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Towards a Dynamic Model of the Kangaroo Knee for Clinical Insights into Human Knee Pathology and Treatment: Establishing a Static Biomechanical Profile

1
EBM Analytics, Crows Nest, NSW 2065, Australia
2
Joint Orthopaedic Centre, Bondi Junction, NSW 2022, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomimetics 2019, 4(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics4030052
Received: 19 June 2019 / Revised: 19 July 2019 / Accepted: 23 July 2019 / Published: 25 July 2019
There is limited understanding of how patella realignment or patellectomy to surgically manage patellofemoral pain (PFP) affects knee biomechanics. By analysing marsupials like kangaroos that lack an ossified patella, actionable biomimetic insight for the management of end-stage PFP could be gained. This study aimed to provide the foundation of a multi-stage approach, by establishing a static biomechanical profile of the kangaroo stifle that informs the inputs and factors requiring consideration for future dynamic analyses. Volumetric CT and MRI sequences were obtained for four hindlimbs from two Macropus giganteus specimens, from which three-dimensional models of the stifles were created. Two limbs were dissected to visualise the insertion points, origins and lines of action of the quadriceps muscles and the knee extensor mechanism. Static measurements were obtained from the three-dimensional models to establish the biomechanical profile. The results confirmed structural differences in the kangaroo stifle with lack of an ossified patella, a prominent tuberosity and a shorter femur, which functionally affect the mechanical advantage and the torque-generating capability of the joint. The data reported in this study can be used to inform the inputs and constraints of future comparative analyses from which important lessons can be learned for the human knee. View Full-Text
Keywords: patellofemoral pain; biomechanical profile; kangaroo knee; biomimetics patellofemoral pain; biomechanical profile; kangaroo knee; biomimetics
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Fatima, M.; Scholes, C.J.; Zhong, E.; Kohan, L. Towards a Dynamic Model of the Kangaroo Knee for Clinical Insights into Human Knee Pathology and Treatment: Establishing a Static Biomechanical Profile. Biomimetics 2019, 4, 52.

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