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Biomimetics, Volume 4, Issue 3 (September 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Future cities cannot be built in the same way as existing ones, inducing a radical paradigm shift [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Augmented Aircraft Performance with the Use of Morphing Technology for a Turboprop Regional Aircraft Wing
Biomimetics 2019, 4(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics4030064 - 12 Sep 2019
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Abstract
This article presents some application of the morphing technology for aerodynamic performance improvement of turboprop regional aircraft. It summarizes the results obtained in the framework of the Clean Sky 2 AIRGREEN2 program for the development and application of dedicated morphing devices for take-off [...] Read more.
This article presents some application of the morphing technology for aerodynamic performance improvement of turboprop regional aircraft. It summarizes the results obtained in the framework of the Clean Sky 2 AIRGREEN2 program for the development and application of dedicated morphing devices for take-off and landing, and their uses in off design conditions. The wing of the reference aircraft configuration considers Natural Laminar Flow (NLF) characteristics. A deformable leading edge morphing device (“droop nose”) and a multi-functional segmented flap system have been considered. For the droop nose, the use of the deformable compliant structure was considered, as it allows a “clean” leading edge when not used, which is mandatory to keep natural laminar flow (NLF) properties at cruise. The use of a segmented flap makes it possible to avoid external flap track fairings, which will lead to performance improvement at cruise. An integrated tracking mechanism is used to set the flap at its take-off optimum setting, and, then, morphing is applied in order to obtain a high-performance level for landing. Lastly, some performance improvements can be obtained in climb conditions by using the last segment of the flap system to modify the load distribution on the wing in order to recover some extended laminar flow on the wing upper surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Morphing Aircraft Systems)
Open AccessArticle
Design of a Bio-Inspired Anti-Erosion Structure for a Water Hydraulic Valve Core: An Experimental Study
Biomimetics 2019, 4(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics4030063 - 06 Sep 2019
Viewed by 142
Abstract
Animals and plants have numerous active protections for adapting to the complex and severe living environments, providing endless inspiration for extending the service life of materials and machines. Conch, a marine animal living near the coast and chronically suffering from the erosion of [...] Read more.
Animals and plants have numerous active protections for adapting to the complex and severe living environments, providing endless inspiration for extending the service life of materials and machines. Conch, a marine animal living near the coast and chronically suffering from the erosion of sand in water, has adapted to the condition through its anti-erosion conch shell. Romanesco broccoli, a plant whose inflorescence is self-similar in character, has a natural fractal bud’s form. Coupling the convex domes on the conch shell and the fractal structure of Romanesco broccoli, a novel valve core structure of a water hydraulic valve was designed in this paper to improve the particle erosion resistance and valve core’s service life. Three models were built to compare the effect among the normal structure, bionic structure, and multi-source coupling bionic structures, and were coined using 3D printing technology. A 3D printed water hydraulic valve was manufactured to simulate the working condition of a valve core under sand erosion in water flow, and capture the experimental videos of the two-phase flow. Furthermore, based on the water hydraulic platform and one-camera-six-mirror 3D imaging subsystem, the experiment system was established and used to compare the performance of the three different valve cores. As a result, the results showed that the coupling bionic structure could effectively improve the anti-erosion property of the valve core and protect the sealing face on the valve core from wear. This paper presents a novel way of combining advantages from both animal (function bionic) and plant (shape bionic) in one component design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ICBE2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Maneuvering Performance in the Colonial Siphonophore, Nanomia bijuga
Biomimetics 2019, 4(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics4030062 - 05 Sep 2019
Viewed by 160
Abstract
The colonial cnidarian, Nanomia bijuga, is highly proficient at moving in three-dimensional space through forward swimming, reverse swimming and turning. We used high speed videography, particle tracking, and particle image velocimetry (PIV) with frame rates up to 6400 s−1 to study [...] Read more.
The colonial cnidarian, Nanomia bijuga, is highly proficient at moving in three-dimensional space through forward swimming, reverse swimming and turning. We used high speed videography, particle tracking, and particle image velocimetry (PIV) with frame rates up to 6400 s−1 to study the kinematics and fluid mechanics of N. bijuga during turning and reversing. N. bijuga achieved turns with high maneuverability (mean length–specific turning radius, R/L = 0.15 ± 0.10) and agility (mean angular velocity, ω = 104 ± 41 deg. s−1). The maximum angular velocity of N. bijuga, 215 deg. s−1, exceeded that of many vertebrates with more complex body forms and neurocircuitry. Through the combination of rapid nectophore contraction and velum modulation, N. bijuga generated high speed, narrow jets (maximum = 1063 ± 176 mm s−1; 295 nectophore lengths s−1) and thrust vectoring, which enabled high speed reverse swimming (maximum = 134 ± 28 mm s−1; 37 nectophore lengths s−1) that matched previously reported forward swimming speeds. A 1:1 ratio of forward to reverse swimming speed has not been recorded in other swimming organisms. Taken together, the colonial architecture, simple neurocircuitry, and tightly controlled pulsed jets by N. bijuga allow for a diverse repertoire of movements. Considering the further advantages of scalability and redundancy in colonies, N. bijuga is a model system for informing underwater propulsion and navigation of complex environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Dynamic Interactions in Biological and Bioinspired Propulsion)
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Open AccessCommunication
Application of Finite Element Analysis in Modeling of Bionic Harrowing Discs
Biomimetics 2019, 4(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics4030061 - 03 Sep 2019
Viewed by 182
Abstract
Ansys software was used to carry out three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) for biomimetic design of harrowing discs based on the body surface morphology of soil burrowing animals like dung beetle (Dicranocara deschodt) which have non-smooth units such as convex domes [...] Read more.
Ansys software was used to carry out three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) for biomimetic design of harrowing discs based on the body surface morphology of soil burrowing animals like dung beetle (Dicranocara deschodt) which have non-smooth units such as convex domes and concave dips. The main objective was to find out the effects of different biomimetic surface designs on reducing soil resistance hence the horizontal force acting on the harrowing disc during soil deformation was determined. In this FEA, soil deformation was based on the Drucker–Prager elastic–perfectly plastic model which was applied only at the lowest disc harrowing speed of 4.4 km/h which is within the limits of model. The material non-linearity of soil was addressed using an incremental technique and inside each step, the Newton–Raphson iteration method was utilized. The model results were analyzed and then summation of horizontal forces acting on the soil-disc interface was also done. An experiment was then conducted in an indoor soil bin to validate the FEA results. The FEA results are generally in agreement with those of the indoor experiment with a difference of less than or equal to the acceptable 10% with an average difference of 4%. Overall, convex bionic units gave the highest resistance reduction of 19.5% from 1526.87 N to 1228.38 N compared to concave bionic units. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ICBE2019)
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Open AccessReview
The Spine: A Strong, Stable, and Flexible Structure with Biomimetics Potential
Biomimetics 2019, 4(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics4030060 - 30 Aug 2019
Viewed by 192
Abstract
From its first appearance in early vertebrates, the spine evolved the function of protecting the spinal cord, avoiding excessive straining during body motion. Its stiffness and strength provided the basis for the development of the axial skeleton as the mechanical support of later [...] Read more.
From its first appearance in early vertebrates, the spine evolved the function of protecting the spinal cord, avoiding excessive straining during body motion. Its stiffness and strength provided the basis for the development of the axial skeleton as the mechanical support of later animals, especially those which moved to the terrestrial environment where gravity loads are not alleviated by the buoyant force of water. In tetrapods, the functions of the spine can be summarized as follows: protecting the spinal cord; supporting the weight of the body, transmitting it to the ground through the limbs; allowing the motion of the trunk, through to its flexibility; providing robust origins and insertions to the muscles of trunk and limbs. This narrative review provides a brief perspective on the development of the spine in vertebrates, first from an evolutionary, and then from an embryological point of view. The paper describes functions and the shape of the spine throughout the whole evolution of vertebrates and vertebrate embryos, from primordial jawless fish to extant animals such as birds and humans, highlighting its fundamental features such as strength, stability, and flexibility, which gives it huge potential as a basis for bio-inspired technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ICBE2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Importance of Body Stance in Fog Droplet Collection by the Namib Desert Beetle
Biomimetics 2019, 4(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics4030059 - 28 Aug 2019
Viewed by 353
Abstract
The fog-basking behavior of the Onymacris unguicularis, a beetle species living in the coastal regions of the Namibian desert, has recently caught the attention of the engineering community, as suggesting a viable biomimetic approach to address the problem of harvesting water in [...] Read more.
The fog-basking behavior of the Onymacris unguicularis, a beetle species living in the coastal regions of the Namibian desert, has recently caught the attention of the engineering community, as suggesting a viable biomimetic approach to address the problem of harvesting water in arid regions of the globe. Previous research has focused on observation and analysis of the beetle’s elytron properties and how these affect fog-collection rates. The head stance taken by the Onymacris unguicularis when fog basking is well documented. However, how this stance affects droplet collection has not been studied up to now. The present paper addresses this problem from a computational fluid dynamics perspective, where three-dimensional numerical simulations are used to characterize the fog flow properties around a simplified geometry mimicking the beetle’s body. The simulations employ two-way coupling between the gas flow and the dispersed fog phase to account for feedback effects of fog droplets on the carrier fluid (air), and assume that droplets are captured after hitting the elytron surface. The study considers several combinations of free-stream velocity and droplet volume fraction. The analysis reveals that there is a range of head-stance angles, corresponding to an inclination of the beetle between 35 deg and 45 deg with respect to the horizon, that maximizes water collection on the beetle’s back, in qualitative agreement with observations in nature and laboratory experiments. A rationale is proposed to explain this phenomenon, finding that the specific head stance corresponds to the maximum residence time of fluid particles above the beetle’s elytron surface. This, in turn, designates the maximum likelihood for water droplets to be captured in the boundary layer developing over the beetle and subsequently hit the surface where they get captured. The results reveal the importance of the fluid flow pattern around the beetle’s body in addition to the microphysical properties of the elytron when reliable predictions of the water droplet collection efficiency are sought. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evo-Devo Algorithms: Gene-Regulation for Digital Architecture
Biomimetics 2019, 4(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics4030058 - 13 Aug 2019
Viewed by 357
Abstract
The majority of current visual-algorithmic architecture is constricted to specific parameters that are gradient related, keeping their parts’ relation fixed within the algorithm, far away from a truly parametric modeling with a flexible topology. Recent findings around genetics and certain genes capable of [...] Read more.
The majority of current visual-algorithmic architecture is constricted to specific parameters that are gradient related, keeping their parts’ relation fixed within the algorithm, far away from a truly parametric modeling with a flexible topology. Recent findings around genetics and certain genes capable of shape conditioning (development) have succeeded in recovering the science of embryology as a valid field that connects and affects the evolutionary ecosystem, showing the existence of universal mechanisms that are present in living species, thus describing powerful strategies for generation and emergence. Therefore, a new dual discipline is justified: Evolutionary developmental biology science. Authors propose the convergence of genetics algorithms and simulated features from evolutionary developmental biology into a single data-flow that will prove itself capable of generating great diversity through a simple and flexible structure of data, commands, and polygonal geometry. For that matter, a case study through visual-algorithmic software deals with the hypothesis that for obtaining a greater emergence and design space, a simpler and more flexible approach might only be required, prioritizing hierarchical levels over complex and detailed operations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Proto-Architecture and Unconventional Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Study on a “Snake-Type” Vibration Cutting Method for Cutting Force and Cutting Heat Reductions
Biomimetics 2019, 4(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics4030057 - 13 Aug 2019
Viewed by 367
Abstract
Cutting is the foundation of manufacturing in industry. The main cutting objects include metals, ceramics, glasses, compositions, and even biological materials such as tissues and bones. The special properties of each material such as hardness, ductility, brittleness, and heat conductivity lead to either [...] Read more.
Cutting is the foundation of manufacturing in industry. The main cutting objects include metals, ceramics, glasses, compositions, and even biological materials such as tissues and bones. The special properties of each material such as hardness, ductility, brittleness, and heat conductivity lead to either a large cutting force or a high cutting temperature. Both of these factors result in poor machinability due to rapid tool wear or break or unsatisfactory surface integrity of the material finishing surface using the conventional cutting (CC, conventional cutting) types. In nature, snakes have their own way of reducing heat accumulation on their body when moving on the hot desert surface. They move forward along an “S”-type path, so that the bottom of their body separates from the desert intermittently. In this way, the separation interval both reduces the cutting heat accumulations and effectively achieves cooling by allowing the air to go through. In addition, the acceleration of Odontomachus monticola’s two mandibles when striking a target can reach 71,730 g m/s2 within 180 ms, which can easily break the target surface by the transient huge impact. Therefore, based on a snake’s motion on the desert surface and Odontomachus monticola’s striking on the target surface, respectively, an ultrasonic-frequency intermittent cutting method, also called “snake-type” vibration cutting (SVC, snake-type vibration cutting), was proposed in this study. First, its bionic kinematics were analyzed, then the SVC system’s design was introduced. Finally, cutting experiments were conducted on a common and typical difficult-to-cut material, namely titanium alloys. Cutting force, cutting temperature, and the surface integrity of the material finishing surface were measured, respectively. The results demonstrated that, compared to conventional cutting methods, SVC achieved a maximum of 50% and 30% reductions of cutting force and cutting temperature, respectively. Moreover, the surface integrity was improved both in surface roughness and residual stress state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ICBE2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Pioneering Construction Materials through Prototypological Research
Biomimetics 2019, 4(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics4030056 - 13 Aug 2019
Viewed by 390
Abstract
The article at hand follows the understanding that future cities cannot be built the same way as existing ones, inducing a radical paradigm shift in how we produce and use materials for the construction of our habitat in the 21st century. In search [...] Read more.
The article at hand follows the understanding that future cities cannot be built the same way as existing ones, inducing a radical paradigm shift in how we produce and use materials for the construction of our habitat in the 21st century. In search of a methodology for an integrated, holistic, and interdisciplinary development of such new materials and construction technologies, the chair of Sustainable Construction at KIT Karlsruhe proposes the concept of “prototypological” research. Coined through joining the terms “prototype” and “typology”, prototypology represents a full-scale application, that is an experiment and proof in itself to effectively and holistically discover all connected aspects and address unknowns of a specific question, yet at the same time is part of a bigger and systematic test series of such different typologies with similar characteristics, yet varying parameters. The second part of the article applies this method to the research on mycelium-bound building materials, and specifically to the four prototypologies MycoTree, UMAR, Rumah Tambah, and Futurium. The conclusion aims to place the results into the bigger research context, calling for a new type of architectural research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Proto-Architecture and Unconventional Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
What Does a Hand-Over Tell?—Individuality of Short Motion Sequences
Biomimetics 2019, 4(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics4030055 - 07 Aug 2019
Viewed by 413
Abstract
How much information with regard to identity and further individual participant
characteristics are revealed by relatively short spatio-temporal motion trajectories of a person?
We study this question by selecting a set of individual participant characteristics and analysing
motion captured trajectories of an exemplary [...] Read more.
How much information with regard to identity and further individual participant
characteristics are revealed by relatively short spatio-temporal motion trajectories of a person?
We study this question by selecting a set of individual participant characteristics and analysing
motion captured trajectories of an exemplary class of familiar movements, namely handover of an
object to another person. The experiment is performed with different participants under different,
predefined conditions. A selection of participant characteristics, such as the Big Five personality
traits, gender, weight, or sportiness, are assessed and we analyse the impact of the three factor groups
“participant identity”, “participant characteristics”, and “experimental conditions” on the observed
hand trajectories. The participants’ movements are recorded via optical marker-based hand motion
capture. One participant, the giver, hands over an object to the receiver. The resulting time courses of
three-dimensional positions of markers are analysed. Multidimensional scaling is used to project
trajectories to points in a dimension-reduced feature space. Supervised learning is also applied.
We find that “participant identity” seems to have the highest correlation with the trajectories, with
factor group “experimental conditions” ranking second. On the other hand, it is not possible to find a
correlation between the “participant characteristics” and the hand trajectory features. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ICBE2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Tribology Performance of Surface Texturing Plunger
Biomimetics 2019, 4(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics4030054 - 05 Aug 2019
Viewed by 388
Abstract
Plunger pumps are widely used in oil pumping units around the world. The water content of the wellbore is increasing along with the development progress, so the lubricating capacity of the well fluids between the plunger and barrel is decreasing correspondingly. Commonly, the [...] Read more.
Plunger pumps are widely used in oil pumping units around the world. The water content of the wellbore is increasing along with the development progress, so the lubricating capacity of the well fluids between the plunger and barrel is decreasing correspondingly. Commonly, the substrate material of the plunger and barrel are stainless steel, and the plunger surface is usually covered with nickel-based coating. Therefore, the performance of the plunger and barrel has been affected due to poor lubrication and eccentric wear. Non-smooth surfaces have been proven to improve the tribology performance in many cases. A surface texturing plunger covered with specific dimples has been prepared by using laser surface texturing technology. The morphology of the surface texturing plunger was characterized and analyzed. The tribology performance of surface texturing plunger samples was tested using standard friction and wear test machines with oil and water lubrication, respectively. The results indicated that surface texturing could effectively reduce the coefficient of friction, and the wear resistance of the surface textured samples has been improved to some extent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ICBE2019)
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Open AccessReview
Bioisosteres of Carbohydrate Functional Groups in Glycomimetic Design
Biomimetics 2019, 4(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics4030053 - 28 Jul 2019
Viewed by 442
Abstract
The aberrant presentation of carbohydrates has been linked to a number of diseases, such as cancer metastasis and immune dysregulation. These altered glycan structures represent a target for novel therapies by modulating their associated interactions with neighboring cells and molecules. Although these interactions [...] Read more.
The aberrant presentation of carbohydrates has been linked to a number of diseases, such as cancer metastasis and immune dysregulation. These altered glycan structures represent a target for novel therapies by modulating their associated interactions with neighboring cells and molecules. Although these interactions are highly specific, native carbohydrates are characterized by very low affinities and inherently poor pharmacokinetic properties. Glycomimetic compounds, which mimic the structure and function of native glycans, have been successful in producing molecules with improved pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) features. Several strategies have been developed for glycomimetic design such as ligand pre-organization or reducing polar surface area. A related approach to developing glycomimetics relies on the bioisosteric replacement of carbohydrate functional groups. These changes can offer improvements to both binding affinity (e.g., reduced desolvation costs, enhanced metal chelation) and pharmacokinetic parameters (e.g., improved oral bioavailability). Several examples of bioisosteric modifications to carbohydrates have been reported; this review aims to consolidate them and presents different possibilities for enhancing core interactions in glycomimetics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Towards a Dynamic Model of the Kangaroo Knee for Clinical Insights into Human Knee Pathology and Treatment: Establishing a Static Biomechanical Profile
Biomimetics 2019, 4(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics4030052 - 25 Jul 2019
Viewed by 421
Abstract
There is limited understanding of how patella realignment or patellectomy to surgically manage patellofemoral pain (PFP) affects knee biomechanics. By analysing marsupials like kangaroos that lack an ossified patella, actionable biomimetic insight for the management of end-stage PFP could be gained. This study [...] Read more.
There is limited understanding of how patella realignment or patellectomy to surgically manage patellofemoral pain (PFP) affects knee biomechanics. By analysing marsupials like kangaroos that lack an ossified patella, actionable biomimetic insight for the management of end-stage PFP could be gained. This study aimed to provide the foundation of a multi-stage approach, by establishing a static biomechanical profile of the kangaroo stifle that informs the inputs and factors requiring consideration for future dynamic analyses. Volumetric CT and MRI sequences were obtained for four hindlimbs from two Macropus giganteus specimens, from which three-dimensional models of the stifles were created. Two limbs were dissected to visualise the insertion points, origins and lines of action of the quadriceps muscles and the knee extensor mechanism. Static measurements were obtained from the three-dimensional models to establish the biomechanical profile. The results confirmed structural differences in the kangaroo stifle with lack of an ossified patella, a prominent tuberosity and a shorter femur, which functionally affect the mechanical advantage and the torque-generating capability of the joint. The data reported in this study can be used to inform the inputs and constraints of future comparative analyses from which important lessons can be learned for the human knee. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparing Models of Lateral Station-Keeping for Pitching Hydrofoils
Biomimetics 2019, 4(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics4030051 - 22 Jul 2019
Viewed by 428
Abstract
Fish must maneuver laterally to maintain their position in schools or near solid boundaries. Unsteady hydrodynamic models, such as the Theodorsen and Garrick models, predict forces on tethered oscillating hydrofoils aligned with the incoming flow. How well these models predict forces when bio-inspired [...] Read more.
Fish must maneuver laterally to maintain their position in schools or near solid boundaries. Unsteady hydrodynamic models, such as the Theodorsen and Garrick models, predict forces on tethered oscillating hydrofoils aligned with the incoming flow. How well these models predict forces when bio-inspired hydrofoils are free to move laterally or when angled relative to the incoming flow is unclear. We tested the ability of five linear models to predict a small lateral adjustment made by a hydrofoil undergoing biased pitch oscillations. We compared the models to water channel tests in which air bushings gave a rigid pitching hydrofoil lateral freedom. What we found is that even with no fitted coefficients, linear models predict some features of the lateral response, particularly high frequency features like the amplitude and phase of passive heave oscillations. To predict low frequency features of the response, such as overshoot and settling time, we needed a semiempirical model based on tethered force measurements. Our results suggest that fish and fish-inspired vehicles could use linear models for some aspects of lateral station-keeping, but would need nonlinear or semiempirical wake models for more advanced maneuvers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Dynamic Interactions in Biological and Bioinspired Propulsion)
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Open AccessArticle
Fabrication of Human Keratinocyte Cell Clusters for Skin Graft Applications by Templating Water-in-Water Pickering Emulsions
Biomimetics 2019, 4(3), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics4030050 - 11 Jul 2019
Viewed by 632
Abstract
Most current methods for the preparation of tissue spheroids require complex materials, involve tedious physical steps and are generally not scalable. We report a novel alternative, which is both inexpensive and up-scalable, to produce large quantities of viable human keratinocyte cell clusters (clusteroids). [...] Read more.
Most current methods for the preparation of tissue spheroids require complex materials, involve tedious physical steps and are generally not scalable. We report a novel alternative, which is both inexpensive and up-scalable, to produce large quantities of viable human keratinocyte cell clusters (clusteroids). The method is based on a two-phase aqueous system of incompatible polymers forming a stable water-in-water (w/w) emulsion, which enabled us to rapidly fabricate cell clusteroids from HaCaT cells. We used w/w Pickering emulsion from aqueous solutions of the polymers dextran (DEX) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) and a particle stabilizer based on whey protein (WP). The HaCaT cells clearly preferred to distribute into the DEX-rich phase and this property was utilized to encapsulate them in the water-in-water (DEX-in-PEO) emulsion drops then osmotically shrank to compress them into clusters. Prepared formulations of HaCaT keratinocyte clusteroids in alginate hydrogel were grown where the cells percolated to mimic 3D tissue. The HaCaT cell clusteroids grew faster in the alginate film compared to the individual cells formulated in the same matrix. This methodology could potentially be utilised in biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from Bioinspired Materials 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
BiomiMETRIC Assistance Tool: A Quantitative Performance Tool for Biomimetic Design
Biomimetics 2019, 4(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics4030049 - 10 Jul 2019
Viewed by 456
Abstract
This article presents BiomiMETRIC, a quantitative performance tool for biomimetic design. This tool is developed as a complement to the standard ISO 18458 Biomimetics—terminology, concepts, and methodology to quantitatively evaluate the biomimetics performance of a design, a project, or a product. BiomiMETRIC is [...] Read more.
This article presents BiomiMETRIC, a quantitative performance tool for biomimetic design. This tool is developed as a complement to the standard ISO 18458 Biomimetics—terminology, concepts, and methodology to quantitatively evaluate the biomimetics performance of a design, a project, or a product. BiomiMETRIC is aimed to assist designers, architects, and engineers to facilitate the use of the biomimetic approach beyond the existing frameworks, and to provide an answer to the following question: How can a quantitative evaluation of biomimetic performance be carried out? The biomimetic quantitative performance tool provides a method of quantitative analysis by combining the biomimetic approach with the impact assessment methods used in life-cycle analysis. Biomimetic design is divided into eight steps. The seventh step deals with performance assessment, verifying that the concept developed is consistent with the 10 sustainable ecosystem principles proposed by the Biomimicry Institute. In the application of the biomimetic quantitative performance tool, stone wool and cork are compared as insulation materials used in biomimetic architecture projects to illustrate the relevance and added value of the tool. Although it is bio-based, cork has a lower biomimetic performance according to the indicators used by the biomimetic quantitative performance tool presented in this article. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Live Simultaneous Monitoring of Mineral Deposition and Lipid Accumulation in Differentiating Stem Cells
Biomimetics 2019, 4(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics4030048 - 10 Jul 2019
Viewed by 568
Abstract
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are progenitors for bone-forming osteoblasts and lipid-storing adipocytes, two major lineages co-existing in bone marrow. When isolated in vitro, these stem cells recapitulate osteoblast or adipocyte formation if treated with specialised media, modelling how these lineages interact in vivo. [...] Read more.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are progenitors for bone-forming osteoblasts and lipid-storing adipocytes, two major lineages co-existing in bone marrow. When isolated in vitro, these stem cells recapitulate osteoblast or adipocyte formation if treated with specialised media, modelling how these lineages interact in vivo. Osteogenic differentiation is characterised by mineral deposits accumulating in the extracellular matrix, typically assessed using histological techniques. Adipogenesis occurs with accumulation of intracellular lipids that can be routinely visualised by Oil Red O staining. In both cases, staining requires cell fixation and is thus limited to end-point assessments. Here, a vital staining approach was developed to simultaneously detect mineral deposits and lipid droplets in differentiating cultures. Stem cells induced to differentiate produced mixed cultures containing adipocytes and bone-like nodules, and after two weeks live cultures were incubated with tetracycline hydrochloride and Bodipy to label mineral- and lipid-containing structures, respectively. Fluorescence microscopy showed the simultaneous visualisation of mineralised areas and lipid-filled adipocytes in live cultures. Combined with the nuclear stain Hoechst 33258, this approach further enabled live confocal imaging of adipogenic cells interspersed within the mineralised matrix. This multiplex labelling was repeated at subsequent time-points, demonstrating the potential of this new approach for the real-time high-precision imaging of live stem cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from N.I.C.E. 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
An Approximation of Heart Failure Using Cardiovascular Simulation Toolbox
Biomimetics 2019, 4(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics4030047 - 10 Jul 2019
Viewed by 441
Abstract
In this paper, we present the simulation of 5 different heart failures with the help of the Cardiovascular Simulation Toolbox (CVST) proposed by O. Barnea et al. at Tel-Aviv University. This is a modified version of the CVST, proposed by G.Ortiz; here, we [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present the simulation of 5 different heart failures with the help of the Cardiovascular Simulation Toolbox (CVST) proposed by O. Barnea et al. at Tel-Aviv University. This is a modified version of the CVST, proposed by G.Ortiz; here, we show that the pathological failures can be covered by this tool. We varied the value of the tool blocks, included the results of the hemodynamic parameters and the P-V loop curves for each disease and compared them to the medical data to prove the effectiveness of the simulation. Based on these changes, we achieved an effective simulation of the following heart failures in the CVST: Diastolic Heart Failure (DHF), Systolic Heart Failure (SHF), Right Ventricle Heart Failure (RVHF), Low Output Heart Failure (LOHF) and High Output Heart Failure (HOHF). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioinspired Intelligence)
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Open AccessPerspective
Mechanoregulation of Bone Remodeling and Healing as Inspiration for Self-Repair in Materials
Biomimetics 2019, 4(3), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics4030046 - 09 Jul 2019
Viewed by 581
Abstract
The material bone has attracted the attention of material scientists due to its fracture resistance and ability to self-repair. A mechanoregulated exchange of damaged bone using newly synthesized material avoids the accumulation of fatigue damage. This remodeling process is also the basis for [...] Read more.
The material bone has attracted the attention of material scientists due to its fracture resistance and ability to self-repair. A mechanoregulated exchange of damaged bone using newly synthesized material avoids the accumulation of fatigue damage. This remodeling process is also the basis for structural adaptation to common loading conditions, thereby reducing the probability of material failure. In the case of fracture, an initial step of tissue formation is followed by a mechanobiological controlled restoration of the pre-fracture state. The present perspective focuses on these mechanobiological aspects of bone remodeling and healing. Specifically, the role of the control function is considered, which describes mechanoregulation as a link between mechanical stimulation and the local response of the material through changes in structure or material properties. Mechanical forces propagate over large distances leading to a complex non-local feedback between mechanical stimulation and material response. To better understand such phenomena, computer models are often employed. As expected from control theory, negative and positive feedback loops lead to entirely different time evolutions, corresponding to stable and unstable states of the material system. After some background information about bone remodeling and healing, we describe a few representative models, the corresponding control functions, and their consequences. The results are then discussed with respect to the potential design of synthetic materials with specific self-repair properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biogenic and Bioinspired Self-Healing Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Unfolding Crease Patterns Inspired by Insect Wings and Variations of the Miura-ori with a Single Vein
Biomimetics 2019, 4(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics4030045 - 05 Jul 2019
Viewed by 519
Abstract
In many disciplines, professionals are interested in folding patterns for their packing and shape changing capabilities. Many insects have folded wings fitting to their body morphology that can unfold to fly, support their weight and withstand external forces. This paper focuses on the [...] Read more.
In many disciplines, professionals are interested in folding patterns for their packing and shape changing capabilities. Many insects have folded wings fitting to their body morphology that can unfold to fly, support their weight and withstand external forces. This paper focuses on the main characteristics emerging from folding patterns inspired and adapted from both insect wings and Miura-ori patterns, along with the actuation mechanism. Pneumatic actuators, similar to the venations on insect wings, are used to unfold these patterns. Depending on one vein’s placement, its inflation can unfold models with many creases. While a single vein cannot fold the model back, a snapping behavior, observed in some folding patterns, could be used to trigger the folding mechanism of a model. By presenting the characteristics of each folding pattern studied in this work, one could come forth with an application and choose the most efficient folding patterns based on the most suitable characteristics for this application. These folding patterns can then be optimized to address specific requirements by adapting their different parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Proto-Architecture and Unconventional Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrodynamics of Vortex Generation during Bell Contraction by the Hydromedusa Eutonina indicans (Romanes, 1876)
Biomimetics 2019, 4(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics4030044 - 05 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 573
Abstract
Swimming bell kinematics and hydrodynamic wake structures were documented during multiple pulsation cycles of a Eutonina indicans (Romanes, 1876) medusa swimming in a predominantly linear path. Bell contractions produced pairs of vortex rings with opposite rotational sense. Analyses of the momentum flux in [...] Read more.
Swimming bell kinematics and hydrodynamic wake structures were documented during multiple pulsation cycles of a Eutonina indicans (Romanes, 1876) medusa swimming in a predominantly linear path. Bell contractions produced pairs of vortex rings with opposite rotational sense. Analyses of the momentum flux in these wake structures demonstrated that vortex dynamics related directly to variations in the medusa swimming speed. Furthermore, a bulk of the momentum flux in the wake was concentrated spatially at the interfaces between oppositely rotating vortices rings. Similar thrust-producing wake structures have been described in models of fish swimming, which posit vortex rings as vehicles for energy transport from locations of body bending to regions where interacting pairs of opposite-sign vortex rings accelerate the flow into linear propulsive jets. These findings support efforts toward soft robotic biomimetic propulsion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Dynamic Interactions in Biological and Bioinspired Propulsion)
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