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Safety, Volume 8, Issue 1 (March 2022) – 19 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The authors surveyed 150 French en route air traffic controllers on the causes of and impacts on perceived cooperation, safety, and performance of seven degraded attentional states: task-related and task-unrelated mind wandering, mental overload, inattentional deafness and blindness, attentional entropy, and perseveration. Task-related and task-unrelated mind wandering were the most prevalent but had the least impact on perceived safety. Inattentional blindness and attentional entropy were less reported but were considered a significant safety concern, while inattentional deafness affected cooperation. View this paper.
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Article
Degraded States of Engagement in Air Traffic Control
Safety 2022, 8(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8010019 - 08 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1239
Abstract
Safety studies have identified attention as a recurring cause of incidents and accidents in air traffic control. However, little is known of the precise attentional states that lead to degraded ATC performance. Therefore, we surveyed 150 French en route air traffic controllers on [...] Read more.
Safety studies have identified attention as a recurring cause of incidents and accidents in air traffic control. However, little is known of the precise attentional states that lead to degraded ATC performance. Therefore, we surveyed 150 French en route air traffic controllers on the causes of and impacts on perceived cooperation, safety, and performance of seven degraded attentional states from the literature: task-related and task-unrelated mind wandering, mental overload, inattentional deafness and blindness, attentional entropy, and perseveration. Our findings indicated that task-related and task-unrelated mind wandering were the most prevalent but had the least impact on perceived safety. Conversely, inattentional blindness and attentional entropy were less reported but were considered a significant safety concern, while inattentional deafness affected cooperation. Most states were experienced in workload levels consistent with the literature. However, no other factor such as shift work was identified as a cause of these states. Overall, these findings suggest that “attention” is not a specific enough subject for ATC, as attentional issues can occur in various conditions and have different impacts. As far as safety is concerned, inattentional blindness should be the prime target for further research. Neuroergonomics in particular could help develop dynamic countermeasures to mitigate its impact. Full article
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Article
Relationships among Bicycle Rider Behaviours, Anger, Aggression, and Crashes in Finland
Safety 2022, 8(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8010018 - 07 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1524
Abstract
Riding a bicycle is increasingly encouraged as a sustainable transport solution, especially in urban areas. However, safety concerns, both perceived and actual, can significantly lower the willingness to ride among the population. To support cycling planning and policy in the double task of [...] Read more.
Riding a bicycle is increasingly encouraged as a sustainable transport solution, especially in urban areas. However, safety concerns, both perceived and actual, can significantly lower the willingness to ride among the population. To support cycling planning and policy in the double task of increasing the levels of cycling while mitigating crash risk, there is a need to better understand the behaviours and attitudes of bicycle riders. In this manuscript, we study a cohort of Finnish bicycle riders through four questionnaires, the Cycling Behaviour Questionnaire (CBQ), Cyclist Risk Perception and Regulation Scale (RPRS), Cyclist Anger Scale (CAS), and Cyclist Aggression Expression Inventory (CAX). Our findings show low self-reported errors and violations, and high levels of knowledge regarding traffic rules among Finnish bicycle riders. Most participants report low levels of aggression, which is generally dealt with in constructive ways, while anger was most commonly a result of interactions with motor vehicles and less with other road users such as pedestrians. To further reduce the crash risk in cycling, our results point to the need for further separation between bicycle riders and motorised vehicles, and for the development of risk perception and positive behaviours among riders, particularly those engaging in risky behaviours. Full article
Article
Incentive Schemes Increase Risky Behavior in a Safety-Critical Working Task: An Experimental Comparison in a Simulated High-Reliability Organization
Safety 2022, 8(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8010017 - 04 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1172
Abstract
As financial incentive schemes have the tendency to increase risky behavior, we analyzed their effect on rule-related behavior in a safety-critical task. We compared risky behavior (in terms of the amount of rule violations) between three payment condition: continuous, up-front, and bonus pay. [...] Read more.
As financial incentive schemes have the tendency to increase risky behavior, we analyzed their effect on rule-related behavior in a safety-critical task. We compared risky behavior (in terms of the amount of rule violations) between three payment condition: continuous, up-front, and bonus pay. Fifty-nine participants were trained as production personnel to conduct a start-up procedure of a simulated wastewater treatment plant, representing a high reliability organization. During the 5-h experimental study, risky behavior could have been applied 48 times while building a simulated production year. The results show that the conditions with an incentive scheme (up-front and bonus pay) led to significantly more rule violations than the condition with continuous payment without an incentive scheme. Our study highlights the general increased risk effect of incentive schemes and provides a starting point for industries to assess their implicit and explicit incentive schemes. Full article
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Article
Dangerous Overtaking of Cyclists in Montréal
Safety 2022, 8(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8010016 - 27 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1723
Abstract
It is largely consented that the bicycle is a sustainable mobility alternative in the city. Despite its many benefits, cycling comprises risks of injury or death. Among others, these risks are a result of unsafe overtaking manoeuvres performed by motorized vehicles against cyclists. [...] Read more.
It is largely consented that the bicycle is a sustainable mobility alternative in the city. Despite its many benefits, cycling comprises risks of injury or death. Among others, these risks are a result of unsafe overtaking manoeuvres performed by motorized vehicles against cyclists. This study aims to identify the characteristics of the road network and traffic influencing the lateral distance and duration of overtaking. Using bicycles equipped with distance sensors, GPS, and cameras, four cyclists covered 1689 km in Montréal. Hence, 3591 overtakings were identified with an average distance of 176 cm; 111 overtaking manoeuvres took place at distances less than 1 m, resulting in an unsafe event for every 32 overtakings. On average, the duration of an overtaking was 1.082 s and dangerous overtakings (less than one metre) lasted 0.57 s more than safe overtakings (one metre and over). A generalized additive logit model (GAM) is built to predict the likelihood of a dangerous lateral passing (less than 1 m). The results show that in taking a major route, the presence of parked vehicles and the time required for overtaking significantly increase the probability of experiencing a dangerous overtaking. However, the participant, type of vehicle, or presence of a bike lane have no significant effect. Therefore, the results demonstrate the importance of keeping cyclists isolated from traffic. Furthermore, providing a bike path along parking spaces seems to be a solution that does not enhance cyclist safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Motorized Road Users Safety)
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Article
Logic Solver Diagnostics in Safety Instrumented Systems for Oil and Gas Applications
Safety 2022, 8(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8010015 - 25 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1248
Abstract
A safety instrumented system (SIS) is a complex unit composed of a set of hardware and software controls which are expressly used in critical process systems. A SIS should be specifically designed to obtain the failsafe state of the monitored plant or maintain [...] Read more.
A safety instrumented system (SIS) is a complex unit composed of a set of hardware and software controls which are expressly used in critical process systems. A SIS should be specifically designed to obtain the failsafe state of the monitored plant or maintain safety of the procedure or a process when unacceptable or dangerous conditions occur. This paper focuses on condition monitoring and different diagnostic solutions used in safety instrumented systems, such as limit alarm trips, on-board diagnostics, and logic solver diagnostics. A case study consisting of the design of a safety loop using standard IEC 61508 for a complex safety instrumented system in the oil and gas field is presented in the paper using a diagnostics-oriented approach. The presented methodology aims at reaching the optimal tradeoff between IEC 61508 and the market requirements focusing on the best technological solutions to optimize diagnostics and safety and minimize the system’s response time in case of failure. The results of the application emphasize the importance of an accurate diagnostic strategy on safety instrumented systems for oil and gas plants. Full article
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Article
Addressing Uncertainty by Designing an Intelligent Fuzzy System to Help Decision Support Systems for Winter Road Maintenance
Safety 2022, 8(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8010014 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1412
Abstract
One of the main challenges in developing efficient and effective winter road maintenance is to design an accurate prediction model for the road surface friction coefficient. A reliable and accurate prediction model of road surface friction coefficient can help decision support systems to [...] Read more.
One of the main challenges in developing efficient and effective winter road maintenance is to design an accurate prediction model for the road surface friction coefficient. A reliable and accurate prediction model of road surface friction coefficient can help decision support systems to significantly increase traffic safety, while saving time and cost. High dynamicity in weather and road surface conditions can lead to the presence of uncertainties in historical data extracted by sensors. To overcome this issue, this study uses an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system that can appropriately address uncertainty using fuzzy logic neural networks. To investigate the ability of the proposed model to predict the road surface friction coefficient, real data were measured at equal time intervals using optical sensors and road-mounted sensors. Then, the most critical features were selected based on the Pearson correlation coefficient, and the dataset was split into two independent training and test datasets. Next, the input variables were fuzzified by generating a fuzzy inference system using the fuzzy c-means clustering method. After training the model, a testing set was used to validate the trained model. The model was evaluated by means of graphical and numerical metrics. The results show that the constructed adaptive neuro-fuzzy model has an excellent ability to learn and accurately predict the road surface friction coefficient. Full article
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Article
Loss of Visual Reference in U.S. Aviation: An Analysis of 129 Accidents
Safety 2022, 8(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8010013 - 16 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1326
Abstract
A “loss of visual reference” is a term used by the National Transportation and Safety Board investigators to describe a situation in which the pilot has lost reference to the horizon or ground. Previous research has largely focused on the conditions that are [...] Read more.
A “loss of visual reference” is a term used by the National Transportation and Safety Board investigators to describe a situation in which the pilot has lost reference to the horizon or ground. Previous research has largely focused on the conditions that are often associated with a loss of visual reference (e.g., spatial disorientation) instead of the term itself. The purpose of the present study is to examine the accident and pilot characteristics that are associated with a loss of visual reference and the extent to which both are associated with fatalities. A total of 129 accident reports from 2008 through 2020 were extracted from the NTSB online database in which the term loss of visual reference appeared in the event category. Fatal accidents, which made up more than half of the dataset, were more likely to have occurred during the en-route phase of flight compared to all of the other phases of flight combined. The reports in which “decision making” or “decision making/judgment” was present were more likely to be for fatal accidents compared to reports in which the terms were not listed. It is the pilot’s decision and lack of attention that are most commonly associated with accidents in which a loss of visual reference occurred. Decisions that are likely to cause a loss of visual reference include initiating or continuing in adverse weather or light conditions. The dangers of loss of visual reference need to be part of ongoing training of pilots as opposed to their initial training only. Full article
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Article
The Road Safety Education Program for Adolescents Using Social Media, Proving Increasing Knowledge, Beliefs, Attitudes, Intentions and Behavior
Safety 2022, 8(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8010012 - 16 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1388
Abstract
Deaths due to road traffic accidents (RTA) accounted for 2.46% of deaths out of the total deaths in Indonesia. Road safety education (RSE), as an effort to prevent RTA, focuses on increasing knowledge; however, variations of techniques, methods, and media are less used. [...] Read more.
Deaths due to road traffic accidents (RTA) accounted for 2.46% of deaths out of the total deaths in Indonesia. Road safety education (RSE), as an effort to prevent RTA, focuses on increasing knowledge; however, variations of techniques, methods, and media are less used. This study aims to analyze the application of RSE innovations that have been compiled based on interests and needs of adolescents, which are expected to be able to increase knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, intentions, and safe driving behavior. This research used a quasi-experimental approach with a non-randomized pre-test–post-test control group design approach. The Zainafree Program intervention model was conducted for 6 weeks on 362 students who were selected using purposive sampling technique at two schools with the same characteristics. The bivariate analysis was conducted to observe the effect of the model on changes in knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, intentions, and behavior. We analyzed multivariately using GLM-RMA to determine the effectiveness of the model from various confounding factors. The Mann–Whitney test in the intervention and control group demonstrated a significant difference in the average post-test score of two on all dependent variables (p = 0.000). The results of the GLM-RMA test demonstrated the effect of the Zainafree Program on knowledge (p = 0.000; ETA Square = 35.1), beliefs (p = 0.000; ETA Square = 32.0), attitudes (p = 0.000; ETA Square = 50.9), intentions (p = 0.000, ETA Square = 20.7), and behavior (p = 0.000; ETA Square = 28.2), after adjusting for involvement between confounding variables (p = 0.000; ETA Square = 16.2), which demonstrated that the intervention was able to explain 16.2 changes that occur in the scores of five aspects together. The RSE program was proven to be successful in increasing students’ knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, intentions, and behavior compared to those who did not receive the program. Full article
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Article
Understanding Combustion Mechanism of Magnesium for Better Safety Measures: An Experimental Study
Safety 2022, 8(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8010011 - 10 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1336
Abstract
With the growth of the magnesium recycling market, the risk of fire and explosion has been raised over time. In particular, dross generated in the process of magnesium recycling is not considered as a hazardous material even though it contains a lot of [...] Read more.
With the growth of the magnesium recycling market, the risk of fire and explosion has been raised over time. In particular, dross generated in the process of magnesium recycling is not considered as a hazardous material even though it contains a lot of pure magnesium and/or magnesium compounds. There are few safety measures to prevent and respond to potential fires and explosions in the magnesium recycling process and to protect employees. Therefore, this study aims to identify appropriate safety measures to reduce the risk of fire and explosion in the magnesium recycling process by looking at two actual magnesium fire cases and relevant criteria in South Korea, the US, and Japan. Also, a combustion experiment using magnesium powder was conducted to identify the significant combustion phenomena of magnesium. Lastly, we developed a fire safety mechanism of magnesium, including chemical reaction, smoldering, and ignition. Each phase presents five contents for different safety measures in the visibility of combustion reaction, the velocity of the combustion reaction, identification methods, response measure, and possible responders. Although this study focused on dross from the magnesium recycling process, it is expected to be useful to develop a better risk management strategy to reduce the risks in the recycling process of metals. Full article
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Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Safety in 2021
Safety 2022, 8(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8010010 - 09 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1371
Abstract
Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
Review
Occupational Exposure to Mineral Dust in Mining and Earthmoving Works: A Scoping Review
Safety 2022, 8(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8010009 - 30 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1500
Abstract
Anthropogenic activity is related to several environmental imbalances, including dust. Particulate matter can also hinder humans with numerous health consequences, such as asthma, cancer, and pneumoconiosis. With a particular focus on mineral dust, this review is intended to determine in which circumstances occupational [...] Read more.
Anthropogenic activity is related to several environmental imbalances, including dust. Particulate matter can also hinder humans with numerous health consequences, such as asthma, cancer, and pneumoconiosis. With a particular focus on mineral dust, this review is intended to determine in which circumstances occupational exposure occurs in the mining and earthmoving industries. Research followed the guidelines provided by the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols and its extension for scoping reviews. Of the 8993 records identified, only 24 passed both exclusion and inclusion criteria. Within the pool of results, it was possible to identify the following variables related to dust exposure: job-related (activity, job category, and site), engineering (equipment, transport system), technical (distance), and physical (season and weather) variables. Due to the significant variance in protocol settings, it was challenging to perform a general analysis, resulting in a study-by-study approach. The most significant conclusion of this study is not related to the setting of occupational exposure, although it derives from it. The necessity of adopting standard procedures for data collection, independent of research objective, was demonstrated within the context of occupational exposure to mineral dust. Full article
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Article
A Rider-Centered Critical Decision Method Study to Better Understand the Challenges to Further Uptake of Cycling
Safety 2022, 8(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8010008 - 30 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1695
Abstract
Despite the many benefits of cycling, there is still a widespread perception that riding bicycles on public roads is unsafe. There has been a substantial increase in cycling research over the past decade, but little work has explored the challenges to greater uptake [...] Read more.
Despite the many benefits of cycling, there is still a widespread perception that riding bicycles on public roads is unsafe. There has been a substantial increase in cycling research over the past decade, but little work has explored the challenges to greater uptake of cycling from a rider-centered perspective. To explore this, our research undertook a large international survey for experienced cyclists in which rider perspectives were explored using an in-depth process called the Critical Decision Method. The results revealed a wide range of self-reported cycling experiences, and most respondents classified themselves as either strong and fearless or enthused and confident. Few actual differences with respect to threatening incidents and rider countermeasures were present, illustrating how overall similarly experienced cyclists respond to threatening incidents. An overarching summary of all survey responses is presented with respect to each gender, then a more specific case study of two riders, one female and one male, is presented showing how many emotions and fear responses were similar for the different riders, but their coping strategies and reactions were somewhat different. It is concluded that further work to explore the issue from a rider-centered perspective is needed, and that the wide variety of cyclist types implies that there is no single recommendation for encouraging greater uptake of riding. Full article
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Communication
Water Inrush Hazard in Shijingshan Tunnel during Construction, Zhuhai, Guangdong, China
Safety 2022, 8(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8010007 - 29 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1369
Abstract
This short communication reports a water inrush hazard during the construction of the Shijingshan Tunnel in Zhuhai, Guangdong, China. On 15 July 2021, a water inrush accident occurred at the construction site 1.16 km away from the tunnel entrance, resulting in 14 casualties. [...] Read more.
This short communication reports a water inrush hazard during the construction of the Shijingshan Tunnel in Zhuhai, Guangdong, China. On 15 July 2021, a water inrush accident occurred at the construction site 1.16 km away from the tunnel entrance, resulting in 14 casualties. The purpose of this study is to investigate and discuss the water inrush process in this atypical case. The principal causes of this tunneling accident include the special geological conditions at the construction site, high hydraulic conductivity at the part that connects the underground water system and the overlying water body (the Jida Reservoir), and the impact of heavy rainfall. Moreover, four significant suggestions are proposed to prevent the possible occurrence of water inrush disaster: (1) assessing the risk level in areas prone to water inrush; (2) getting a comprehensive geological prediction based on borehole data and artificial intelligent methods; (3) establishing a monitoring system during the tunneling process; (4) strengthening the self-protection skills of construction workers. Full article
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Article
Ergonomic Task Analysis for Prioritization of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders among Mango-Harvesting Farmers
Safety 2022, 8(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8010006 - 26 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1744
Abstract
This paper proposes a mixed ergonomic tool analysis algorithm to prioritize work-related musculoskeletal problems. This study is a cross-sectional study assessing the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) with associated risk factors among 14 male mango-harvesting farmers (all right-handed) with the mean age [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a mixed ergonomic tool analysis algorithm to prioritize work-related musculoskeletal problems. This study is a cross-sectional study assessing the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) with associated risk factors among 14 male mango-harvesting farmers (all right-handed) with the mean age of 52.28 ± 7.75 years. Four tasks following mango-harvesting processes were analyzed: (1) mango harvesting, (2) mango transporting, (3) mango size sorting, and (4) mango weighing and transporting to the truck. The perceived physical exertion while working on a mango-harvesting farm was based on the Borg CR-10 with a modified Standardized Nordic Questionnaire. Physical risk level due to awkward posture was evaluated by the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), and risk due to whole-body posture in association with the level of WMSDs risk was evaluated by the Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) score sheets. The subjective feelings of fatigue and posture analysis were normalized and combined using the theorem of power superposition to establish the fatigue effective index (FEI) for determining priorities to solve ergonomics-based task problems. This study indicated clearly that WMSDs are highly prevalent in mango-harvesting farmers, whereas the highest prevalence of WMSDs was reported in the right shoulder, right upper arm and lower back. The result provided the FEI of mango-harvesting farmers, ranked as follows: (1) size-sorting task, (2) weight-lifting task, (3) harvesting task, and (4) transporting task. The authors concluded that mango size sorting should be the first task to be improved to resolve the muscle fatigue problems among male mango-harvesting farmers. Full article
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Article
Evaluating the Associations between Forward Collision Warning Severity and Driving Context
Safety 2022, 8(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8010005 - 20 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1517
Abstract
Forward collision warning (FCW) systems typically employ forward sensing technologies to identify possible forward collisions and provide an alert to the driver in the event they have not recognized a threat. These systems have demonstrated safety benefits. However, because the base rate of [...] Read more.
Forward collision warning (FCW) systems typically employ forward sensing technologies to identify possible forward collisions and provide an alert to the driver in the event they have not recognized a threat. These systems have demonstrated safety benefits. However, because the base rate of collisions is low, sensitive FCW systems can provide a high rate of alarms in situations with no or low probability of collision, which may negatively impact driver responsiveness and satisfaction. We examined over 2000 naturally occurring FCWs in two modern vehicles as a part of a naturalistic driving study investigation into advanced vehicle technologies. Analysts used cabin and forward camera footage, as well as environmental characteristics, to judge the likelihood of a crash during each alert, which were used to model the likelihood of an alert representing a possible collision. Only nine FCWs were considered “crash possible and imminent”. Road-type, speed, traffic density, and deceleration profiles distinguished between alert severity. Modeling outcomes provide clues for reducing nuisance and false alerts, and the method of using subjective video annotation combined with vehicle kinematics shows promise for investigating FCW alerts in the real world. Full article
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Article
Vehicle Dynamics Endured by Patients during Emergency Evacuation—Ambulance versus Helicopter
Safety 2022, 8(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8010004 - 20 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1379
Abstract
In the event of a road accident, a quick intervention is crucial. The mobile emergency services take care of patients whose condition requires an emergency repatriation to a hospital, by land in an ambulance or by air in a helicopter. The main criteria [...] Read more.
In the event of a road accident, a quick intervention is crucial. The mobile emergency services take care of patients whose condition requires an emergency repatriation to a hospital, by land in an ambulance or by air in a helicopter. The main criteria for choosing the means of transport are the time required for repatriation and the patient’s more or less critical state of health. Do the vehicle dynamic effects endured by the transported patient have an influence on their health condition? Vehicle dynamics data were recorded with a road data recorder for a period of 3 months, under real conditions of patient repatriation to a hospital; 39 trips were recorded by ambulance and 29 trips by helicopter. Significant differences in speed (average 42 versus 202 km/h) and distance travelled (average 23 versus 85 km) were observed. The sustained effects are similar in helicopters and ambulances. The ambulance causes more abrupt variations in longitudinal and transversal directions, whereas the helicopter has more variations in vertical direction. The vibration level in helicopters is higher than in ambulances. These results can be considered as a first reference baseline for establishing a characterization of transported patients’ exposure to vehicle dynamics. Full article
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Article
Functional Resonance Analysis in an Overtaking Situation in Road Traffic: Comparing the Performance Variability Mechanisms between Human and Automation
Safety 2022, 8(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8010003 - 27 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1528
Abstract
Automated driving promises great possibilities in traffic safety advancement, frequently assuming that human error is the main cause of accidents, and promising a significant decrease in road accidents through automation. However, this assumption is too simplistic and does not consider potential side effects [...] Read more.
Automated driving promises great possibilities in traffic safety advancement, frequently assuming that human error is the main cause of accidents, and promising a significant decrease in road accidents through automation. However, this assumption is too simplistic and does not consider potential side effects and adaptations in the socio-technical system that traffic represents. Thus, a differentiated analysis, including the understanding of road system mechanisms regarding accident development and accident avoidance, is required to avoid adverse automation surprises, which is currently lacking. This paper, therefore, argues in favour of Resilience Engineering using the functional resonance analysis method (FRAM) to reveal these mechanisms in an overtaking scenario on a rural road to compare the contributions between the human driver and potential automation, in order to derive system design recommendations. Finally, this serves to demonstrate how FRAM can be used for a systemic function allocation for the driving task between humans and automation. Thus, an in-depth FRAM model was developed for both agents based on document knowledge elicitation and observations and interviews in a driving simulator, which was validated by a focus group with peers. Further, the performance variabilities were identified by structured interviews with human drivers as well as automation experts and observations in the driving simulator. Then, the aggregation and propagation of variability were analysed focusing on the interaction and complexity in the system by a semi-quantitative approach combined with a Space-Time/Agency framework. Finally, design recommendations for managing performance variability were proposed in order to enhance system safety. The outcomes show that the current automation strategy should focus on adaptive automation based on a human-automation collaboration, rather than full automation. In conclusion, the FRAM analysis supports decision-makers in enhancing safety enriched by the identification of non-linear and complex risks. Full article
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Article
Reversing Poor Safety Records: Identifying Best Practices to Improve Fleet Safety
Safety 2022, 8(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8010002 - 24 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1503
Abstract
Commercial motor vehicle safety is of utmost importance, as crashes involving commercial motor vehicles often result in significant property damage, injuries, fatalities, and financial loss for fleets. However, fleet managers are often unsure what strategies other fleets have used to successfully improve safety. [...] Read more.
Commercial motor vehicle safety is of utmost importance, as crashes involving commercial motor vehicles often result in significant property damage, injuries, fatalities, and financial loss for fleets. However, fleet managers are often unsure what strategies other fleets have used to successfully improve safety. To identify best practices, researchers completed case studies with nine commercial motor vehicle fleets that successfully improved their safety performance. A content analysis was performed, and the successful strategies were organized into the Haddon Matrix. Results showed that there was no one single strategy that fleets used to improve safety. Instead, fleets relied on a comprehensive approach focusing on pre-crash countermeasures, including addressing hiring practices, driver training, fleet safety culture, safety technologies, scheduling, and maintenance. However, an enhanced safety culture and advanced safety technology were identified as critical components to their safety improvement. Results from this study may help fleets understand what their peers have used to successfully improve safety and which strategies may not be as helpful. Full article
Article
Using Tolerance Bounds for Estimation of Characteristic Fatigue Curves for Composites with Confidence
Safety 2022, 8(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety8010001 - 23 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1437
Abstract
Fatigue SN curves provide the number of stress cycles that result in fatigue failure at stress range S and need to be measured for new engineering materials where data are not as readily available as they are for well-characterized and widely [...] Read more.
Fatigue SN curves provide the number of stress cycles that result in fatigue failure at stress range S and need to be measured for new engineering materials where data are not as readily available as they are for well-characterized and widely used metals. A simple statistical method for the estimation of characteristic fatigue curves defined in terms of lower-tail quantiles in probability distributions of dependent variables is presented. The method allows for the estimation of such quantiles with a specified confidence level, taking account of the statistical uncertainty caused by a limited number of experimental test results available for the estimation. The traditional general approach for estimating characteristic SN curves by tolerance bounds is complicated and is not much used by engineers. The presented approach allows for calculating the curves with a simple spreadsheet. The only requirement is that the experimental log S data for the SN curve are fairly uniformly distributed over a finite logS interval, where S denotes the stress range. Experimental fatigue test programs are often designed such that test data fulfil this assumption. Although developed with fatigue of composite laminates in mind, the presented statistical procedure and the presented associated charts are valid for fatigue curve estimation for any material. Full article
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