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Instruments, Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2020) – 9 articles

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
First Demonstration of a Pixelated Charge Readout for Single-Phase Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers
Instruments 2020, 4(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments4010009 - 23 Mar 2020
Viewed by 336
Abstract
Traditional charge readout technologies of single-phase Liquid Argon Time projection Chambers (LArTPCs) based on projective wire readout introduce intrinsic ambiguities in event reconstruction. Combined with the slow response inherent in LArTPC detectors, reconstruction ambiguities have limited their performance, until now. Here, we present [...] Read more.
Traditional charge readout technologies of single-phase Liquid Argon Time projection Chambers (LArTPCs) based on projective wire readout introduce intrinsic ambiguities in event reconstruction. Combined with the slow response inherent in LArTPC detectors, reconstruction ambiguities have limited their performance, until now. Here, we present a proof of principle of a pixelated charge readout that enables the full 3D tracking capabilities of LArTPCs. We characterize the signal-to-noise ratio of charge readout chain to be about 14, and demonstrate track reconstruction on 3D space points produced by the pixel readout. This pixelated charge readout makes LArTPCs a viable option for high-multiplicity environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liquid Argon Detectors: Instrumentation and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Retro-Fitting Earth-Field Compensation Coils to the Vertical Cryostat GERSEMI in FREIA
Instruments 2020, 4(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments4010008 - 10 Mar 2020
Viewed by 334
Abstract
We describe the design and construction of coils to compensate the Earth’s magnetic field in the vertical cryostat GERSEMI in the FREIA laboratory at Uppsala University. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Precise Electrohydrodynamic Direct-Write Micro-Droplets Based on a Designed Sinusoidal High-Voltage AC Power
Instruments 2020, 4(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments4010007 - 23 Feb 2020
Viewed by 360
Abstract
The precise manufacturing of micro/nano structures is the key to the rapid development of flexible micro/nano systems. In this paper, a sinusoidal high-voltage alternating current (AC) power is designed for electrohydrodynamic direct-writing (EDW) technology. A push-pull converting circuit is utilized as the direct [...] Read more.
The precise manufacturing of micro/nano structures is the key to the rapid development of flexible micro/nano systems. In this paper, a sinusoidal high-voltage alternating current (AC) power is designed for electrohydrodynamic direct-writing (EDW) technology. A push-pull converting circuit is utilized as the direct current (DC) voltage regulator power of a full-bridge inverter circuit. A single-phase full-bridge inverter circuit is used to output the controllable AC voltage, which is then boost-filtered to output the high-voltage sinusoidal AC signal. The amplitude of the output sinusoidal voltage is proportional to the input voltage and the modulation degree of the sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) inverter circuit. Then, the designed sinusoidal high-voltage AC power is used in the AC EDW process to print micro-droplets. The deposition frequency and the average diameter of droplets can be effectively controlled by adjusting the voltage amplitude and the voltage frequency. The design of this sinusoidal high-voltage AC power will promote research on the applications of EDW technology in the field of micro/nano manufacturing. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A New Concept for Kilotonne Scale Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers
Instruments 2020, 4(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments4010006 - 07 Feb 2020
Viewed by 348
Abstract
We develop a novel Time Projection Chamber (TPC) concept suitable for deployment in kilotonne-scale detectors, with a charge-readout system free from reconstruction ambiguities, and a robust TPC design that reduces high-voltage risks while increasing the coverage of the light-collection system and maximizing the [...] Read more.
We develop a novel Time Projection Chamber (TPC) concept suitable for deployment in kilotonne-scale detectors, with a charge-readout system free from reconstruction ambiguities, and a robust TPC design that reduces high-voltage risks while increasing the coverage of the light-collection system and maximizing the active volume. This novel concept could be used as a far detector module in the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE). For the charge-readout system, we used the charge-collection pixels and associated application-specific integrated circuits currently being developed for the liquid argon (LAr) component of the DUNE Near Detector design, ArgonCube. In addition, we divided the TPC into a number of shorter drift volumes, reducing the total voltage used to drift the ionization electrons, and minimizing the stored energy per TPC. Segmenting the TPC also contains scintillation light, allowing for precise trigger localization and a more expansive light-readout system. Furthermore, the design opens the possibility of replacing or upgrading components. These augmentations could substantially improve the reliability and the sensitivity, particularly for low-energy signals, in comparison to traditional monolithic LArTPCs with projective-wire charge readouts. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Selected Papers from Instruments’ Editorial Board Members)
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Open AccessArticle
Free Electron Laser Performance within the EuPRAXIA Facility
Instruments 2020, 4(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments4010005 - 01 Feb 2020
Viewed by 359
Abstract
Over the past 90 years, particle accelerators have evolved into powerful and widely used tools for basic research, industry, medicine, and science. A new type of accelerator that uses plasma wakefields promises gradients as high as some tens of billions of electron volts [...] Read more.
Over the past 90 years, particle accelerators have evolved into powerful and widely used tools for basic research, industry, medicine, and science. A new type of accelerator that uses plasma wakefields promises gradients as high as some tens of billions of electron volts per meter. This would allow much smaller accelerators that could be used for a wide range of fundamental and applied research applications. One of the target applications is a plasma-driven free-electron laser (FEL), aiming at producing tunable coherent light using electrons traveling in the periodic magnetic field of an undulator. In this work, the plasma-based electron beams with the most promising qualities, designed in the framework of EuPRAXIA, are analyzed in terms of the FEL performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Logarithmic Spiral Neutron Guide
Instruments 2020, 4(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments4010004 - 27 Jan 2020
Viewed by 356
Abstract
We present a neutron guide which is curved in the shape of a logarithmic spiral. Simulations and calculations for such a spiral guide are presented and the potential use of the guide for a reflectometer is investigated and compared to the conventional circularly [...] Read more.
We present a neutron guide which is curved in the shape of a logarithmic spiral. Simulations and calculations for such a spiral guide are presented and the potential use of the guide for a reflectometer is investigated and compared to the conventional circularly curved guide geometry. We concentrate on the specific case of a beamport at the SINQ source. For this application, the spiral guide shows a 30% increased flux on the region of interest while at the same time reducing background scattering due to beam converging. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Instruments in 2019
Instruments 2020, 4(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments4010003 - 16 Jan 2020
Viewed by 365
Open AccessArticle
The Cramer—Rao Inequality to Improve the Resolution of the Least-Squares Method in Track Fitting
Instruments 2020, 4(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments4010002 - 04 Jan 2020
Viewed by 542
Abstract
The Cramer–Rao–Frechet inequality is reviewed and extended to track fitting. A diffused opinion attributes to this inequality the limitation of the resolution of the track fits with the number N of observations. It will be shown that this opinion is incorrect, the weighted [...] Read more.
The Cramer–Rao–Frechet inequality is reviewed and extended to track fitting. A diffused opinion attributes to this inequality the limitation of the resolution of the track fits with the number N of observations. It will be shown that this opinion is incorrect, the weighted least squares method is not subjected to that N-limitation and the resolution can be improved beyond those limits. In previous publications, simulations with realistic models and simple Gaussian models produced interesting results: linear growths of the peaks of the distributions of the fitted parameters with the number N of observations, much faster than the N of the standard least-squares. These results could be considered a violation of a well-known 1 / N -rule for the variance of an unbiased estimator, frequently reported as the Cramer–Rao–Frechet bound. To clarify this point beyond any doubt, a direct proof of the consistency of those results with this inequality would be essential. Unfortunately, such proof is lacking. Hence, the Cramer–Rao–Frechet developments are applied to prove the efficiency (optimality) of the simple Gaussian model and the consistency of the linear growth. The inequality remains valid even for irregular models supporting the similar improvement of resolution for the realistic models. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Electron Beam Brightness and Undulator Radiation Brilliance for a Laser Plasma Acceleration Based Free Electron Laser
Instruments 2020, 4(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments4010001 - 01 Jan 2020
Viewed by 479
Abstract
We report here on spontaneous undulator radiation and free electron laser calculations after a 10-m long transport line (COXINEL) using a Laser Plasma acceleration (LPA) source. The line enables the manipulation of the properties of the produced electron beams (energy spread, divergence, dispersion) [...] Read more.
We report here on spontaneous undulator radiation and free electron laser calculations after a 10-m long transport line (COXINEL) using a Laser Plasma acceleration (LPA) source. The line enables the manipulation of the properties of the produced electron beams (energy spread, divergence, dispersion) in view of light source applications. The electron beam brightness and undulator radiation brilliance are addressed by an analytical approach enabling us to point out the influence of chromatic effects in the COXINEL case. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physics and Applications of High Brightness Beams)
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