than imposed by human optics, likely corresponding to the magnocellular pathway. After this spatial filtering, mantis and human motion perception and Dmax are qualitatively very similar. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Visual Perception and Its Neural Mechanisms)
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Open AccessReview New Therapies of Neovascular AMD—Beyond Anti-VEGFs
Received: 10 June 2018 / Revised: 24 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 30 July 2018
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Abstract
Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) is one of the leading causes of blindness among the aging population. The current treatment options for nAMD include intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF). However, standardized frequent administration of anti-VEGF injections only improves vision in
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Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) is one of the leading causes of blindness among the aging population. The current treatment options for nAMD include intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF). However, standardized frequent administration of anti-VEGF injections only improves vision in approximately 30–40% of nAMD patients. Current therapies targeting nAMD pose a significant risk of retinal fibrosis and geographic atrophy (GA) development in nAMD patients. A need exists to develop new therapies to treat nAMD with effective and long-term anti-angiogenic effects. Recent research on nAMD has identified novel therapeutic targets and angiogenic signaling mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis. For example, tissue factor, human intravenous immune globulin, interferon-β signaling, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase lipid metabolites have been identified as key players in the development of angiogenesis in AMD disease models. Furthermore, novel therapies such as NACHT, LRR and PYD domains containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome inhibition, inhibitors of integrins and tissue factor are currently being tested at the level of clinical trials to treat nAMD. The aim of this review is to discuss the scope for alternative therapies proposed as anti-VEGFs for the treatment of nAMD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Age-Related Macular Degeneration)
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Open AccessEditorial Special Issue for Purinergic Receptors, Particularly P2X7 Receptor, in the Eye
Received: 23 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 24 July 2018
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(This article belongs to the Special Issue Purinergic Receptors in the Eye)
Open AccessArticle Stuck on a Plateau? A Model-Based Approach to Fundamental Issues in Visual Temporal-Order Judgments
Received: 16 April 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 5 July 2018 / Published: 16 July 2018
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Abstract
Humans are incapable of judging the temporal order of visual events at brief temporal separations with perfect accuracy. Their performance—which is of much interest in visual cognition and attention research—can be measured with the temporal-order judgment (TOJ) task, which typically produces S-shaped psychometric
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Humans are incapable of judging the temporal order of visual events at brief temporal separations with perfect accuracy. Their performance—which is of much interest in visual cognition and attention research—can be measured with the temporal-order judgment (TOJ) task, which typically produces S-shaped psychometric functions. Occasionally, researchers reported plateaus within these functions, and some theories predict such deviation from the basic S shape. However, the centers of the psychometric functions result from the weakest performance at the most difficult presentations and therefore fluctuate strongly, leaving the existence and exact shapes of plateaus unclear. This study set out to investigate whether plateaus disappear if the data accuracy is enhanced, or if we are “stuck on a plateau”, or rather with it. For this purpose, highly accurate data were assessed by model-based analysis. The existence of plateaus is confidently confirmed and two plausible mechanisms derived from very different models are presented. Neither model, however, performs well in the presence of a strong attention manipulation, and model comparison remains unclear on the question of which of the models describes the data best. Nevertheless, the present study includes the highest accuracy in visual TOJ data and the most explicit models of plateaus in TOJ studied so far. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Color and Luminance Contrast on Size Perception—Evidence from a Horizontal Parallel Lines Illusion
Received: 21 June 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 13 July 2018
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Abstract
The present study investigated a size illusion composed of two horizontal lines that were vertically separated and parallel to each other. When the two lines were of equal length, the upper line was consistently perceived to be a little longer than the lower
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The present study investigated a size illusion composed of two horizontal lines that were vertically separated and parallel to each other. When the two lines were of equal length, the upper line was consistently perceived to be a little longer than the lower line, therefore it was termed as horizontal parallel lines (HPL) illusion. We investigated the effect of color and luminance contrast on the HPL illusion by manipulating the color and luminance of the two lines. Results indicated the following: (1) differences in color between the two lines reduced the illusion; (2) differences in luminance between the two lines reduced the illusion; (3) Effect 1 was greater than Effect 2; (4) the illusory effect could not be affected as long as both of the lines were of the same color or luminance. The results suggest that the color or luminance contrast may contribute to the overall decrease in the illusory effect for lines with different colors/luminances, but generally the illusion decreases as the two lines are less similar to each other. These findings indicate that the similarity or ‘sameness’ effect dominates the effect of color/luminance contrast on the size illusion over the effect resulted from contrast difference or depth perception. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Temporal Integration of Motion Streaks in Migraine
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 11 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 13 July 2018
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Abstract
Migraine is associated with differences in visual perception, specifically, deficits in the perception of motion. Migraine groups commonly show poorer performance (higher thresholds) on global motion tasks compared to control groups. Successful performance on a global motion task depends on several factors, including
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Migraine is associated with differences in visual perception, specifically, deficits in the perception of motion. Migraine groups commonly show poorer performance (higher thresholds) on global motion tasks compared to control groups. Successful performance on a global motion task depends on several factors, including integrating signals over time. A “motion streak” task was used to investigate specifically integration over time in migraine and control groups. The motion streak effect depends on the integration of a moving point over time to create the illusion of a line, or “streak”. There was evidence of a slower optimum speed for eliciting the motion streak effect in migraine compared to control groups, suggesting temporal integration is different in migraine. In addition, performance on the motion streak task showed a relationship with headache frequency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Visual Motion Processing)
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Open AccessArticle Multiple Photographs of a Perspective Scene Reveal the Principles of Picture Perception
Received: 19 April 2018 / Revised: 23 June 2018 / Accepted: 24 June 2018 / Published: 26 June 2018
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Abstract
A picture is a powerful and convenient medium for inducing the illusion that one perceives a three-dimensional scene. The relative invariance of picture perception across viewing positions has aroused the interest of painters, photographers, and visual scientists. This study explores variables that may
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A picture is a powerful and convenient medium for inducing the illusion that one perceives a three-dimensional scene. The relative invariance of picture perception across viewing positions has aroused the interest of painters, photographers, and visual scientists. This study explores variables that may underlie the invariance. It presents a computational analysis of distances and directions in sets of two photographs of perspective scenes taken from different camera positions. Focal lengths of the lens and picture sizes are chosen such that the sizes of one of the familiar objects are equally large in both photographs. The selected object is perceived at the same distance in both photographs, independent of viewing distance, showing that pictorial distance is fully determined by angular size of the object. Pictorial distance is independent of camera position, focal length of the lens, and picture size. Distances and directions of pictorial objects are computed as a function of viewing distance, and compared with distances and directions of the physical objects as a function of camera position. The computations show that ratios between pictorial distances, directions, and angular sizes of objects in a photograph are constant, as a function of viewing distance. The constant ratios are proposed as the reason for invariance of picture perception over a range of viewing distances. Reanalysis of distance judgments obtained from the literature shows that perspective space, previously proposed as the model for visual space, is also a good model for pictorial space. The geometry of pictorial space contradicts some conceptions about picture perception. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Perspective of Visual Space)
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Open AccessArticle Purinergic Vasotoxicity: Role of the Pore/Oxidant/KATP Channel/Ca2+ Pathway in P2X7-Induced Cell Death in Retinal Capillaries
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 21 June 2018 / Published: 25 June 2018
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Abstract
P2X7 receptor/channels in the retinal microvasculature not only regulate vasomotor activity, but can also trigger cells in the capillaries to die. While it is known that this purinergic vasotoxicity is dependent on the transmembrane pores that form during P2X7 activation, events
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P2X7 receptor/channels in the retinal microvasculature not only regulate vasomotor activity, but can also trigger cells in the capillaries to die. While it is known that this purinergic vasotoxicity is dependent on the transmembrane pores that form during P2X7 activation, events linking pore formation with cell death remain uncertain. To better understand this pathophysiological process, we used YO-PRO-1 uptake, dichlorofluorescein fluorescence, perforated-patch recordings, fura-2 imaging and trypan blue dye exclusion to assess the effects of the P2X7 agonist, benzoylbenzoyl-ATP (BzATP), on pore formation, oxidant production, ion channel activation, [Ca2+]i and cell viability. Experiments demonstrated that exposure of retinal microvessels to BzATP increases capillary cell oxidants via a mechanism dependent on pore formation and the enzyme, NADPH oxidase. Indicative that oxidation plays a key role in purinergic vasotoxicity, an inhibitor of this enzyme completely prevented BzATP-induced death. We further discovered that vasotoxicity was boosted 4-fold by a pathway involving the oxidation-driven activation of hyperpolarizing KATP channels and the resulting increase in calcium influx. Our findings revealed that the previously unappreciated pore/oxidant/KATP channel/Ca2+ pathway accounts for 75% of the capillary cell death triggered by sustained activation of P2X7 receptor/channels. Elucidation of this pathway is of potential therapeutic importance since purinergic vasotoxicity may play a role in sight-threatening disorders such as diabetic retinopathy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Purinergic Receptors in the Eye)
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