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Open AccessArticle

Cognitive Demand and Accommodative Microfluctuations

School of Optometry & Vision Science, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP, UK
Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PJ, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Vision 2018, 2(3), 36;
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 6 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physiological Optics of Accommodation and Presbyopia)
Previous studies have shown cognition to have an influence on accommodation. Temporal variation in the accommodative response occurs during the fixation on a stationary target. This constantly shifting response has been called accommodative micro-fluctuations (AMFs). The aim of this study is to determine the effects of increasing task cognitive demand on the ocular accommodation response. AMFs for 12 myopes and 12 emmetropes were measured under three conditions of varying cognitive demand and comprising reading of numbers (Num), simple arithmetic (SA), and complex arithmetic (CA). Fast Fourier transforms were used to analyze the different frequency band components of the AMFs. Other aspects of AMFs including root mean square accommodation values and chaos analysis was applied. A repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant main effect of cognition in the mean power of the high frequency component (HFC) (F2,44 = 10.03, p < 0.005). Pairwise analyses revealed that these differences exist between SA and CA tasks (p < 0.005) and the Num and CA (p < 0.005) tasks with the HFC power being the highest for the CA condition. It appears that the difficulty of a task does affect active accommodation but to a lesser extent than other factors affecting accommodation. View Full-Text
Keywords: accommodation; micro-fluctuations; cognitive demand accommodation; micro-fluctuations; cognitive demand
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Hynes, N.J.; Cufflin, M.P.; Hampson, K.M.; Mallen, E.A.H. Cognitive Demand and Accommodative Microfluctuations. Vision 2018, 2, 36.

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