Next Issue
Volume 11, July
Previous Issue
Volume 11, May
 
 

Vet. Sci., Volume 11, Issue 6 (June 2024) – 56 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image):  
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
13 pages, 10673 KiB  
Article
Case Series: Computed Tomography Features of Extraskeletal Osteosarcoma in Six Dogs
by Jeongyun Jeong, Minjoo Kim, Sung-Soo Kim, Hyunju Hwang, Joohyun Jung, Noh-Won Park, Jaehwan Kim and Kidong Eom
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(6), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11060282 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 869
Abstract
The objective of the present case series was to investigate the various computed tomography findings of six dogs diagnosed with extraskeletal osteosarcoma (exOSA) at several locations. Among the tumors evaluated, four were subcutaneous, one was mammary, and one involved the intestinal tract. Intralesional [...] Read more.
The objective of the present case series was to investigate the various computed tomography findings of six dogs diagnosed with extraskeletal osteosarcoma (exOSA) at several locations. Among the tumors evaluated, four were subcutaneous, one was mammary, and one involved the intestinal tract. Intralesional mineralization was observed in all six dogs. Most of the tumors were moderately calcified, exhibited amorphous mineralization, and were heterogeneous on post-contrast imaging. Three of the tumors were peripherally enhanced, and regional lymphadenopathy was identified in two of the dogs, which was presumed to be metastatic. No lymph node calcification was reported. Although the presence of intralesional mineralization is not a pathognomonic finding, it was consistently identified in the present case series. Therefore, exOSA should be considered in the differential diagnosis when mineralization occurs in a mass unrelated to osseous structures. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 244 KiB  
Perspective
Why Foot-and-Mouth Disease-Free with Vaccination Should Be Equivalent to Foot-and-Mouth Disease-Free without Vaccination
by Pedro Moura, Ulrich Kihm, Alejandro Schudel, Ingrid Bergmann and Patrik Buholzer
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(6), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11060281 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 877
Abstract
Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) is still one of the most relevant animal diseases and remains of global concern. The World Organization for Animal Health (WOAH) has specified two sanitary statuses that assure freedom from FMD: a country or zone can be free from FMD [...] Read more.
Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) is still one of the most relevant animal diseases and remains of global concern. The World Organization for Animal Health (WOAH) has specified two sanitary statuses that assure freedom from FMD: a country or zone can be free from FMD either with or without vaccination. To obtain either of the two statuses, absence of virus circulation must be shown. The standards set by WOAH are used for trade negotiations. During recent decades, different tools and approaches were developed to control FMD, including vaccines, diagnostics, and the Progressive Control Pathway for FMD. These tools improved over time, and nowadays high-quality, reliable vaccines and specific diagnostics are available to efficiently control and detect the infection, even in vaccinated populations. Due to these improvements, it is no longer justifiable to treat the two FMD-free statuses differently. The distinction between the statuses provides wrong incentives and tempts countries to take increased risks by stopping vaccination to improve their trade conditions, which can have potentially devastating consequences. The decision to stop vaccination should only be made on the basis of a careful and comprehensive analysis of the local and regional epidemiological situation. This paper presents the perspective that member countries and WOAH should recognize the two FMD-free statuses as equivalent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
18 pages, 14084 KiB  
Review
Recapitulation of Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) Prevalence in Small Ruminant Populations of Pakistan from 2004 to 2023: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Saad Zafar, Muhammad Shehroz Sarfraz, Sultan Ali, Laiba Saeed, Muhammad Shahid Mahmood, Aman Ullah Khan and Muhammad Naveed Anwar
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(6), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11060280 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 1284
Abstract
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an extremely transmissible viral disease caused by the PPR virus that impacts domestic small ruminants, namely sheep and goats. This study aimed to employ a methodical approach to evaluate the regional occurrence of PPR in small ruminants [...] Read more.
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an extremely transmissible viral disease caused by the PPR virus that impacts domestic small ruminants, namely sheep and goats. This study aimed to employ a methodical approach to evaluate the regional occurrence of PPR in small ruminants in Pakistan and the contributing factors that influence its prevalence. A thorough search was performed in various databases to identify published research articles between January 2004 and August 2023 on PPR in small ruminants in Pakistan. Articles were chosen based on specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 25 articles were selected from 1275 studies gathered from different databases. The overall pooled prevalence in Pakistan was calculated to be 51% (95% CI: 42–60), with heterogeneity I2 = 100%, τ2 = 0.0495, and p = 0. The data were summarized based on the division into five regions: Punjab, Baluchistan, KPK, Sindh, and GB and AJK. Among these, the pooled prevalence of PPR in Sindh was 61% (95% CI: 46–75), I2 = 100%, τ2 = 0.0485, and p = 0, while in KPK, it was 44% (95% CI: 26–63), I2 = 99%, τ2 = 0.0506, and p < 0.01. However, the prevalence of PPR in Baluchistan and Punjab was almost the same. Raising awareness, proper surveillance, and application of appropriate quarantine measures interprovincially and across borders must be maintained to contain the disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Veterinary Clinical Microbiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 4817 KiB  
Article
Causal Agent Investigation and Treatment of Dogs Diagnosed with Discospondylitis in a Brucella canis Endemic Region
by Eileen M. Donoghue, Sara D. Lawhon, Sharon C. Kerwin and Nick D. Jeffery
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(6), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11060279 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 604
Abstract
Discospondylitis is a well-recognized disease in dogs, but the relative prevalence of causal infectious agents and efficiency of relevant diagnostic tests are not well-established. Medical record review identified 117 dogs diagnosed with discospondylitis in our clinic over a 5-year period. In 32 dogs, [...] Read more.
Discospondylitis is a well-recognized disease in dogs, but the relative prevalence of causal infectious agents and efficiency of relevant diagnostic tests are not well-established. Medical record review identified 117 dogs diagnosed with discospondylitis in our clinic over a 5-year period. In 32 dogs, discospondylitis was diagnosed as an incidental imaging finding; 24 of these dogs had concomitant neoplasia. A likely causal infection was identified in 45 of the remaining 85 dogs in which blood and urine cultures, serology for Brucella spp., and galactomannan fungal antigen testing were recommended. Ten dogs were diagnosed with Brucella canis, and ten were diagnosed with suspected fungal infection. Brucella suis serology was negative in all 35 dogs that were tested. Blood cultures were positive in 28 of 71 (39%) tested dogs, and urine culture was positive in 12 of 79 (15%). Cultures were positive from the lesion site of four of eight dogs that underwent surgery and one of the five dogs that underwent image-guided lesion sample collection. Subluxation secondary to discospondylitis was stabilized with metallic implants in four dogs. A similar proportion of known satisfactory treatment outcomes at last follow-up were recorded in dogs that had suspected fungal disease, other bacterial infections, or were Brucella-positive and in those dogs with imaging diagnosis only, although some individuals continued to receive anti-microbial agents or showed recurrent signs. These data support the value of blood culture in discospondylitis and suggest a relatively high prevalence of infection with Brucella spp. and suspected fungal infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurology and Neurosurgery in Small Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 6432 KiB  
Article
Automated Nuclear Morphometry: A Deep Learning Approach for Prognostication in Canine Pulmonary Carcinoma to Enhance Reproducibility
by Imaine Glahn, Andreas Haghofer, Taryn A. Donovan, Brigitte Degasperi, Alexander Bartel, Theresa Kreilmeier-Berger, Philip S. Hyndman, Hannah Janout, Charles-Antoine Assenmacher, Florian Bartenschlager, Pompei Bolfa, Michael J. Dark, Andrea Klang, Robert Klopfleisch, Sophie Merz, Barbara Richter, F. Yvonne Schulman, Jonathan Ganz, Josef Scharinger, Marc Aubreville, Stephan M. Winkler and Christof A. Bertramadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(6), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11060278 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 669
Abstract
The integration of deep learning-based tools into diagnostic workflows is increasingly prevalent due to their efficiency and reproducibility in various settings. We investigated the utility of automated nuclear morphometry for assessing nuclear pleomorphism (NP), a criterion of malignancy in the current grading system [...] Read more.
The integration of deep learning-based tools into diagnostic workflows is increasingly prevalent due to their efficiency and reproducibility in various settings. We investigated the utility of automated nuclear morphometry for assessing nuclear pleomorphism (NP), a criterion of malignancy in the current grading system in canine pulmonary carcinoma (cPC), and its prognostic implications. We developed a deep learning-based algorithm for evaluating NP (variation in size, i.e., anisokaryosis and/or shape) using a segmentation model. Its performance was evaluated on 46 cPC cases with comprehensive follow-up data regarding its accuracy in nuclear segmentation and its prognostic ability. Its assessment of NP was compared to manual morphometry and established prognostic tests (pathologists’ NP estimates (n = 11), mitotic count, histological grading, and TNM-stage). The standard deviation (SD) of the nuclear area, indicative of anisokaryosis, exhibited good discriminatory ability for tumor-specific survival, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.80 and a hazard ratio (HR) of 3.38. The algorithm achieved values comparable to manual morphometry. In contrast, the pathologists’ estimates of anisokaryosis resulted in HR values ranging from 0.86 to 34.8, with slight inter-observer reproducibility (k = 0.204). Other conventional tests had no significant prognostic value in our study cohort. Fully automated morphometry promises a time-efficient and reproducible assessment of NP with a high prognostic value. Further refinement of the algorithm, particularly to address undersegmentation, and application to a larger study population are required. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1910 KiB  
Review
Emergency Approach to Acute Seizures in Dogs and Cats
by George G. Munguia, Aimee C. Brooks, Stephanie A. Thomovsky, Elizabeth J. Thomovsky, Andrea Rincon and Paula A. Johnson
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(6), 277; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11060277 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 1149
Abstract
Seizures are a common presentation seen in small animal practices. Seizures require prompt management including initial interventions for triage, stabilization, and treatment with first-line anticonvulsant (AC) drugs like benzodiazepines. Concurrently, ruling out metabolic or extracranial causes with point-of-care diagnostics can help guide further [...] Read more.
Seizures are a common presentation seen in small animal practices. Seizures require prompt management including initial interventions for triage, stabilization, and treatment with first-line anticonvulsant (AC) drugs like benzodiazepines. Concurrently, ruling out metabolic or extracranial causes with point-of-care diagnostics can help guide further diagnostics and treatments. Analysis of the history and a physical exam are also necessary to rule out common “look-alikes” that require specific diagnostic workup and treatments. Typically, causes of seizures can be grouped into intracranial and extracranial causes, with the latter being easier to diagnose with commonly available tests. This review presents a systematic approach to the diagnosis and treatment of single seizures, cluster seizures, and status epilepticus in dogs and cats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Surgery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 566 KiB  
Review
Allogenic Follicular Fosterage Technology: Problems, Progress and Potential
by Mingming Teng, Mengqi Zhao, Bo Mu and Anmin Lei
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(6), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11060276 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 545
Abstract
The allogeneic follicular fosterage (AFF) technique transfers cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) from pubertal female animals to the dominant follicles of adult female animals for further development, allowing the COCs to further develop in a completely in vivo environment. This article reviews the history of [...] Read more.
The allogeneic follicular fosterage (AFF) technique transfers cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) from pubertal female animals to the dominant follicles of adult female animals for further development, allowing the COCs to further develop in a completely in vivo environment. This article reviews the history of AFF and JIVET and their effects on oocyte and embryo development as well as freezing resistance. Improving the efficiency and reproducibility of AFF technology is crucial to its clinical application. This article discusses factors that affect the success rate of AFF, including differences in specific technical procedures and differences between pubertal and adult follicles. Designing standardized procedures and details to improve the synchronization of donor COCs and recipient follicle maturity and reducing the damage to COCs caused by follicular aspiration may be the direction for improving the success rate of AFF in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Veterinary Reproduction and Embryonic Development)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 242 KiB  
Article
Multimodal Blockade of the Renin–Angiotensin System in the Treatment of Cancer in Dogs Has Mild Adverse Effects in Some Dogs
by Keren E. Dittmer, Sarah Wetzel, Thomas Odom, John S. Munday, Elizabeth A. Flatt, Ingrid J. Wilson, Catherine Hughes and Swee T. Tan
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(6), 275; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11060275 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 1063
Abstract
The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) is increasingly being recognized to play a role in the tumor microenvironment, promoting tumor growth. Studies blocking a single part of the RAS have shown mixed results, possibly due to the existence of different bypass pathways and redundancy within [...] Read more.
The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) is increasingly being recognized to play a role in the tumor microenvironment, promoting tumor growth. Studies blocking a single part of the RAS have shown mixed results, possibly due to the existence of different bypass pathways and redundancy within the RAS. As such, multimodal blockade of the RAS has been developed to exert more complete inhibition of the RAS. The aim of the present study was to assess the safety of multimodal RAS blockade in dogs. Five dogs (four with appendicular osteosarcoma, one with oral malignant melanoma) were treated with atenolol, benazepril, curcumin, meloxicam, and metformin. The dogs underwent clinical examination, blood pressure measurement, and hematology and serum biochemistry tests performed at 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks, then every 3 months thereafter. End-of-life decisions were made by the owners. None of the dogs developed hypotension. One dog had intermittent vomiting during the 64 weeks it was on the trial. One dog had a one-off increase in serum SDMA(symmetrical dimethylarginine) concentration. Dogs were euthanized at weeks 3 (osteosarcoma), 10 (osteosarcoma), 17 (osteosarcoma), and 26 (oral malignant melanoma), and one dog was still alive at the end of the trial at 64 weeks (osteosarcoma). This is the first assessment of multimodal blockade of the RAS in dogs, and the results suggest it causes only mild adverse effects in some animals. The efficacy of the treatment was not assessed due to the small number of dogs. This pilot study allows for future larger studies assessing multimodal RAS blockade for the treatment of canine cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Focus on Tumours in Pet Animals)
12 pages, 1815 KiB  
Article
Boosting PRRSV-Specific Cellular Immunity: The Immunological Profiling of an Fc-Fused Multi-CTL Epitope Vaccine in Mice
by Xinnuo Lei, Jinzhao Ban, Zhi Wu, Shinuo Cao, Mo Zhou, Li Zhang, Rui Zhu, Huipeng Lu and Shanyuan Zhu
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(6), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11060274 - 15 Jun 2024
Viewed by 708
Abstract
The continuously evolving PRRSV has been plaguing pig farms worldwide for over 30 years, with conventional vaccines suffering from insufficient protection and biosecurity risks. To address these challenges, we identified 10 PRRSV-specific CTL epitopes through enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT) and constructed a multi-epitope [...] Read more.
The continuously evolving PRRSV has been plaguing pig farms worldwide for over 30 years, with conventional vaccines suffering from insufficient protection and biosecurity risks. To address these challenges, we identified 10 PRRSV-specific CTL epitopes through enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT) and constructed a multi-epitope peptide (PTE) by linking them in tandem. This PTE was then fused with a modified porcine Fc molecule to create the recombinant protein pFc-PTE. Our findings indicate that pFc-PTE effectively stimulates PRRSV-infected specific splenic lymphocytes to secrete high levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and is predicted to be non-toxic and non-allergenic. Compared to PTE alone, pFc-PTE not only induced a comparable cellular immune response in mice but also extended the duration of the immune response to at least 10 weeks post-immunization. Additionally, pFc-PTE predominantly induced a Th1 immune response, suggesting its potential advantage in enhancing cellular immunity. Consequently, pFc-PTE holds promise as a novel, safe, and potent candidate vaccine for PRRSV and may also provide new perspectives for vaccine design against other viral diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2876 KiB  
Article
Meta-Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Novel RNA Viruses in Polychaetes Perinereis
by Jingfei Luo, Fan Zhang, Chengyan Zhou, Fanzeng Meng, Guohao Wang, Liang Qiu, Weifeng Shi, Jie Huang and Xuan Dong
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(6), 273; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11060273 - 15 Jun 2024
Viewed by 677
Abstract
Perinereis species are essential benthonic animals in coastal ecosystems and have significant roles as live feed in aquaculture, owing to their high-protein and low-fat nutritional profile. Despite their ecological importance, the viral communities associated with these organisms need to be better understood. In [...] Read more.
Perinereis species are essential benthonic animals in coastal ecosystems and have significant roles as live feed in aquaculture, owing to their high-protein and low-fat nutritional profile. Despite their ecological importance, the viral communities associated with these organisms need to be better understood. In this study, we generated 2.6 × 108 reads using meta-transcriptomic sequencing and de novo assembled 5.3 × 103 virus-associated contigs. We identified 12 novel RNA viruses from two species, Perinereis aibuhitensis and P. wilsoni, which were classified into four major viral groups: Picobirnaviridae, Marnaviridae, unclassified Picornavirales, and unclassified Bunyavirales. Our findings revealed the hidden diversity of viruses and genome structures in Perinereis, enriching the RNA virosphere and expanding the host range of Picobirnaviridae, Marnaviridae, and Bunyavirales. This study also highlighted the potential biosecurity risk of the novel viruses carried by Perinereis to aquaculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology, Biosecurity and Aquatic Animals Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 849 KiB  
Article
Foot and Mouth Disease Vaccine Matching and Post-Vaccination Assessment in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
by Yassir M. Eltahir, Hassan Zackaria Ali Ishag, Krupali Parekh, Britta A. Wood, Anna Ludi, Donald P. King, Oum Keltoum Bensalah, Rashid A. Khan, Asma Abdi Mohamed Shah, Kaltham Kayaf and Meera Saeed Mohamed
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(6), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11060272 - 14 Jun 2024
Viewed by 751
Abstract
Despite the annual vaccination of livestock against foot and mouth disease (FMD) in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), outbreaks of the disease continue to be reported. The effective control of field outbreaks by vaccination requires that the vaccines used are antigenically matched to [...] Read more.
Despite the annual vaccination of livestock against foot and mouth disease (FMD) in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), outbreaks of the disease continue to be reported. The effective control of field outbreaks by vaccination requires that the vaccines used are antigenically matched to circulating field FMD viruses. In this study, a vaccine matching analysis was performed using the two-dimensional virus neutralization test (VNT) for three field isolates belonging to the O/ME-SA/PanAsia-2/ANT-10 and O/ME-SA/SA-2018 lineages collected from different FMD outbreaks that occurred within the Abu Dhabi Emirate in 2021 affecting Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx), goat, and sheep. In addition, post-vaccination antibodies in sheep and goats were measured using solid-phase competitive ELISA (SPCE) for FMDV serotypes A and O at five months after a single vaccine dose and a further 28 days later after a second dose of the FMD vaccine. An analysis of vaccine matching revealed that five out of the six vaccine strains tested were antigenically matched to the UAE field isolates, with r1-values ranging between 0.32 and 0.75. These results suggest that the vaccine strains (O-3039 and O1 Manisa) included in the FMD vaccine used in the Abu Dhabi Emirate are likely to provide protection against outbreaks caused by the circulating O/ME-SA/PanAsia-2/ANT-10 and O/ME-SA/SA-2018 lineages. All critical residues at site 1 and site 3 of VP1 were conserved in all isolates, although an analysis of the VP1-encoding sequences revealed 14–16 amino acid substitutions compared to the sequence of the O1 Manisa vaccine strain. This study also reports on the results of post-vaccination monitoring where the immunization coverage rates against FMDV serotypes A and O were 47% and 69% five months after the first dose of the FMD vaccine, and they were increased to 81 and 88%, respectively, 28 days after the second dose of the vaccine. These results reinforce the importance of using a second booster dose to maximize the impact of vaccination. In conclusion, the vaccine strains currently used in Abu Dhabi are antigenically matched to circulating field isolates from two serotype O clades (O/ME-SA/PanAsia-2/ANT-10 sublineage and O/ME-SA/SA-2018 lineage). The bi-annual vaccination schedule for FMD in the Abu Dhabi Emirate has the potential to establish a sufficient herd immunity, especially when complemented by additional biosecurity measures for comprehensive FMD control. These findings are pivotal for the successful implementation of the region’s vaccination-based FMD control policy, showing that high vaccination coverage and the wide-spread use of booster doses in susceptible herds is required to achieve a high level of FMDV-specific antibodies in vaccinated animals. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 601 KiB  
Article
Clinical Presentation, Bacteriologic Findings and Possible Risk Factors for Ischemic Teat Necrosis in Cattle—A Case Series
by Jan Kortstegge, Yanchao Zhang, Franziska Preine and Volker Krömker
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(6), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11060271 - 14 Jun 2024
Viewed by 861
Abstract
Ischemic teat necrosis (ITN) is a growing problem in the dairy industry characterized by teat lesions, necrosis, pruritus and automutilation. Despite the economic and welfare consequences, there is no treatment, and the etiology of the disease remains poorly understood. The aim of this [...] Read more.
Ischemic teat necrosis (ITN) is a growing problem in the dairy industry characterized by teat lesions, necrosis, pruritus and automutilation. Despite the economic and welfare consequences, there is no treatment, and the etiology of the disease remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate ITN by analyzing its clinical presentation, potential risk factors and microbial involvement. Methods included collection of milk and swab samples from affected cows over a period of one-and-a-half years and completion of questionnaires by veterinarians and farmers. Microbial testing included PCR testing for Treponema spp. and cultural testing by anaerobic and aerobic incubation on blood agar. The results showed a high and significant prevalence of Treponema spp. and Staphylococcus aureus in affected teats compared to non-ITN-affected control teats, indicating their potential role in the development of ITN. Other factors such as edema and milking practices also appear to contribute to the tissue damage. First-lactation and early-lactation heifers are particularly at risk. In conclusion, ITN appears to have a multifactorial etiology with both infectious and non-infectious factors playing a role. Further research is needed to better understand the complex interplay of these factors and to develop effective prevention and management strategies. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 9566 KiB  
Article
Ultrasonography of Testicular Maturation and Correlation with Body Growth and Semen Evaluation in Beagle Dog Model
by Athina P. Venianaki, Mariana S. Barbagianni, George C. Fthenakis, Apostolos D. Galatos and Pagona G. Gouletsou
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(6), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11060270 - 14 Jun 2024
Viewed by 515
Abstract
This prospective study investigated the ultrasonographic appearance of the canine testis from birth to adulthood. Eight purpose-bred laboratory Beagle-breed dogs were monitored from 4 to 40 weeks of life. The following parameters were evaluated every two weeks: bodyweight and height, scrotal and testicular [...] Read more.
This prospective study investigated the ultrasonographic appearance of the canine testis from birth to adulthood. Eight purpose-bred laboratory Beagle-breed dogs were monitored from 4 to 40 weeks of life. The following parameters were evaluated every two weeks: bodyweight and height, scrotal and testicular volume, ultrasonographically measured testicular volume, echogenicity, heterogeneity, blood-flow score, ratio of the grayscale intensity value of the testis to the capsule, ejaculate volume, motility, viability, and number of spermatozoa. A correlation analysis was carried out between the various measurements obtained. Fertility was achieved in the 36th week of life. The echogenicity of the testicular parenchyma increased with age, and subsequently to the 30th week of life remained constant. The heterogeneity of the testicular parenchyma, as was evaluated by the standard deviation of the values of grayscale intensity of the parenchyma, also increased with age and was >19 at the onset of fertility. The ratio of grayscale intensity of testicular parenchyma had values < 200 at maturity. A colour Doppler evaluation first detected blood flow in the testis in the 22nd week. After the 32nd week, distinct signals were visible. In the 36th week, >80% of the testes imaged had visible vessels. A significant correlation was found between all the evaluation methods. The findings of the study may help clinicians detect the onset of fertility in dogs, especially when semen evaluation is not feasible; however, their applicability in all breeds or individuals might possibly vary due to genetic, physiological, and developmental differences. In summary, the study ultrasonographically explores the testicular maturity in dogs, with the aim to improve clinical assessments and health management in these animals. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 874 KiB  
Review
Equine Granulocytic Anaplasmosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on Clinico-Pathological Findings, Diagnosis, and Therapeutic Management
by Andreea Monica Bogdan, Ioan Liviu Mitrea and Mariana Ionita
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(6), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11060269 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 614
Abstract
Equine granulocytic anaplasmosis (EGA) is a tick-borne disease affecting horses worldwide, caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The disease ranges from non-specific clinical signs to fatal outcomes. This paper aimed to analyze EGA cases reported in peer-reviewed journals, particularly on clinico-pathological findings, diagnosis, and [...] Read more.
Equine granulocytic anaplasmosis (EGA) is a tick-borne disease affecting horses worldwide, caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The disease ranges from non-specific clinical signs to fatal outcomes. This paper aimed to analyze EGA cases reported in peer-reviewed journals, particularly on clinico-pathological findings, diagnosis, and therapeutic management. Overall, 189 clinical cases from 31 publications were included in the study. Extensive symptomatology for the EGA cases was reported, of which mostly was fever (90.30%), followed by limb edema (48.51%), anorexia (41.79%), depression (32.84%), icterus (22.39%), ataxia (17.91), tachycardia (16.42%), and lethargy (15.67%). Laboratory tests revealed thrombocytopenia (90.32%), anemia (75%), decreased hematocrit (70.59%), leukopenia (55.88%), lymphopenia (58.14%), and neutropenia (41.67%) as the most common hematological abnormalities. For a subset of tested animals, hyperbilirubinemia (20/29), hyperfibrinogenemia (13/15), and hyponatremia (10/10) were also reported. The diagnosis was established by microscopic identification of morulae (in 153 cases), and/or PCR (120 cases), isolation (1 case), or serology (56 cases). For treatment, oxytetracycline was used in the majority (52.24%) of EGA cases, but recovery without antibiotherapy (10.34%) was also noted. In conclusion, the variety of clinical and pathological findings and the challenging therapeutic approaches reported suggest that EGA should be included in the differential diagnosis when fever occurs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Treatment of Tick-Borne Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 855 KiB  
Case Report
Polymicrobial Septic Peritonitis Caused by Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus casseliflavus following Uterine Rupture in a Goat
by Gabriel S. dos Santos, Giovanna S. Francischetti, Natália F. Garritano, Stefano C. F. Hagen, Artur F. Cagnim, José Luiz Catão-Dias, José S. Ferreira Neto, Maria Claudia A. Sucupira and Marcos B. Heinemann
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(6), 268; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11060268 - 12 Jun 2024
Viewed by 806
Abstract
A one-year-old female miniature goat was presented to an emergency service after calving a dead goatling. Physical and ultrasonographic examination revealed the presence of a viable fetus; therefore, the goat was submitted to an emergency cesarean section. In the postoperative period, the animal [...] Read more.
A one-year-old female miniature goat was presented to an emergency service after calving a dead goatling. Physical and ultrasonographic examination revealed the presence of a viable fetus; therefore, the goat was submitted to an emergency cesarean section. In the postoperative period, the animal had septic peritonitis caused by Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus casseliflavus. Both bacterial strains showed contrasting antimicrobial resistance profiles. Laparohysterectomy and abdominal cavity lavage were performed, but, once the animal had adhesions and necrotic lesions in abdominal organs, euthanasia was executed. A post-mortem examination revealed fibrino-necrotic septic peritonitis secondary to uterine rupture. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first detailed report of polymicrobial septic peritonitis in a miniature goat and the first report of septic peritonitis caused by E. faecium and E. casseliflavus. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 13371 KiB  
Article
Impact of Mycotoxin Metabolites Deepoxy-Deoxynivalenol and Beta-Zearalenol on Bovine Preimplantation Embryo Development in the Presence of Acetonitrile
by J. Gačnikar, J. Mrkun, J. Babič, M. Sterniša and M. Zakošek Pipan
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(6), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11060267 - 11 Jun 2024
Viewed by 851
Abstract
The quality of animal feed is increasingly affected by weather conditions, high humidity, and damage to grains, which have led to various mycotoxin-producing moulds. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the combination of deepoxy-deoxynivalenol and beta-zearalenol on the [...] Read more.
The quality of animal feed is increasingly affected by weather conditions, high humidity, and damage to grains, which have led to various mycotoxin-producing moulds. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the combination of deepoxy-deoxynivalenol and beta-zearalenol on the development of preimplantation bovine embryos, the extent to which the presence of both mycotoxin metabolites affects the development of in vitro cultured bovine embryos, or whether the effect of both toxins enhances embryotoxicity. Ovaries were transported from the abattoir to the laboratory and, after maturation and fertilisation, zygotes were placed in an embryo culture medium (IVC) with different mycotoxin metabolite concentrations diluted in acetonitrile. It was found that the blastocyst rate of cleaved embryos was affected by 1 μL acetonitrile in 400 μL medium (0.25%) compared to the group without acetonitrile. For this reason, it was decided to use acetonitrile as a control group, and the desired mycotoxin metabolite concentrations were diluted in the lowest possible amount of acetonitrile (0.5 μL) that could be accurately added to the study groups. There was no statistical difference when the higher mycotoxin metabolite concentrations were added. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 18203 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Molecular Characteristics and Role of PDGFB in Testis and Epididymis Development of Tibetan Sheep
by Haolin Chen, Ling Pu, Chengcheng Tian, Xingcai Qi, Juanjuan Song, Yan Liao, Bentian Mo and Taotao Li
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(6), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11060266 - 9 Jun 2024
Viewed by 572
Abstract
Platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB), as an important cellular growth factor, is widely involved in the regulation of cellular events such as cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. Although important, the expression characteristics and biological functions in the mammalian reproductive system remain poorly understood. [...] Read more.
Platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB), as an important cellular growth factor, is widely involved in the regulation of cellular events such as cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. Although important, the expression characteristics and biological functions in the mammalian reproductive system remain poorly understood. In this study, the PDGFB gene of Tibetan sheep was cloned by RT-PCR, and its molecular characteristics were analyzed. Subsequently, the expression of the PDGFB gene in the testes and epididymides (caput, corpus, and cauda) of Tibetan sheep at different developmental stages (3 months, 1 year, and 3 years) was examined by qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining. A bioinformatic analysis of the cloned sequences revealed that the CDS region of the Tibetan sheep PDGFB gene is 726 bp in length and encodes 241 amino acids with high homology to other mammals, particularly goats and antelopes. With the increase in age, PDGFB expression showed an overall trend of first decreasing and then increasing in the testis and epididymis tissues of Tibetan sheep, and the PDGFB mRNA expression at 3 months of age was extremely significantly higher than that at 1 and 3 years of age (p < 0.05). The PDGFB protein is mainly distributed in testicular red blood cells and Leydig cells in Tibetan sheep at all stages of development, as well as red blood cells in the blood vessel, principal cells, and the pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelial cells of each epididymal duct epithelium. In addition, PDGFB protein expression was also detected in the spermatocytes of the 3-month-old group, spermatids of the 1-year-old group, spermatozoa and interstitial cells of the 3-year-old group, and loose connective tissue in the epididymal duct space in each developmental period. The above results suggest that the PDGFB gene, as an evolutionarily conserved gene, may play multiple roles in the development and functional maintenance of testicular cells (such as red blood cells, Leydig cells, and germ cells) and epididymal cells (such as red blood cells, principal cells, and ciliated epithelial cells) during testicular and epididymal development, which lays a foundation for the further exploration of the mechanisms by which the PDGFB gene influences spermatogenesis in Tibetan sheep. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2043 KiB  
Article
Monitoring Changes in the Antimicrobial-Resistance Gene Set (ARG) of Raw Milk and Dairy Products in a Cattle Farm, from Production to Consumption
by Ádám Kerek, Virág Németh, Ábel Szabó, Márton Papp, Krisztián Bányai, Gábor Kardos, Eszter Kaszab, Krisztina Bali, Zoltán Nagy, Miklós Süth and Ákos Jerzsele
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(6), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11060265 - 8 Jun 2024
Viewed by 1264
Abstract
Raw milk and dairy products can serve as potential vectors for transmissible bacterial, viral and protozoal diseases, alongside harboring antimicrobial-resistance genes. This study monitors the changes in the antimicrobial-resistance gene pool in raw milk and cheese, from farm to consumer, utilizing next-generation sequencing. [...] Read more.
Raw milk and dairy products can serve as potential vectors for transmissible bacterial, viral and protozoal diseases, alongside harboring antimicrobial-resistance genes. This study monitors the changes in the antimicrobial-resistance gene pool in raw milk and cheese, from farm to consumer, utilizing next-generation sequencing. Five parallel sampling runs were conducted to assess the resistance gene pool, as well as phage or plasmid carriage and potential mobility. In terms of taxonomic composition, in raw milk the Firmicutes phylum made up 41%, while the Proteobacteria phylum accounted for 58%. In fresh cheese, this ratio shifted to 93% Firmicutes and 7% Proteobacteria. In matured cheese, the composition was 79% Firmicutes and 21% Proteobacteria. In total, 112 antimicrobial-resistance genes were identified. While a notable reduction in the resistance gene pool was observed in the freshly made raw cheese compared to the raw milk samples, a significant growth in the resistance gene pool occurred after one month of maturation, surpassing the initial gene frequency. Notably, the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) genes, such as OXA-662 (100% coverage, 99.3% identity) and OXA-309 (97.1% coverage, 96.2% identity), raised concerns; these genes have a major public health relevance. In total, nineteen such genes belonging to nine gene families (ACT, CMY, EC, ORN, OXA, OXY, PLA, RAHN, TER) have been identified. The largest number of resistance genes were identified against fluoroquinolone drugs, which determined efflux pumps predominantly. Our findings underscore the importance of monitoring gene pool variations throughout the product pathway and the potential for horizontal gene transfer in raw products. We advocate the adoption of a new approach to food safety investigations, incorporating next-generation sequencing techniques. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 5233 KiB  
Article
The PCV3 Cap Virus-like Particle Vaccine with the Chimeric PCV2-Neutralizing Epitope Gene Is Effective in Mice
by Xingchen Wu, Qikai Wang, Wang Lu, Ying Wang, Zehao Han, Libin Liang, Shimin Gao, Haili Ma and Xiaomao Luo
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(6), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11060264 - 8 Jun 2024
Viewed by 702
Abstract
Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) infection can cause symptoms similar to those of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection, and coinfections with both PCV2 and PCV3 are observed in the swine industry. Consequently, developing chimeric vaccines is essential to prevent and control porcine [...] Read more.
Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) infection can cause symptoms similar to those of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection, and coinfections with both PCV2 and PCV3 are observed in the swine industry. Consequently, developing chimeric vaccines is essential to prevent and control porcine circovirus infections. In this study, we used both E. coli and mammalian expression systems to express PCV3 Cap (Cap3) and a chimeric gene containing the PCV2-neutralizing epitope within the PCV3 Cap (Cap3-Cap2E), which were assembled into virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines. We found that Cap3 lacking nuclear localization signal (NLS) could not form VLPs, while Cap3 with a His-tag successfully assembled into VLPs. Additionally, the chimeric of PCV2-neutralizing epitopes did not interfere with the assembly process of VLPs. Various immunization approaches revealed that pCap3-Cap2E VLP vaccines were capable of activating high PCV3 Cap-specific antibody levels and effectively neutralizing both PCV3 and PCV2. Furthermore, pCap3-Cap2E VLPs demonstrated a potent ability to activate cellular immunity, protecting against PCV3 infection and preventing lung damage in mice. In conclusion, this study successfully developed a PCV3 Cap VLP vaccine incorporating chimeric PCV2-neutralizing epitope genes, providing new perspectives for PCV3 vaccine development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 17760 KiB  
Case Report
Hypertrophic Osteopathy Concurrent with an Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery in a Dog
by Young-Rok Kim and Jung-Hyun Kim
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(6), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11060263 - 7 Jun 2024
Viewed by 511
Abstract
A 13-year-old spayed female cocker spaniel was presented with a 2-month history of swelling in several digits and intermittent hindlimb lameness. Radiographs revealed marked soft-tissue swelling and periosteal new bone formation without cortical bone destruction, characteristic of hypertrophic osteopathy (HO), in the distal [...] Read more.
A 13-year-old spayed female cocker spaniel was presented with a 2-month history of swelling in several digits and intermittent hindlimb lameness. Radiographs revealed marked soft-tissue swelling and periosteal new bone formation without cortical bone destruction, characteristic of hypertrophic osteopathy (HO), in the distal parts of all extremities except for the right forelimb. However, no notable findings were detected in thoracic radiographs. An ultrasonography indicated cranial bladder wall thickening, which resolved following antibiotic therapy. Computed tomographic angiography identified a potential underlying cause as an aberrant right subclavian artery (ARSA) originating from the aortic arch, compressing the esophagus and causing mild esophageal cranial dilation to the aberrant vessel. No other intrathoracic or neoplastic lesions were observed. Gastrointestinal symptoms, such as regurgitation, were absent. Although an ARSA was likely the cause of HO, surgical correction was declined by the owner. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of HO concurrent with ARSA in dogs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Internal Medicine)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2921 KiB  
Article
Divergent Immune Responses to Minor Bovine Mastitis-Causing Pathogens
by Anyaphat Srithanasuwan, Noppason Pangprasit, Raktham Mektrirat, Witaya Suriyasathaporn and Phongsakorn Chuammitri
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(6), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11060262 - 7 Jun 2024
Viewed by 663
Abstract
Traditionally, non-aureus staphylococci and mammaliicocci (NASM) were not considered significant players in bovine mastitis. This study investigated the involvement of NASM (Staphylococcus hominis and Staphylococcus chromogenes) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains (Weissella paramesenteroides) through bovine neutrophil responses. [...] Read more.
Traditionally, non-aureus staphylococci and mammaliicocci (NASM) were not considered significant players in bovine mastitis. This study investigated the involvement of NASM (Staphylococcus hominis and Staphylococcus chromogenes) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains (Weissella paramesenteroides) through bovine neutrophil responses. Bovine neutrophils displayed minimal apoptosis upon NASM and LAB challenge. Neutrophils expressed high TLR2 after challenge, but TLR6 expression varied and remained low in NASM pathogen recognition. Bovine neutrophils effectively engulfed and killed LAB, but their activity was significantly impaired against NASM. This was evident in S. chromogenes, where reduced TLR6 recognition and a weakened phagocytic response likely contributed to a lower bactericidal effect. Regardless of the bacteria encountered, intracellular ROS production remained high. S. chromogenes-challenged neutrophils displayed upregulation in genes for pathogen recognition (TLRs), ROS production, and both pro- and anti-apoptotic pathways. This response mirrored that of Weissella. except for CASP9 and BCL2, suggesting these bacteria have divergent roles in triggering cell death. Our findings suggest that S. chromogenes manipulates bovine neutrophil defenses through coordinated changes in functional responses and gene expression, while LAB strains have a weaker influence on apoptosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 3040 KiB  
Article
A Pilot Study to Evaluate the Usefulness of Optical Coherence Tomography for Staging Iris Pigmented Lesions in Cats
by Hiroyuki Komatsu, Minori Akasaka, Maresuke Morita, Kensuke Usami, Mao Inagaki, Kayo Kumashiro, Kinya Tsubota, Yoshihiko Usui, Hiroshi Goto and Yoshitaka Kobayashi
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(6), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11060261 - 7 Jun 2024
Viewed by 1050
Abstract
This study investigated the utility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for staging iris pigmented lesions in cats. Eighteen cats that underwent OCT examination for unilateral iris pigmented lesion were included. The cats were either suspected of melanosis due to clinical features (n [...] Read more.
This study investigated the utility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for staging iris pigmented lesions in cats. Eighteen cats that underwent OCT examination for unilateral iris pigmented lesion were included. The cats were either suspected of melanosis due to clinical features (n = 8) or had been definitively diagnosed through histopathology with iris melanosis (n = 3), early feline diffuse iris melanoma (FDIM) (n = 4), or mid-stage or advanced FDIM (n = 3). From OCT images, mean iris thickness (MIT) was measured, and the ratio of pigmented lesion to normal iris (PN) was calculated. OCT images depicted the entire iris layer in all eyes with suspected melanosis, iris melanosis, and early FDIM, but observing the entire lesion in mid-stage/advanced FDIM was challenging. No significant difference in MIT was observed among the groups. Conversely, PN ratio was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in early FDIM (1.29 ± 0.16) than in suspected melanosis (1.02 ± 0.10) or iris melanosis (0.99 ± 0.09). Furthermore, OCT imaging revealed hyperreflective lines in 75% of eyes with suspected melanosis and in all the eyes with iris melanosis, corresponding to the pigmented lesions. Our results demonstrate that OCT is capable of detecting subtle differences in iris thickness and features in early-stage FDIM, indicating its potential utility in distinguishing between iris melanosis and early FDIM. Further study is warranted to verify the reliability of such OCT findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spotlight on Ophthalmologic Pathology in Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 7985 KiB  
Article
Establishment and Characterization of a New Cell Line from Enzootic Nasal Adenocarcinoma in Goats: ENA-1
by Lingxu Li, Weiye Tan, Zhen Wang, Wenqing Guo, Deji Yang and Dawei Yao
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(6), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11060260 - 7 Jun 2024
Viewed by 572
Abstract
Enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma (ENA) is a contagious tumor disease of goats and sheep, which is caused by enzootic nasal tumor virus (ENTV). To better understand the pathogenesis of ENA, this study aimed to establish a goat ENA cell line (ENA-1). The cells have [...] Read more.
Enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma (ENA) is a contagious tumor disease of goats and sheep, which is caused by enzootic nasal tumor virus (ENTV). To better understand the pathogenesis of ENA, this study aimed to establish a goat ENA cell line (ENA-1). The cells have been characterized with regard to morphology, growth rate, ultrastructural features, chromosome number, expression of CK7 and CK18, tumorigenicity, species, and mycoplasma contamination. ENA-1 had an epithelioid cell morphology with an unstable chromosome number under a light microscope. Under an electron microscope, the cell nuclear heterogeneity was not obvious, and there were more intermediate filaments and a small number of immature retrovirus-like particles in the cytoplasm. ENA-1 had strong proliferative potential, and the cell multiplication time was about 36 h, which could make BALB/c nude mice develop tumors. CK7 and CK18 were expressed in the cytoplasm of primary goat tumors, in transplanted tumors from nude mice, and un ENA-1 cells with the same intensity. PCR revealed that ENA-1 continuously carried ENTV-2 up to the 17th generation with no germline contamination or mycoplasma contamination. In conclusion, using a serum-containing culture system, ENA-1 cells were successfully isolated, cultured, and purified from goat tumor tissues. The isolated ENA-1 cells retained robust proliferation potential and maintained their phenotype, indicating the potential application of the ENA-1 cell line as an in vitro model of ENA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Comparative Oncology and Veterinary Cancer Surveillance)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 5268 KiB  
Article
West Nile Virus Seroprevalence in Wild Birds and Equines in Madrid Province, Spain
by Richard A. J. Williams, Hillary A. Criollo Valencia, Irene López Márquez, Fernando González González, Francisco Llorente, Miguel Ángel Jiménez-Clavero, Núria Busquets, Marta Mateo Barrientos, Gustavo Ortiz-Díez and Tania Ayllón Santiago
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(6), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11060259 - 7 Jun 2024
Viewed by 1035
Abstract
West Nile virus (WNV) is a re-emerging flavivirus, primarily circulating among avian hosts and mosquito vectors, causing periodic outbreaks in humans and horses, often leading to neuroinvasive disease and mortality. Spain has reported several outbreaks, most notably in 2020 with seventy-seven human cases [...] Read more.
West Nile virus (WNV) is a re-emerging flavivirus, primarily circulating among avian hosts and mosquito vectors, causing periodic outbreaks in humans and horses, often leading to neuroinvasive disease and mortality. Spain has reported several outbreaks, most notably in 2020 with seventy-seven human cases and eight fatalities. WNV has been serologically detected in horses in the Community of Madrid, but to our knowledge, it has never been reported from wild birds in this region. To estimate the seroprevalence of WNV in wild birds and horses in the Community of Madrid, 159 wild birds at a wildlife rescue center and 25 privately owned equines were sampled. Serum from thirteen birds (8.2%) and one equine (4.0%) tested positive with a WNV competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) designed for WNV antibody detection but sensitive to cross-reacting antibodies to other flaviviruses. Virus-neutralization test (VNT) confirmed WNV antibodies in four bird samples (2.5%), and antibodies to undetermined flavivirus in four additional samples. One equine sample (4.0%) tested positive for WNV by VNT, although this horse previously resided in a WN-endemic area. ELISA-positive birds included both migratory and resident species, juveniles and adults. Two seropositive juvenile birds suggest local flavivirus transmission within the Community of Madrid, while WNV seropositive adult birds may have been infected outside Madrid. The potential circulation of flaviviruses, including WNV, in birds in the Madrid Community raises concerns, although further surveillance of mosquitoes, wild birds, and horses in Madrid is necessary to establish the extent of transmission and the principal species involved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wild Birds as Sentinels of the Health Status of the Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 431 KiB  
Article
Colostrum Replacement and Serum IgG Concentrations in Beef Calves Delivered by Elective Cesarean Section
by Manuel F. Chamorro, Miguel Saucedo, Lisa Gamsjaeger, Emily J. Reppert, Matt Miesner and Thomas Passler
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(6), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11060258 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 688
Abstract
Assistance during calving and cesarean section (C-section) are important risk factors for the failure of transfer of passive immunity (FTPI) in beef calves, which increases the risk of morbidity and mortality in beef calves during the preweaning period. Colostrum replacement recommendations for beef [...] Read more.
Assistance during calving and cesarean section (C-section) are important risk factors for the failure of transfer of passive immunity (FTPI) in beef calves, which increases the risk of morbidity and mortality in beef calves during the preweaning period. Colostrum replacement recommendations for beef calves, and especially for those delivered by C-section, are unavailable. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not colostrum replacement or supplementation with a commercially available product could increase serum IgG concentrations in beef calves delivered by elective C-section, compared to beef calves that nursed colostrum naturally. An elective C-section was performed in 32 pregnant beef cows and first-calf heifers. Immediately after delivery, newborn calves were randomly assigned to one of three different treatment groups. Group A calves (n = 7) were fed one packet of a commercial colostrum replacer (CR) product providing 60 g of IgG within 30 min of life. A second packet of the same CR was fed at 6 h of life. Group B calves (n = 13) were fed the same CR at the same frequency as group A; however, these calves were reunited with their dams after the second CR feeding to allow additional nursing of maternal colostrum. Group C calves (n = 12) were united with their dams immediately after surgery without colostrum intervention. Serum IgG levels at 48 h of life were greater in group C calves and in calves born to multiparous cows. Based on the results of this study, neither colostrum replacement nor supplementation result in higher serum IgG concentrations in beef calves delivered by elective C-section compared with natural nursing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spotlight on Health Management in Calves)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 257 KiB  
Article
Comparison between Carprofen and Meloxicam for Post-Neutering Pain Management in Pet Rabbits
by Matteo Serpieri, Chiara Ottino, Giuseppe Bonaffini, Penelope Banchi, Giuseppe Quaranta and Mitzy Mauthe von Degerfeld
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(6), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11060257 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 703
Abstract
Surgical neutering in pet rabbits is common practice to prevent reproduction and associated health issues. Adequate postoperative pain management is crucial for recovery, yet effective methods in clinical settings remain underexplored. This study compared the analgesic effects of carprofen and meloxicam in pet [...] Read more.
Surgical neutering in pet rabbits is common practice to prevent reproduction and associated health issues. Adequate postoperative pain management is crucial for recovery, yet effective methods in clinical settings remain underexplored. This study compared the analgesic effects of carprofen and meloxicam in pet rabbits undergoing surgical neutering. Fifty rabbits of varied demographics were included, with pain assessed using the Centro Animali Non Convenzionali Rabbit Scale (CANCRS). Rabbits were allocated to receive postoperative 2 mg kg−1 carprofen or 1 mg kg−1 meloxicam by subcutaneous injection. Anesthesia was induced with an intramuscular combination of ketamine (20 mg kg−1), medetomidine (0.4 mg kg−1), and butorphanol (0.2 mg kg−1), and ovariectomy or orchiectomy were performed. The CANCRS scale was used to assess pain by evaluating the rabbit preoperatively, 6 h postoperatively, and at three time points the following day. Times of return to spontaneous feeding and fecal production were also recorded. No statistically significant difference was found between treatment groups based on CANCRS scores and resumption of food intake and fecal output. No clinically detectable adverse effects were noted. While limitations include the use of a single pain assessment scale and the absence of a placebo control group, the results suggest that both carprofen and meloxicam can be viable options in clinical practice. Further research utilizing diverse pain assessment methods is warranted to enhance understanding and optimize pain management strategies for rabbits undergoing surgical procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anesthesia and Pain Management in Veterinary Surgery)
10 pages, 269 KiB  
Article
Hematological and Biochemical Effects Associated with Prolonged Administration of the NSAID Firocoxib in Adult Healthy Horses
by Fernanda Saules Ignácio, Luana Venâncio Garcia, Giovanna Gati de Souza, Lidiana Zanetti Amatti, Luiz Daniel de Barros, Don R. Bergfelt, Giovana Siqueira Camargo, Cezinande de Meira and Breno Fernando Martins de Almeida
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(6), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11060256 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 657
Abstract
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) represent one of the most commonly used classes of drugs in both human and veterinary medicine. However, many clinical side effects have been observed, especially when treatment has been prolonged. While the anti-inflammatory efficacy and safety of repeated administration [...] Read more.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) represent one of the most commonly used classes of drugs in both human and veterinary medicine. However, many clinical side effects have been observed, especially when treatment has been prolonged. While the anti-inflammatory efficacy and safety of repeated administration of firocoxib (Previcox®), which is a selective NSAID COX-2 inhibitor, has been evaluated for short-term use (one to fourteen days), its clinical relevance for longer-term use is not known. As a preliminary study, healthy, adult male and female horses (n = 7) were treated with firocoxib for 40 days concomitant with the collection of blood samples encompassing treatment to assess hematological and biochemical endpoints. Daily oral administration of firocoxib was performed with one 57 mg tablet/animal (0.11–0.14 mg/kg), which was crushed and mixed with feed. Blood samples were collected one day before treatment (D0 or basal sample), during (D10, D20, D30, and D40), and after treatment (D55 and D70). Results indicated some hematological and biochemical effects were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) towards the end of treatment on D40 relative to pre-treatment or baseline values on D0. Post-treatment, all values returned to pre-treatment values within 30 days without any apparent clinical adversities. In conclusion, while these preliminary results are favorable for prolonged use of firocoxib in horses, future studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of prolonged use accompanied with other clinically relevant endpoints in healthy as well as injured or diseased animals. Full article
11 pages, 1266 KiB  
Article
Beyond Borders: Dirofilaria immitis Infection in Dogs Spreads to Previously Non-Enzootic Areas in Greece—A Serological Survey
by Isaia Symeonidou, Georgios Sioutas, Athanasios I. Gelasakis, Dimitra Bitchava, Eleni Kanaki and Elias Papadopoulos
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(6), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11060255 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 1451
Abstract
Although Dirofilaria immitis in dogs is considered enzootic in northern Greece, the available data on the occurrence of infection in southern parts of the country demonstrate its scarcity. The aim of this study was to update the current knowledge on D. immitis infection [...] Read more.
Although Dirofilaria immitis in dogs is considered enzootic in northern Greece, the available data on the occurrence of infection in southern parts of the country demonstrate its scarcity. The aim of this study was to update the current knowledge on D. immitis infection in dogs in areas of Greece previously considered non-enzootic (Central Greece, Attica, Peloponnese, North Aegean, South Aegean, Crete and the Ionian islands). In total, 1528 dog blood samples were collected from the aforementioned areas and examined by Dirochek® ELISA (Synbiotics). Additionally, data published until 2022 on the prevalence of infection in these areas were compared to the data of this study. The ‘Wilson’ Score interval method (Epitools) was employed. Overall, 10.8% of dogs were positive for D. immitis. In detail, the prevalence was 21.7, 13.7, 10.7, 5.4, 4.7, 6.2 and 17.0% for D. immitis, in Central Greece, Attica, Peloponnese, North Aegean, South Aegean, Crete and the Ionian islands, respectively. Infection with D. immitis is recorded for the first time in Crete. The probability of a dog becoming infected has increased 4.1 times since 2022 in previously non-enzootic areas. This study denotes the spread of D. immitis and highlights the necessity for preventive measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Zoonotic Vector-Borne Diseases of Companion Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 3223 KiB  
Case Report
Canine Leishmaniosis Associated with Acute Pleural Effusion and Sudden Death in a Dog
by Maria Caroline Pereira Brito, Maria de Fátima Sousa, Rubia Avlade Guedes Sampaio, Markyson Tavares Linhares, Lourdes Fernandez Riquelme, Wellida Karinne Lacerda and Ricardo Barbosa Lucena
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(6), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11060254 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 685
Abstract
A two-year-old female crossbreed dog, previously a stray with no known owner, was adopted and subsequently spayed. The dog exhibited weight loss over a period of two months and died suddenly during a leashed walk. Upon necropsy, enlargement of the submandibular, prescapular, and [...] Read more.
A two-year-old female crossbreed dog, previously a stray with no known owner, was adopted and subsequently spayed. The dog exhibited weight loss over a period of two months and died suddenly during a leashed walk. Upon necropsy, enlargement of the submandibular, prescapular, and popliteal lymph nodes was noted. The intrathoracic cavity contained a substantial volume of yellowish-white fluid. Lymph nodes in the mediastinal and ventral thoracic centers were also enlarged, hemorrhagic, and friable. Microscopic examination revealed significant architectural changes in the lymph nodes, characterized by a pronounced cellular infiltrate consisting of lymphocytes and histiocytes, along with macrophages containing intracytoplasmic Leishmania amastigotes. Immunohistochemical analysis of the lymph nodes confirmed positive staining for Leishmania amastigotes. This case represents the first report of canine leishmaniasis associated with acute pleural effusion and sudden death. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 2087 KiB  
Article
Therapeutic Effects of Propionibacterium acnes and Lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli in Cats with Feline Panleukopenia
by Rattanakhon Chanachaivirada, Phongsakorn Chuammitri, Kannika Na Lampa, Worapat Prachasilchai and Chollada Sodarat
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(6), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11060253 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 647
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of inactivated Propionibacterium acnes and lipopolysaccharide derived from Escherichia coli cells in cats affected by feline panleukopenia virus (FPV). A retrospective study of 80 FPV-positive cats was divided into two groups: a [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of inactivated Propionibacterium acnes and lipopolysaccharide derived from Escherichia coli cells in cats affected by feline panleukopenia virus (FPV). A retrospective study of 80 FPV-positive cats was divided into two groups: a treatment group receiving inactivated Propionibacterium acnes and lipopolysaccharide derived from Escherichia coli cells along with supportive treatment and a no-treatment group receiving only supportive treatment. There was no significant difference in the total white blood cell counts between the two groups. However, the total white blood cell counts of both groups were low on day 0 and increased significantly on days 3 and 6 of treatment. Additionally, the white blood cell counts in the treatment group significantly increased during days 3 to 6 compared with those of the no-treatment group (p < 0.01). The mortality rate was not significantly different between the two groups. In a prospective study, the serum and fecal immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels were measured in both groups. There were no significant differences in IgA levels between the two groups in either the serum or feces. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop