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Tomography, Volume 8, Issue 5 (October 2022) – 43 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive type of cancer that develops from mesothelial cells lining the pleura. Exposure to asbestos fibers from industrial and environmental sources is the main cause of MPM. A combination of surgery and chemotherapy is currently the most effective treatment available for MPM, but they are extremely aggressive and cause significant collateral damage to the body. They also lack the ability to eliminate residual microscopic disease, which can lead to the recurrence of the tumor. As a result, the prognosis of MPM is very poor, with a median survival of 9–12 months. Here, we investigated two alternative treatments in an in vivo porcine model of mesothelioma, Radiofrequency Ablation, a minimally invasive tumor treatment, and MRI-guided Focused Ultrasound Surgery, a completely noninvasive tumor treatment. View this paper
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21 pages, 1811 KiB  
Review
Radiation Dose Reduction Opportunities in Vascular Imaging
by David Summerlin, Joseph Willis, Robert Boggs, Loretta M. Johnson and Kristin K. Porter
Tomography 2022, 8(5), 2618-2638; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8050219 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2198
Abstract
Computed tomography angiography (CTA) has been the gold standard imaging modality for vascular imaging due to a variety of factors, including the widespread availability of computed tomography (CT) scanners, the ease and speed of image acquisition, and the high sensitivity of CTA for [...] Read more.
Computed tomography angiography (CTA) has been the gold standard imaging modality for vascular imaging due to a variety of factors, including the widespread availability of computed tomography (CT) scanners, the ease and speed of image acquisition, and the high sensitivity of CTA for vascular pathology. However, the radiation dose experienced by the patient during imaging has long been a concern of this image acquisition method. Advancements in CT image acquisition techniques in combination with advancements in non-ionizing radiation imaging techniques including magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) present growing opportunities to reduce total radiation dose to patients. This review provides an overview of advancements in imaging technology and acquisition techniques that are helping to minimize radiation dose associated with vascular imaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation Protection Opportunities in Medical Imaging)
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9 pages, 2004 KiB  
Article
Vascular Choroidal Alterations in Uncomplicated Third-Trimester Pregnancy
by Jan A. M. Sochurek, Michael Gembicki, Salvatore Grisanti and Mahdy Ranjbar
Tomography 2022, 8(5), 2609-2617; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8050218 - 18 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1301
Abstract
(1) Purpose: To evaluate the anatomy and perfusion of choroidal substructures in third-trimester pregnant women using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCTA) imaging. (2) Methods: In this cross-sectional study, women in their third trimester of uncomplicated pregnancy and non-pregnant age-matched women [...] Read more.
(1) Purpose: To evaluate the anatomy and perfusion of choroidal substructures in third-trimester pregnant women using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCTA) imaging. (2) Methods: In this cross-sectional study, women in their third trimester of uncomplicated pregnancy and non-pregnant age-matched women were recruited. Participants underwent enhanced depth imaging (EDI) OCT and OCTA. Subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT), as well as choroidal sublayer perfusion, were compared between groups. (3) Results: In total, 26 eyes of 26 pregnant and 26 eyes of 26 non-pregnant women were included. The median age in both groups was 29 years. The median SFCT was 332 (211–469) µm in the pregnant group and 371.5 (224–466) µm in the non-pregnant cohort (p = 0.018). The median choriocapillaris perfusion (CCP) was significantly lower in the pregnant group (46% vs. 48%, p = 0.039). Moreover, Haller’s layer perfusion correlated significantly with mean arterial pressure in non-pregnant women (CC = 0.430, p = 0.028) but not in pregnant ones (CC = 0.054, p = 0.792). (4) Conclusions: SFCT was found to be thinner and CCP was lower in third-trimester pregnant women. Hormonal changes during pregnancy and consecutive impacts on autoregulation of small choroidal vessels might play an important role. Therefore, altered choroidal measurements during third-trimester pregnancy should be carefully evaluated as, to some extent, it could be a normal physiological change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA))
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5 pages, 918 KiB  
Technical Note
Tips and Tricks for Successful Percutaneous Cryoablation of Large Renal Cell Carcinomas
by Islam A. S. Elhelf, Hashim Armashi and Arthur Freedman
Tomography 2022, 8(5), 2604-2608; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8050217 - 15 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1661
Abstract
Percutaneous cryoablation has proved to be safe and effective for the treatment of stage T1a renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Patients with larger-sized RCCs may not be good surgical candidates or may have tumors located in anatomically unfavorable locations, which makes partial nephrectomy more [...] Read more.
Percutaneous cryoablation has proved to be safe and effective for the treatment of stage T1a renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Patients with larger-sized RCCs may not be good surgical candidates or may have tumors located in anatomically unfavorable locations, which makes partial nephrectomy more challenging. In this patient population, percutaneous cryoablation can be considered a treatment option, given its less invasive nature when compared to surgery. The ablation of larger-sized RCCs requires careful planning to ensure that the tumor volume is completely covered within the ablation zone, while minimizing the risks of non-target injury to the surrounding critical organs. In this article, we share our institutional experience in treating larger-sized RCCs (> 4 cm) using percutaneous cryoablation alone. We discuss strategies to maximize the volume of the ablation zone through the precise placement of the probes. We also shed light on different techniques to protect the surrounding structures during cryoablation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Imaging)
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16 pages, 5238 KiB  
Article
Structural and Functional Pulmonary Assessment in Severe COVID-19 Survivors at 12 Months after Discharge
by Andrea Corsi, Anna Caroli, Pietro Andrea Bonaffini, Caterina Conti, Alberto Arrigoni, Elisa Mercanzin, Gianluca Imeri, Marisa Anelli, Maurizio Balbi, Marina Pace, Adriana Zanoletti, Milena Capelli, Fabiano Di Marco and Sandro Sironi
Tomography 2022, 8(5), 2588-2603; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8050216 - 13 Oct 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1945
Abstract
Long-term pulmonary sequelae in COVID-19 patients are currently under investigation worldwide. Potential relationships between blood sampling and functional and radiological findings are crucial to guide the follow-up. In this study, we collected and evaluated clinical status, namely symptoms and patients’ reported outcome, pulmonary [...] Read more.
Long-term pulmonary sequelae in COVID-19 patients are currently under investigation worldwide. Potential relationships between blood sampling and functional and radiological findings are crucial to guide the follow-up. In this study, we collected and evaluated clinical status, namely symptoms and patients’ reported outcome, pulmonary function tests (PFT), laboratory tests, and radiological findings at 3- and 12-months post-discharge in patients admitted between 25 February and 2 May 2020, and who survived severe COVID-19 pneumonia. A history of chronic pulmonary disease or COVID-19-unrelated complications were used as exclusion criteria. Unenhanced CTs were analyzed quantitatively (compromising lung volume %) and qualitatively, with main patterns of: ground-glass opacity (GGO), consolidation, and reticular configuration. Patients were subsequently divided into groups based on their radiological trends and according to the evolution in the percentage of compromised lung volume. At 12 months post-discharge, seventy-one patients showed significantly improved laboratory tests and PFT. Among them, 63 patients also underwent CT examination: all patients with negative CT findings at three months (n = 14) had negative CT also at 12 months; among the 49/63 patients presenting CT alterations at three months, 1/49 (2%) normalized, 40/49 (82%) improved, 7/49 (14%) remained stably abnormal, and 1/49 (2%) worsened. D-dimer values were low in patients with normal CT and higher in cases with improved or stably abnormal CT (median values 213 vs. 329 vs. 1000 ng/mL, respectively). The overall compromised lung volume was reduced compared with three months post-discharge (12.3 vs. 14.4%, p < 0.001). In stably abnormal CT, the main pulmonary pattern changed, showing a reduction in GGO and an increase in reticular configuration. To summarize, PFT are normal in most COVID-19 survivors 12 months post-discharge, but CT structural abnormalities persist (although sensibly improved over time) and are associated with higher D-dimer values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Challenge of Advanced Medical Imaging Data Analysis in COVID-19)
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14 pages, 9187 KiB  
Article
3D Single-Breath Chemical Shift Imaging Hyperpolarized Xe-129 MRI of Healthy, CF, IPF, and COPD Subjects
by Steven Guan, Nick Tustison, Kun Qing, Yun Michael Shim, John Mugler III, Talissa Altes, Dana Albon, Deborah Froh, Borna Mehrad, James Patrie, Alan Ropp, Braden Miller, Jill Nehrbas and Jaime Mata
Tomography 2022, 8(5), 2574-2587; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8050215 - 13 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1651
Abstract
3D Single-breath Chemical Shift Imaging (3D-SBCSI) is a hybrid MR-spectroscopic imaging modality that uses hyperpolarized xenon-129 gas (Xe-129) to differentiate lung diseases by probing functional characteristics. This study tests the efficacy of 3D-SBCSI in differentiating physiology among pulmonary diseases. A total of 45 [...] Read more.
3D Single-breath Chemical Shift Imaging (3D-SBCSI) is a hybrid MR-spectroscopic imaging modality that uses hyperpolarized xenon-129 gas (Xe-129) to differentiate lung diseases by probing functional characteristics. This study tests the efficacy of 3D-SBCSI in differentiating physiology among pulmonary diseases. A total of 45 subjects—16 healthy, 11 idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), 13 cystic fibrosis (CF), and 5 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)—were given 1/3 forced vital capacity (FVC) of hyperpolarized Xe-129, inhaled for a ~7 s MRI acquisition. Proton, Xe-129 ventilation, and 3D-SBCSI images were acquired with separate breath-holds using a radiofrequency chest coil tuned to Xe-129. The Xe-129 spectrum was analyzed in each lung voxel for ratios of spectroscopic peaks, chemical shifts, and T2* relaxation. CF and COPD subjects had significantly more ventilation defects than IPF and healthy subjects, which correlated with FEV1 predicted (R = −0.74). FEV1 predicted correlated well with RBC/Gas ratio (R = 0.67). COPD and IPF had significantly higher Tissue/RBC ratios than other subjects, longer RBC T2* relaxation times, and greater RBC chemical shifts. CF subjects had more ventilation defects than healthy subjects, elevated Tissue/RBC ratio, shorter Tissue T2* relaxation, and greater RBC chemical shift. 3D-SBCSI may be helpful in the detection and characterization of pulmonary disease, following treatment efficacy, and predicting disease outcomes. Full article
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9 pages, 1885 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Effects of R-CHOP Chemotherapy on Brain Glucose Metabolism in Patients with Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma: A Baseline, Interim, and End-of-Treatment PET/CT Study
by Haiyan Zhu, Fei Li, Yan Chang, Yabing Sun, Nan Wang and Ruimin Wang
Tomography 2022, 8(5), 2565-2573; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8050214 - 12 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1694
Abstract
Background: To investigate the effect of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) chemotherapy on brain glucose metabolism in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Methods: Seventy-two patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL underwent FDG PET/CT brain and whole-body scans at baseline [...] Read more.
Background: To investigate the effect of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) chemotherapy on brain glucose metabolism in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Methods: Seventy-two patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL underwent FDG PET/CT brain and whole-body scans at baseline (PET0), in the interim of chemotherapy (PET2), and at the end (PET6) of chemotherapy. All three brain scans of each patient were analyzed using statistical parametric mapping software. Results: Compared with the PET0 scan, the PET2 and PET6 scans revealed a significantly higher glucose metabolism throughout the whole brain, with the PET6 scan revealing a higher metabolism than the PET2 scan. Patients with a complete response (CR) displayed decreased glucose metabolism in the lingual gyrus and increased glucose metabolism in the pons after chemotherapy compared with the findings in patients with partial responses or progressive disease. Conclusions: Brain glucose metabolism was affected by R-CHOP treatment throughout the entire chemotherapy protocol. Full article
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9 pages, 2565 KiB  
Article
Are Transperineal Ultrasound Parameters Useful to Predict Incontinence in Patients with Single-Incision Mini-Slings?
by José Antonio García-Mejido, Pedro Blasco-Hernandez, Cristina Fernandez-Conde, Sara García-Pombo, Ana Fernández-Palacín, Carlota Borrero and José Antonio Sainz-Bueno
Tomography 2022, 8(5), 2556-2564; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8050213 - 12 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1457
Abstract
It would be logical to think that single-incision mini-slings (SIMS) should behave like the rest of the tension-free vaginal tape and, therefore, to believe that they present a similar ultrasound appearance, but there are no studies on this matter. Therefore, the main aim [...] Read more.
It would be logical to think that single-incision mini-slings (SIMS) should behave like the rest of the tension-free vaginal tape and, therefore, to believe that they present a similar ultrasound appearance, but there are no studies on this matter. Therefore, the main aim of our research is to determine which ultrasound parameters are associated with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in patients carrying SIMS. A prospective observational study was carried out including 94 patients who were candidates for SUI corrective surgery with SIMS between 1 January 2021 to 31 December 2021 at the Universitary Hospital of Valme (Seville, Spain). A transperineal ultrasound evaluation was performed (six months after surgery) in order to study: the bladder neck–symphyseal distance, the posterior urethro–vesical angle, the pubic symphysis–tape gap, the tape–urethral lumen distance, the sagittal tape angle, the tape position, the concordance of movement between the tape and the urethra, and the axial tape angle. A total of 92 patients completed the study (63 asymptomatic and 29 symptomatic). Statistical differences were observed in the concordance of movement between the tape and the urethra (84.1% vs. 25.0%; p: 0.001) and in the axial tape angle at rest (139.3 ± 19.0 vs. 118.3 ± 15.4; p: 0.003) and at Valsalva (145.1 ± 20.2 vs. 159.1 ± 9.0; p: 0.034). Sagittal tape angle at rest was higher in urge urinary incontinence (UUI) patients (132.5 ± 35.7 vs. 143.3 ± 29.8; p: 0.001) and mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) patients (132.5 ± 35.7 vs. 157.8 ± 23.6; p: 0.025) compared to asymptomatic patients. In conclusion, the concordance between the movement of the tape and the urethra is the most useful ultrasound parameter to define continence in patients with SIMS. Full article
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9 pages, 1777 KiB  
Article
Online Geometric Calibration of a Hybrid CT System for Ultrahigh-Resolution Imaging
by Dakota H. King, Muyang Wang, Eric E. Bennett, Dumitru Mazilu, Marcus Y. Chen and Han Wen
Tomography 2022, 8(5), 2547-2555; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8050212 - 12 Oct 2022
Viewed by 2070
Abstract
A hybrid imaging system consisting of a standard computed tomography (CT) scanner and a low-profile photon-counting detector insert in contact with the patient’s body has been used to produce ultrahigh-resolution images in a limited volume in chest scans of patients. The detector insert [...] Read more.
A hybrid imaging system consisting of a standard computed tomography (CT) scanner and a low-profile photon-counting detector insert in contact with the patient’s body has been used to produce ultrahigh-resolution images in a limited volume in chest scans of patients. The detector insert is placed on the patient bed as needed and not attached. Thus, its position and orientation in the scanner is dependent on the patient’s position and scan settings. To allow accurate image reconstruction, we devised a method of determining the relative geometry of the detector insert and the CT scanner for each scan using fiducial markers. This method uses an iterative registration algorithm to align the markers in the reconstructed volume from the detector insert to that of the concurrent CT scan. After obtaining precise geometric information of the detector insert relative to the CT scanner, the two complementary sets of images are summed together to create a detailed image with reduced artifacts. Full article
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14 pages, 4838 KiB  
Article
Comparison of 18F-fluorothymidine Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in Patients with Breast Cancer
by Mio Mori, Tomoyuki Fujioka, Ryota Ichikawa, Reina Inomata, Leona Katsuta, Yuka Yashima, Emi Yamaga, Junichi Tsuchiya, Kumiko Hayashi, Yuichi Kumaki, Goshi Oda, Tsuyoshi Nakagawa, Iichiroh Onishi, Kazunori Kubota and Ukihide Tateishi
Tomography 2022, 8(5), 2533-2546; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8050211 - 11 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3037
Abstract
The uptake of 18F-fluorothymidine (18F-FLT) depends on cells’ proliferative rates. We compared the characteristics of 18F-FLT positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with those of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET/CT for breast cancer. We prospectively diagnosed patients with breast [...] Read more.
The uptake of 18F-fluorothymidine (18F-FLT) depends on cells’ proliferative rates. We compared the characteristics of 18F-FLT positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with those of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET/CT for breast cancer. We prospectively diagnosed patients with breast cancer who underwent 18F-FLT PET/CT and 18F-FDG PET/CT. Subsequently, significant differences and correlation coefficients of the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in primary breast cancer and axillary lymph nodes were statistically evaluated. We enrolled eight patients with breast cancer. In six treatment-naive patients, the SUVmax for primary lesions showed a significant difference (mean, 2.1 vs. 4.1, p = 0.031) and a strong correlation (r = 0.969) between 18F-FLT and 18F-FDG. Further, although the SUVmax for the axillary lymph nodes did not show a significant difference between 18F-FLT and 18F-FDG (P = 0.246), there was a strong correlation between the two (r = 0.999). In a patient-by-patient study, there were cases in which only 18F-FDG uptake was observed in lymph nodes and normal breasts. Bone metastases demonstrated lower accumulation than bone marrow on the 18F-FLT PET/CT. In conclusion, a strong correlation was observed between the 18F-FLT PET/CT and 18F-FDG PET/CT uptake. Differences in the biochemical characteristics of 18F-FLT and 18F-FDG were reflected in the accumulation differences for breast cancer, metastatic lesions, and normal organs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New and Emerging Trends in Breast Imaging and Treatment)
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11 pages, 1880 KiB  
Article
Clinical Value of Diffusion-Weighted Whole-Body Imaging with Background Body Signal Suppression (DWIBS) for Staging of Patients with Suspected Head and Neck Cancer
by Andreas Schicho, Werner Habicher, Christina Wendl, Christian Stroszczynski, Quirin Strotzer, Marco Dollinger, Andreas G. Schreyer and Stephan Schleder
Tomography 2022, 8(5), 2522-2532; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8050210 - 09 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1484
Abstract
(1) Background: To determine the importance of diffusion-weighted whole-body MRI with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) in the staging process of patients with suspected head and neck carcinomas. (2) Methods: A total of 30 patients (24 male, 6 female) with a median age [...] Read more.
(1) Background: To determine the importance of diffusion-weighted whole-body MRI with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) in the staging process of patients with suspected head and neck carcinomas. (2) Methods: A total of 30 patients (24 male, 6 female) with a median age of 67 years with clinically suspected head and neck carcinoma with pathologic cervical nodal swelling in ultrasound underwent the staging procedure with computed tomography (CT) and whole-body MRI including DWIBS. (3) Results: In a total of 9 patients, abnormalities in the routine work-up of pretherapeutic staging were found. Five cases of either secondary cancer or distant metastases were only visible in DWIBS, while being missed on CT. One diagnosis was only detectable in CT and not in DWIBS, whereas three diagnoses were recognizable in both modalities. (4) Conclusions: DWIBS in addition to a standard neck MRI in cervical lymphadenopathy suspicious for head and neck cancer yielded additional clinically relevant diagnoses in 17% of cases that would have been missed by current staging routine procedures. DWIBS offered a negative predictive value of 98.78% for ruling out distant metastases or secondary malignancies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Medical Imaging and Applied Radiology in Cancers)
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14 pages, 12505 KiB  
Article
Rate of Change of Liver Iron Content by MR Imaging Methods: A Comparison Study
by Shyam Sunder B. Venkatakrishna, Hansel J. Otero, Adarsh Ghosh, Dmitry Khrichenko and Suraj D. Serai
Tomography 2022, 8(5), 2508-2521; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8050209 - 08 Oct 2022
Viewed by 2012
Abstract
Objective: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can accurately quantify liver iron concentration (LIC), eliminating the need for an invasive liver biopsy. Currently, the most widely used relaxometry methods for iron quantification are R2 and R2*, which are based on T2 and T2* acquisition sequences, [...] Read more.
Objective: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can accurately quantify liver iron concentration (LIC), eliminating the need for an invasive liver biopsy. Currently, the most widely used relaxometry methods for iron quantification are R2 and R2*, which are based on T2 and T2* acquisition sequences, respectively. We compared the rate of change of LIC as measured by the R2-based, FDA-approved commercially available third-party software with the rate of change of LIC measured by in-house analysis using R2*-relaxometry-based MR imaging in patients undergoing follow-up MRI scans for liver iron estimation. Methods: We retrospectively included patients who had undergone serial MRIs for liver iron estimation. The MR studies were performed on a 1.5T scanner; standard multi-slice, multi-echo T2- and T2*-based sequences were acquired, and LIC was estimated. The comparison between the rate of change of LIC by R2 and R2* values was performed via correlation coefficients and Bland–Altman difference plots. Results: One hundred and eighty-nine MR abdomen studies for liver iron evaluation from 81 patients (male: 38; female: 43) were included in the study. Fifty-nine patients had two serial scans, eighteen patients had three serial scans, three patients had four serial scans, and one patient had five serial scans. The average time interval between the first and last scans for each patient was 13.3 months. The average rates of change of LIC via R2 and R2* methods were −0.0043 ± 0.0214 and −0.0047 ± 0.012 mg/g per month, respectively. There was no significant difference in the rate of change of LIC observed between the two methods. Linearity between the rate of change of LIC measured by R2 (LIC R2) and R2* (LIC R2*) was strong, showing a correlation coefficient of r = 0.72, p < 0.01. A Bland–Altman plot between the rate of change of the two methods showed that the majority of the plotted variables were between two standard deviations. Conclusion: There was no significant difference in the rate of change of LIC detected between the R2 method and the R2* method that uses a gradient echo (GRE) sequence acquired with breath-hold. Since R2* is relatively faster and less prone to motion artifacts, R2*-derived LIC is recommended for iron homeostasis follow-up in patients with liver iron overload. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Abdominal Imaging)
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10 pages, 1455 KiB  
Article
Regression Model Decreasing the Risk of Femoral Neurovascular Bundle Accidental Puncture
by Juan Antonio Valera-Calero, Umut Varol, Gustavo Plaza-Manzano, César Fernández-de-las-Peñas and Adolfo Agudo-Aguado
Tomography 2022, 8(5), 2498-2507; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8050208 - 01 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1328
Abstract
Although most of the adverse events derived from dry needling are minor, avoiding potential hazards for patients including accidental invasion of vessels, ganglia, and nerves is essential to ensure patients’ safety. We aimed to investigate the contribution of predictors explaining the variance of [...] Read more.
Although most of the adverse events derived from dry needling are minor, avoiding potential hazards for patients including accidental invasion of vessels, ganglia, and nerves is essential to ensure patients’ safety. We aimed to investigate the contribution of predictors explaining the variance of sartorius muscle depth limit at proximal third and middle thigh as these locations lead to an augmented risk of neurovascular bundle invasion during dry needling application. A diagnostic study was conducted on 84 subjects to calculate the accuracy of a prediction model for sartorius depth, as assessed with ultrasound imaging, based on sex, age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), thigh perimeter, and length. After calculating a correlation matrix, a multiple linear regression analysis was performed to detect those variables contributing to the sartorius deep limit in both locations. Although males showed greater thigh perimeter than women (p < 0.001), the deep limit of the sartorius muscle was significantly more superficial for both the proximal third (p = 0.003) and the mid-third (p = 0.004) points. No side-to-side anthropometric differences were found (p > 0.05). In addition, we found sartorius muscle depth to be associated with the proximal and mid-third girth, gender, height, and BMI (all, p < 0.01). Gender, proximal-third girth, and BMI explained 51.1% and 42.6% of the variance for the sartorius deep limit at the proximal and the mid-third, respectively. This study analyzed whether anthropometric features could predict sartorius muscle depth in healthy participants for assisting clinicians in choosing the optimal needle length to avoid accidental femoral bundle puncture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Imaging Advances in Physiotherapy)
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12 pages, 1265 KiB  
Article
Sample Size and Estimation of Standard Radiation Doses for Pediatric Brain CT
by Yusuke Inoue, Hiroyasu Itoh, Nao Shiibashi, Ryosuke Sasa and Kohei Mitsui
Tomography 2022, 8(5), 2486-2497; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8050207 - 01 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1475
Abstract
Estimation of the standard radiation dose at each imaging facility is required for radiation dose management, including establishment and utilization of the diagnostic reference levels. We investigated methods to estimate the standard dose for pediatric brain computed tomography (CT) using a small number [...] Read more.
Estimation of the standard radiation dose at each imaging facility is required for radiation dose management, including establishment and utilization of the diagnostic reference levels. We investigated methods to estimate the standard dose for pediatric brain computed tomography (CT) using a small number of data. From 980 pediatric brain CT examinations, 25, 50, and 100 examinations were randomly extracted to create small, medium, and large datasets, respectively. The standard dose was estimated by applying grouping and curve-fitting methods for 20 datasets of each sample size. For the grouping method, data were divided into groups according to age or body weight, and the standard dose was defined as a median value in each group. For the curve-fitting methods, logarithmic, power, and bilinear functions were fitted to plots of radiation dose against age or weight, and the standard dose was calculated at the designated age or weight using the derived equation. When the sample size was smaller, the random variations of the estimated standard dose were larger. Better estimation of the standard dose was achieved with the curve-fitting methods than with the grouping method. Power fitting appeared to be more effective than logarithmic and bilinear fittings for suppressing random variation. Determination of the standard dose for pediatric brain CT by the curve-fitting method is recommended to improve radiation dose optimization at facilities performing the imaging procedure infrequently. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation Dose Management in Computed Tomography)
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11 pages, 2106 KiB  
Article
Prediction of Ablation Volume in Percutaneous Lung Microwave Ablation: A Single Centre Retrospective Study
by Anna Maria Ierardi, Pasquale Grillo, Maria Chiara Bonanno, Andrea Coppola, Valentina Vespro, Maria Carmela Andrisani, Davide Tosi, Paolo Mendogni, Sara Franzi, Massimo Venturini and Gianpaolo Carrafiello
Tomography 2022, 8(5), 2475-2485; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8050206 - 30 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1392
Abstract
Background: Percutaneous Microwave Ablation (MWA) of lung malignancies is a procedure with many technical challenges, among them the risk of residual disease. Recently, dedicated software able to predict the volume of the ablated area was introduced. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is the imaging [...] Read more.
Background: Percutaneous Microwave Ablation (MWA) of lung malignancies is a procedure with many technical challenges, among them the risk of residual disease. Recently, dedicated software able to predict the volume of the ablated area was introduced. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is the imaging guidance of choice for pulmonary ablation in our institution. The volumetric prediction software (VPS) has been installed and used in combination with CBCT to check the correct position of the device. Our study aimed to compare the results of MWA of pulmonary tumours performed using CBCT with and without VPS. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 1-month follow-up enhanced contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) scans of 10 patients who underwent ablation with the assistance of VPS (group 1) and of 10 patients who were treated without the assistance of VPS (group 2). All patients were treated for curative purposes, the maximum axial diameter of lesions ranged between 5 and 22 mm in group 1 and between 5 and 25 mm in group 2. We compared the presence of residual disease between the two groups. Results: In group 1 residual disease was seen in only 1 patient (10%) in which VPS had ensured complete coverage of the tumour. In group 2 residual disease was found in 3 patients (30%). Conclusions: Using this software during MWA of lung malignancies could improve the efficacy of the treatment compared to the conventional only CBCT guidance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Imaging)
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4 pages, 437 KiB  
Case Report
Prostate Cancer Biochemical Recurrence Resulted Negative on [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-11 but Positive on [18F]Fluoromethylcholine PET/CT
by Riccardo Laudicella, Flavia La Torre, Valerio Davì, Ludovica Crocè, Demetrio Aricò, Giuseppe Leonardi, Simona Russo, Fabio Minutoli, Irene A. Burger and Sergio Baldari
Tomography 2022, 8(5), 2471-2474; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8050205 - 30 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1540
Abstract
For prostate cancer (PCa) biochemical recurrence (BCR), the primarily suggested imaging technique by the European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines is prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography/computer tomography (PET/CT). Indeed, the increased detection rate of PSMA PET/CT for early BCR has led [...] Read more.
For prostate cancer (PCa) biochemical recurrence (BCR), the primarily suggested imaging technique by the European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines is prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography/computer tomography (PET/CT). Indeed, the increased detection rate of PSMA PET/CT for early BCR has led to a fast and wide acceptance of this novel technology. However, PCa is a very heterogeneous disease, not always easily assessable with the highly specific PSMA PET with around 10% of cases occuring without PSMA expression. In this paper, we present the case of a patient with PCa BCR that resulted negative on [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT, but positive on [18F]Fluoromethylcholine (Choline) PET/CT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of PET-CT Imaging in Oncology)
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11 pages, 1297 KiB  
Article
Petrotympanic Fissure Architecture and Malleus Location in Temporomandibular Joint Disorders
by Oana Almășan, Daniel-Corneliu Leucuța, Cristian Dinu, Smaranda Buduru, Mihaela Băciuț and Mihaela Hedeșiu
Tomography 2022, 8(5), 2460-2470; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8050204 - 29 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1906
Abstract
The aim of this research was to assess possible relationships between petrotympanic fissure (PTF) characteristics, malleus position, and temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD). A retrospective study was performed, including patients with TMD. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) examination were used [...] Read more.
The aim of this research was to assess possible relationships between petrotympanic fissure (PTF) characteristics, malleus position, and temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD). A retrospective study was performed, including patients with TMD. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) examination were used to evaluate temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc position and condylar bone changes. Fifty-eight TMJs from twenty-nine patients (23:6 females: males) were assessed. Erosive changes (DDR-disc displacement with a reduction of 6 (24%), DDwR-disc displacement without a reduction of 8 (61.5%) vs. normal disc position 3 (15%), p = 0.012) and condyle osteophytes production (DDR 6 (24%), DDwR 9 (69.2%) vs. normal condyle 7 (35%), p = 0.012) were more frequent in subjects with disc displacement compared to normal disc position; malleus was closer to PTF in cases with erosive changes (median 2.15 interquartile range: (1.85–2.75) vs. 2.75 (2.25–3.15), p = 0.029) as well as those with condylar osteophytosis (2.25 (1.91–2.75) vs. 2.75 (2.33–3.32), p = 0.015); the PTF length was higher in cases with condylar osteophytosis compared to those without (4.45 (3.50–4.77) vs. 3.67 (3.34–4.28), p = 0.039). The disc position and disc shape were not related to PTF or malleus position. Malleus position and PTF dimensions were not associated with the PTF type. In cases with erosive changes and condylar osteophytosis, malleus was closer to PTF. Full article
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10 pages, 711 KiB  
Article
Updated National Diagnostic Reference Levels and Achievable Doses for CT Protocols: A National Survey of Korean Hospitals
by Sora Nam, Hyemin Park, Soonmu Kwon, Pyong-kon Cho, Yongsu Yoon, Sang-wook Yoon and Jungsu Kim
Tomography 2022, 8(5), 2450-2459; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8050203 - 29 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1788
Abstract
Background: In 2021, the Korean government proposed a new CT diagnostic reference level. This study performed a nationwide survey and developed new DRLs and AD for 13 common CT examinations. We compared other countries’ DRLs for CT examinations. Methods: This study investigated the [...] Read more.
Background: In 2021, the Korean government proposed a new CT diagnostic reference level. This study performed a nationwide survey and developed new DRLs and AD for 13 common CT examinations. We compared other countries’ DRLs for CT examinations. Methods: This study investigated the CTDIvol and DLP of the 12 types of CT protocols for adults and brain CT protocol for pediatrics. A total of 7829 CT examinations were performed using 225 scanners. We defined the DRLs values in the distribution of radiation exposure levels to determine the nationwide patient dose and distribution status of the dose. Results: This study showed that the new Korean national CT DRLs are slightly higher or similar to those of previous surveys and are similar or lower than those of other countries. In some protocols, although the DLP value increased, the CTDIvol decreased; therefore, it can be concluded that the patient’s dose in CT examinations was well managed. Conclusions: The new CT DRLs were slightly higher than or similar to that of the previous survey and were evaluated to be similar or lower than CT DRLs of other countries. These DRLs will be used for radiation optimization and effective dose calculation for an individual. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation Dose Management in Computed Tomography)
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15 pages, 4047 KiB  
Article
Computed Tomographic Imaging Features of COVID-19 Pneumonia Caused by the Delta (B.1.617.2) and Omicron (B.1.1.529) Variant in a German Nested Cohort Pilot Study Group
by Esther Askani, Katharina Mueller-Peltzer, Julian Madrid, Marvin Knoke, Dunja Hasic, Fabian Bamberg, Christopher L. Schlett and Prerana Agarwal
Tomography 2022, 8(5), 2435-2449; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8050202 - 28 Sep 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2353
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate CT (computed tomography) imaging differences for the Delta and the Omicron variant in COVID-19 infection. Methods: The study population was derived from a retrospective study cohort investigating chest CT imaging patterns in vaccinated and [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate CT (computed tomography) imaging differences for the Delta and the Omicron variant in COVID-19 infection. Methods: The study population was derived from a retrospective study cohort investigating chest CT imaging patterns in vaccinated and nonvaccinated COVID-19 patients. CT imaging patterns of COVID-19 infection were evaluated by qualitative and semiquantitative scoring systems, as well as imaging pattern analysis. Results: A total of 60 patients (70.00% male, 62.53 ± 17.3 years, Delta: 43 patients, Omicron: 17 patients) were included. Qualitative scoring systems showed a significant correlation with virus variants; “typical appearance” and “very high” degrees of suspicion were detected more often in patients with Delta (RSNA: p = 0.003; CO-RADS: p = 0.002; COV-RADS: p = 0.001). Semiquantitative assessment of lung changes revealed a significant association with virus variants in univariate (Delta: 6.3 ± 3.5; Omicron: 3.12 ± 3.2; p = 0.002) and multivariate analysis. The vacuolar sign was significantly associated with the Delta variant (OR: 14.74, 95% CI: [2.32; 2094.7], p = 0.017). Conclusion: The Delta variant had significantly more extensive lung involvement and showed changes classified as “typical” more often than the Omicron variant, while the Omicron variant was more likely associated with CT findings such as “absence of pulmonary changes”. A significant correlation between the Delta variant and the vacuolar sign was observed. Full article
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9 pages, 1633 KiB  
Article
Comparing the Diagnostic Performance of ECG Gated versus Non-Gated CT Angiography in Ascending Aortic Dissection: A GRRAS Study
by Razvan G. Budeanu, Christian Broemmer, Anamaria R. Budeanu and Marian Pop
Tomography 2022, 8(5), 2426-2434; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8050201 - 28 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2712
Abstract
Rationale and Objective: Thoracic CT angiography (CTA) for ascending aortic dissection, a life-threatening emergency, is performed routinely without Electrocardiographic (ECG) gating, therefore allowing the apparition of a pulsation artefact. We aimed to evaluate and compare the diagnostic performance, the inter and intra-reporter agreement [...] Read more.
Rationale and Objective: Thoracic CT angiography (CTA) for ascending aortic dissection, a life-threatening emergency, is performed routinely without Electrocardiographic (ECG) gating, therefore allowing the apparition of a pulsation artefact. We aimed to evaluate and compare the diagnostic performance, the inter and intra-reporter agreement of ECG gated CTA and non-ECG gated CTA for detecting ascending aortic dissection, considering their training level. Our hypothesis is that ECG gated CTA has superior diagnostic accuracy for ascending aortic dissection compared to non-gated CTA. Materials and Methods: We collected data using 24 questions survey using clinically validated CT examinations. Sixty-six respondents (medical students, radiology residents, and consultants) blinded to the actual diagnosis independently evaluated the images pertaining to the presence of ascending aortic dissection. The reference standard was represented by clinical and imaging diagnosis. Inter-rater and inter-group concordance was evaluated; the agreement with reference tests was calculated and assessed as a function of reporters’ training level. Results: Reporters’ ascending aortic dissection assessment showed a better correlation with the reference standard in the ECG gated CTA. The inter-rater correlation was higher in the ECG gated CTA compared to non-ECG gated CTA. Observers’ confidence for diagnosing ascending aortic dissection was higher in the ECG gated CTA. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) were found between different training levels when assessing non-ECG gated examinations. Conclusions: ECG gated CTA shows a higher diagnostic performance for ascending aortic dissection than non-ECG gated CTA, regardless of the reporters’ training level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiovascular Imaging)
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15 pages, 6640 KiB  
Article
Improving Performance of Breast Lesion Classification Using a ResNet50 Model Optimized with a Novel Attention Mechanism
by Warid Islam, Meredith Jones, Rowzat Faiz, Negar Sadeghipour, Yuchen Qiu and Bin Zheng
Tomography 2022, 8(5), 2411-2425; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8050200 - 28 Sep 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4846
Abstract
Background: The accurate classification between malignant and benign breast lesions detected on mammograms is a crucial but difficult challenge for reducing false-positive recall rates and improving the efficacy of breast cancer screening. Objective: This study aims to optimize a new deep transfer learning [...] Read more.
Background: The accurate classification between malignant and benign breast lesions detected on mammograms is a crucial but difficult challenge for reducing false-positive recall rates and improving the efficacy of breast cancer screening. Objective: This study aims to optimize a new deep transfer learning model by implementing a novel attention mechanism in order to improve the accuracy of breast lesion classification. Methods: ResNet50 is selected as the base model to develop a new deep transfer learning model. To enhance the accuracy of breast lesion classification, we propose adding a convolutional block attention module (CBAM) to the standard ResNet50 model and optimizing a new model for this task. We assembled a large dataset with 4280 mammograms depicting suspicious soft-tissue mass-type lesions. A region of interest (ROI) is extracted from each image based on lesion center. Among them, 2480 and 1800 ROIs depict verified benign and malignant lesions, respectively. The image dataset is randomly split into two subsets with a ratio of 9:1 five times to train and test two ResNet50 models with and without using CBAM. Results: Using the area under ROC curve (AUC) as an evaluation index, the new CBAM-based ResNet50 model yields AUC = 0.866 ± 0.015, which is significantly higher than that obtained by the standard ResNet50 model (AUC = 0.772 ± 0.008) (p < 0.01). Conclusion: This study demonstrates that although deep transfer learning technology attracted broad research interest in medical-imaging informatic fields, adding a new attention mechanism to optimize deep transfer learning models for specific application tasks can play an important role in further improving model performances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Intelligence in Breast Cancer Screening)
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8 pages, 1168 KiB  
Article
Preliminary Analysis of the Effects of Ad26.COV2.S Vaccination on CT Findings and High Intensive Care Admission Rates of COVID-19 Patients
by Davide Negroni, Serena Carriero, Ilaria Passarella, Agnese Siani, Pierpaolo Biondetti, Antonio Pizzolante, Luca Saba and Giuseppe Guzzardi
Tomography 2022, 8(5), 2403-2410; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8050199 - 23 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1294
Abstract
On 27 February 2021, the Food and Drug Administration(FDA) authorized the administration of the adenovirus-based Ad26.COV2-S vaccine (J&J-Janssen) for the prevention of COVID-19, a viral pandemic that, to date, has killed more than 5.5 million people. Performed during the early phase of the [...] Read more.
On 27 February 2021, the Food and Drug Administration(FDA) authorized the administration of the adenovirus-based Ad26.COV2-S vaccine (J&J-Janssen) for the prevention of COVID-19, a viral pandemic that, to date, has killed more than 5.5 million people. Performed during the early phase of the COVID-19 4th wave, this retrospective observational study aims to report the computerized tomography (CT) findings and intensive care unit admission rates of Ad26.COV2-S-vaccinated vs. unvaccinated COVID-19 patients. From the 1st to the 23rd of December 2021, all confirmed COVID-19 patients that had been subjected to chest non-contrast CT scan analysis were enrolled in the study. These were divided into Ad26.COV2.S-vaccinated (group 1) and unvaccinated patients (group 2). The RSNA severity score was calculated for each patient and correlated to CT findings and type of admission to a healthcare setting after CT—i.e., home care, ordinary hospitalization, sub-intensive care, and intensive care. Descriptive and inference statistical analyses were performed by comparing the data from the two groups. Data from a total of 71 patients were collected: 10 patients in group 1 (4M, 6F, mean age 63.5 years, SD ± 4.2) and 61 patients in group 2 (32M, 29F, mean age 64.7 years, SD ± 3.7). Statistical analysis showed lower values of RSNA severity in group 1 compared to group 2 (mean value 14.1 vs. 15.7, p = 0.009, respectively). Furthermore, vaccinated patients were less frequently admitted to both sub-intensive and high-intensive care units than group 2, with an odds ratio of 0.45 [95%CI (0.01; 3.92)]. Ad26.COV2.S vaccination protects from severe COVID-19 based on CT severity scores. As a result, Ad26.COV2.S-vaccinated COVID-19 patients are more frequently admitted to home in comparison with unvaccinated patients. Full article
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34 pages, 26699 KiB  
Review
The Role of CT-Angiography in the Acute Gastrointestinal Bleeding: A Pictorial Essay of Active and Obscure Findings
by Marco Di Serafino, Francesca Iacobellis, Maria Laura Schillirò, Giuseppina Dell’Aversano Orabona, Alberto Martino, Raffaele Bennato, Antonio Borzelli, Gaspare Oliva, Chiara D’Errico, Filomena Pezzullo, Luigi Barbuto, Roberto Ronza, Gianluca Ponticiello, Fabio Corvino, Francesco Giurazza, Giovanni Lombardi, Raffaella Niola and Luigia Romano
Tomography 2022, 8(5), 2369-2402; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8050198 - 23 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 7897
Abstract
Gastrointestinal bleeding is a potentially life-threatening abdominal emergency that remains a common cause of hospitalisation. Although 80–85% of cases of gastrointestinal bleeding resolve spontaneously, it can result in massive haemorrhage and death. The presentation of gastrointestinal bleeding can range from asymptomatic or mildly [...] Read more.
Gastrointestinal bleeding is a potentially life-threatening abdominal emergency that remains a common cause of hospitalisation. Although 80–85% of cases of gastrointestinal bleeding resolve spontaneously, it can result in massive haemorrhage and death. The presentation of gastrointestinal bleeding can range from asymptomatic or mildly ill patients requiring only conservative treatments to severely ill patients requiring immediate intervention. Identifying the source of the bleeding can be difficult due to the wide range of potential causes, the length of the gastrointestinal tract and the intermittent nature of the bleeding. The diagnostic and therapeutic approach is fully dependent on the nature of the bleeding and the patient’s haemodynamic status. Radiologists should be aware of the appropriate uses of computed tomography angiography and other imaging modalities in patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding, as well as the semiotics of bleeding and diagnostic pitfalls in order to appropriately diagnose and manage these patients. The learning objective of this review is to illustrate the computed tomography angiography technique, including the potential role of dual-energy computed tomography angiography, also highlighting the tips and tricks to identify the most common and uncommon features of acute gastrointestinal bleeding and its obscure form. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Abdominal Imaging)
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9 pages, 784 KiB  
Article
Extradural Clinoidectomy in Clinoidal Meningiomas: Analysis of the Surgical Technique and Evaluation of the Clinical Outcome
by Luigi Sampirisi, Luca D’Angelo, Mauro Palmieri, Alessandro Pesce and Antonio Santoro
Tomography 2022, 8(5), 2360-2368; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8050197 - 23 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1192
Abstract
The surgical treatment of clinoidal meningiomas is currently still discussed in the literature. Different surgical approaches have been proposed and evaluated, in multiple studies, in order to improve the surgical outcomes. The aim of this study is to evaluate the advantages of extradural [...] Read more.
The surgical treatment of clinoidal meningiomas is currently still discussed in the literature. Different surgical approaches have been proposed and evaluated, in multiple studies, in order to improve the surgical outcomes. The aim of this study is to evaluate the advantages of extradural clinoidectomy in the context of tumor removal radicality for visual function improvement. A retrospective analysis was performed on 74 patients—of which 26 patients with clinoidal meningiomas were in group III, according to Al Mefty classification—who underwent surgery at the Policlinico Umberto I Hospital between 2000 and 2019. Further, extradural clinoidectomy was performed on 15 patients (Group A), and 11 patients underwent the pterional approach only (Group B). Additionally, visual impairment was present in all 26 patients before surgery. Next, visual function assessment was performed on all patients, both in presurgery and postsurgery. Radiological follow up was performed at 3 and 6 months, and then every 12 months. Gross Total Resection (GTR) was achieved in 13/15 (86.7%) patients who underwent clinoidectomy, and in 4/11 (36.4%) patients who did not undergo clinoidectomy. Visual function improvement was achieved in 12/15 (80%) patients who underwent clinoidectomy and in 4 of 11 (36.4%) who did not undergo clinoidectomy. According to our study, extradural clinoidectomy is the most suitable method for facilitating the gross total resection of clinoidal meningiomas. Our experience and data suggest that a higher rate of total resection and, subsequently, the best visual outcomes are achieved. Extradural drilling via the anterior clinoid process reveals a wider surgical corridor for meticulous tumor resection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical and Molecular Analytic in Neuro-Oncology)
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13 pages, 6436 KiB  
Article
Anatomically Accurate, High-Resolution Modeling of the Human Index Finger Using In Vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging
by Luka Rogelj, Rok Dolenec, Martina Vivoda Tomšič, Elmar Laistler, Urban Simončič, Matija Milanič and Rok Hren
Tomography 2022, 8(5), 2347-2359; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8050196 - 21 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1582
Abstract
Anatomically accurate models of a human finger can be useful in simulating various disorders. In order to have potential clinical value, such models need to include a large number of tissue types, identified by an experienced professional, and should be versatile enough to [...] Read more.
Anatomically accurate models of a human finger can be useful in simulating various disorders. In order to have potential clinical value, such models need to include a large number of tissue types, identified by an experienced professional, and should be versatile enough to be readily tailored to specific pathologies. Magnetic resonance images were acquired at ultrahigh magnetic field (7 T) with a radio-frequency coil specially designed for finger imaging. Segmentation was carried out under the supervision of an experienced radiologist to accurately capture various tissue types (TTs). The final segmented model of the human index finger had a spatial resolution of 0.2 mm and included 6,809,600 voxels. In total, 15 TTs were identified: subcutis, Pacinian corpuscle, nerve, vein, artery, tendon, collateral ligament, volar plate, pulley A4, bone, cartilage, synovial cavity, joint capsule, epidermis and dermis. The model was applied to the conditions of arthritic joint, ruptured tendon and variations in the geometry of a finger. High-resolution magnetic resonance images along with careful segmentation proved useful in the construction of an anatomically accurate model of the human index finger. An example illustrating the utility of the model in biomedical applications is shown. As the model includes a number of tissue types, it may present a solid foundation for future simulations of various musculoskeletal disease processes in human joints. Full article
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8 pages, 2448 KiB  
Article
Visualizing Bioabsorbable Spacer Effectiveness by Confirming the Distal-Tail of Carbon-Ion Beams: First-In-Human Report
by Shintaro Shiba, Masahiko Okamoto, Makoto Sakai and Tatsuya Ohno
Tomography 2022, 8(5), 2339-2346; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8050195 - 21 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1476
Abstract
In particle therapy, bioabsorbable polyglycolic acid (PGA) spacer was developed to reduce the healthy organ irradiation dose, especially in the gastrointestinal tract. The PGA spacer is safe and effective; however, there are no reports that have confirmed whether the PGA spacer which inserted [...] Read more.
In particle therapy, bioabsorbable polyglycolic acid (PGA) spacer was developed to reduce the healthy organ irradiation dose, especially in the gastrointestinal tract. The PGA spacer is safe and effective; however, there are no reports that have confirmed whether the PGA spacer which inserted in the body actually stops the carbon-ion (C-ion) beams. Here, we visualized and confirmed that the PGA spacer stops the C-ion beams in the body based on the dose distribution using auto-activation positron emission tomography (AAPET). A 59-year-old dedifferentiated retroperitoneal liposarcoma patient underwent C-ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) on referral. A month before C-ion RT initiation, the patient underwent PGA spacer placement. Postoperatively, the patient received 4.4 Gy (RBE) per fraction of C-ion RT, followed by AAPET. AAPET revealed lower positron emitter concentrations at the distal tissue ventral to the PGA spacer than in the planning target volume. In observing the efficacy of the PGA spacer, the AAPET images and the average count per second of the positron emitter suggested that the PGA spacer stopped the C-ion beams in the body in accordance with the dose distribution. Therefore, AAPET was useful in confirming the PGA spacer’s effectiveness in this study, and the PGA spacer stopped the C-ion beams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Therapy Monitoring Based on PET Imaging)
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9 pages, 789 KiB  
Article
Curved Planar Reformation: A Useful Method for Screening Dental Pathologies in Chronic Rhinosinusitis via Paranasal Sinus Computed Tomography
by Wei-Chih Chen, Lisa Alice Hwang, Wei-Che Lin, Ching-Nung Wu, Wei-Chia Su, Kuan-Chung Fang and Sheng-Dean Luo
Tomography 2022, 8(5), 2330-2338; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8050194 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1636
Abstract
(1) Background: Curved planar reformation (CPR) is a multiplanar reformatting technique of computed tomography (CT) commonly used during dental cone-beam CT (CBCT) to generate panorex-like images for dental evaluation. Here, we evaluated the utility of an additional CPR sequence in detecting dental pathologies [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Curved planar reformation (CPR) is a multiplanar reformatting technique of computed tomography (CT) commonly used during dental cone-beam CT (CBCT) to generate panorex-like images for dental evaluation. Here, we evaluated the utility of an additional CPR sequence in detecting dental pathologies in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). (2) Methods: CRS patients who underwent paranasal sinus CT were enrolled retrospectively. The CT images featured three orthogonal sequences and a reconstructed CPR sequence. Additional dental CBCT was performed in patients with pathologies with a strongly suspected odontogenic origin. Dental pathologies detected by CT, CPR, and CBCT were analyzed. (3) Results: A total of 82 CRS patients (37 females and 45 males; mean age 47.3 ± 13.7 years) were included, of whom 23 underwent dental CBCT. In total, 1058 maxillary teeth were evaluated. Compared with paranasal sinus CT, CPR identified greater frequencies of dental pathologies, particularly caries (p < 0.001), periapical lesions (p < 0.001), and fistulae (p = 0.014). CBCT identified greater frequencies of periodontal dental pathologies (p = 0.046) and premolar caries (p = 0.002) compared with CPR. CBCT and CPR detected molar dental pathologies at similar frequencies. (4) Conclusions: CPR could increase the diagnostic rate of odontogenic pathologies compared with standard CT orthogonal views, especially when the sinusitis is caused by caries, periapical lesions, or fistulae. The addition of a CPR sequence allows for simple screening of dental pathologies in CRS patients without a need for additional radiation. Full article
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17 pages, 5390 KiB  
Article
A Feasibility Study on Proton Range Monitoring Using 13N Peak in Inhomogeneous Targets
by Md. Rafiqul Islam, Mehrdad Shahmohammadi Beni, Akihito Inamura, Nursel Şafakattı, Masayasu Miyake, Mahabubur Rahman, Abul Kalam Fazlul Haque, Shigeki Ito, Shinichi Gotoh, Taiga Yamaya and Hiroshi Watabe
Tomography 2022, 8(5), 2313-2329; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8050193 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1608
Abstract
Proton irradiations are highly sensitive to spatial variations, mainly due to their high linear energy transfer (LET) and densely ionizing nature. In realistic clinical applications, the targets of ionizing radiation are inhomogeneous in terms of geometry and chemical composition (i.e., organs in the [...] Read more.
Proton irradiations are highly sensitive to spatial variations, mainly due to their high linear energy transfer (LET) and densely ionizing nature. In realistic clinical applications, the targets of ionizing radiation are inhomogeneous in terms of geometry and chemical composition (i.e., organs in the human body). One of the main methods for proton range monitoring is to utilize the production of proton induced positron emitting radionuclides; these could be measured precisely with positron emission tomography (PET) systems. One main positron emitting radionuclide that could be used for proton range monitoring and verification was found to be 13N that produces a peak close to the Bragg peak. In the present work, we have employed the Monte Carlo method and Spectral Analysis (SA) technique to investigate the feasibility of utilizing the 13N peak for proton range monitoring and verification in inhomogeneous targets. Two different phantom types, namely, (1) ordinary slab and (2) MIRD anthropomorphic phantoms, were used. We have found that the generated 13N peak in such highly inhomogeneous targets (ordinary slab and human phantom) is close to the actual Bragg peak, when irradiated by incident proton beam. The feasibility of using the SA technique to estimate the distribution of positron emitter was also investigated. The current findings and the developed tools in the present work would be helpful in proton range monitoring and verification in realistic clinical radiation therapy using proton beams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Therapy Monitoring Based on PET Imaging)
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15 pages, 5248 KiB  
Article
Evaluating Compressed SENSE (CS) MRI Metal Artifact Reduction Using Pig L-Spine Phantom and Transplant Patients: Focused on the CS-SEMAC (SPIR), mDixon(O-MAR) and STIR Techniques
by Eun-Hoe Goo and Sung-Soo Kim
Tomography 2022, 8(5), 2298-2312; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8050192 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2120
Abstract
This study evaluates the clinical usefulness of the images obtained after applying mDixon (O-MAR), CS-SEMAC (SPIR), and STIR techniques to Pig L-Spine Phantom and transplant patients according to the difference in the reduction in metal artifacts and provides the optimal MAR image technique. [...] Read more.
This study evaluates the clinical usefulness of the images obtained after applying mDixon (O-MAR), CS-SEMAC (SPIR), and STIR techniques to Pig L-Spine Phantom and transplant patients according to the difference in the reduction in metal artifacts and provides the optimal MAR image technique. This study was conducted with Phantom and 30 transplant patients who had an implant on the L-Spine (22 men, 8 women, mean age: 64.2 ± 12.98). All data analyzed were evaluated, using Philips Ingenia 3.0T CX. As pulse sequences, applied to the analysis, mDixon (O-MAR), CS-SEMAC (SPIR), and STIR were used. As the coil used to obtain data, the dStream Head Spine Coil was used. When tested directly applying to the transplant patients in the conditions the same as for the Phantom, as for the MAR effect of T1 and T2 images, the SNR value showed the highest effect on the increase in the signal in T1, T2 CS-SEMAC (SPIR), followed by mDixon (O-MAR) and STIR, which was the same result as the Phantom (p < 0.05). In addition, in the results of the histogram measurement in both of the subjects, Phantom and transplant patients, the count of T1, the T2 Sagittal image was the highest in T1, T2 STIR, followed by T1, T2 mDixon (O-MAR) and T1, and T2 CS-SEMAC (SPIR). As a result of the qualitative analysis, the quality was the best in T2 CS-SEMAC(SPIR) (c), followed by mDixon (O-MAR) (b) and T2 STIR (a). In conclusion, when the MAR effect on the Pig L-spine Phantom and Transplant patients was compared, it was noted that the CS-SEMAC (SPIR) technique was the most excellent in the following order: STIR < mDixon (O-MAR) < CS-SEMAC (SPIR). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI))
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13 pages, 7033 KiB  
Article
A Comparison of the Sensitivity of Contrast-Specific Imaging Modes on Clinical and Preclinical Ultrasound Scanners
by Carmel M. Moran, Charles Arthur and Emilio Quaia
Tomography 2022, 8(5), 2285-2297; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8050191 - 15 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1537
Abstract
Ultrasonic contrast agents are used routinely to aid clinical diagnosis. All premium- and mid-range scanners utilise contrast-specific imaging techniques to preferentially isolate and display the nonlinear signals generated from the microbubbles when insonated with a series of ultrasound pulses. In this manuscript the [...] Read more.
Ultrasonic contrast agents are used routinely to aid clinical diagnosis. All premium- and mid-range scanners utilise contrast-specific imaging techniques to preferentially isolate and display the nonlinear signals generated from the microbubbles when insonated with a series of ultrasound pulses. In this manuscript the abilities of four premium ultrasound scanners to detect and display the ultrasound signal from two commercially available contrast agents—SonoVue and DEFINITY®—are compared. A flow phantom was built using tubes with internal diameters of 1.6 mm and 3.2 mm, suspended at depths of 1, 5 and 8 cm and embedded in tissue-mimicking material. Dilute solutions of SonoVue and DEFINITY® were pumped through the phantom at 0.25 mL/s and 1.5 mL/s. Four transducers were used to scan the tubes—a GE Logiq E9 (C2-9) curvilinear probe, a Philips iU22 L9-3 linear array probe, an Esaote MyLab Twice linear array LA523 (4–13 MHz) and a Fujifilm VisualSonics Vevo3100 MX250 (15–30 MHz) linear array probe. We defined a new parameter to compare the ability of the ultrasound scanners to display the contrast enhancement. This was defined as the ratio of grey-scale intensity ratio in contrast-specific imaging mode relative to the B-mode intensity from the same region-of-interest within the corresponding B-mode image. The study demonstrated that the flow rates used in this study had no effect on the contrast-specific imaging mode to B-mode (CSIM-BM) ratio for the three clinical scanners studied, with SonoVue demonstrating broadly similar CSIM-BM ratios across all 3 clinical scanners. DEFINITY® also displayed similar results to SonoVue except when insonated with the Esaote MyLab Twice LA523 transducer, where it demonstrated significantly higher CSIM-BM ratios at superficial depths. Full article
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17 pages, 2272 KiB  
Article
Mapping Alveolar Oxygen Partial Pressure in COPD Using Hyperpolarized Helium-3: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) COPD Study
by Naz P. Taskiran, Grant T. Hiura, Xuzhe Zhang, R. Graham Barr, Stephen M. Dashnaw, Eric A. Hoffman, Daniel Malinsky, Elizabeth C. Oelsner, Martin R. Prince, Benjamin M. Smith, Yanping Sun, Yifei Sun, Jim M. Wild, Wei Shen and Emlyn W. Hughes
Tomography 2022, 8(5), 2268-2284; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8050190 - 13 Sep 2022
Viewed by 2109
Abstract
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema are characterized by functional and structural damage which increases the spaces for gaseous diffusion and impairs oxygen exchange. Here we explore the potential for hyperpolarized (HP) 3He MRI to characterize lung structure and function in [...] Read more.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema are characterized by functional and structural damage which increases the spaces for gaseous diffusion and impairs oxygen exchange. Here we explore the potential for hyperpolarized (HP) 3He MRI to characterize lung structure and function in a large-scale population-based study. Participants (n = 54) from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) COPD Study, a nested case-control study of COPD among participants with 10+ packyears underwent HP 3He MRI measuring pAO2, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and ventilation. HP MRI measures were compared to full-lung CT and pulmonary function testing. High ADC values (>0.4 cm2/s) correlated with emphysema and heterogeneity in pAO2 measurements. Strong correlations were found between the heterogeneity of global pAO2 as summarized by its standard deviation (SD) (p < 0.0002) and non-physiologic pAO2 values (p < 0.0001) with percent emphysema on CT. A regional study revealed a strong association between pAO2 SD and visual emphysema severity (p < 0.003) and an association with the paraseptal emphysema subtype (p < 0.04) after adjustment for demographics and smoking status. HP noble gas pAO2 heterogeneity and the fraction of non-physiological pAO2 results increase in mild to moderate COPD. Measurements of pAO2 are sensitive to regional emphysematous damage detected by CT and may be used to probe pulmonary emphysema subtypes. HP noble gas lung MRI provides non-invasive information about COPD severity and lung function without ionizing radiation. Full article
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