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Toxics, Volume 11, Issue 1 (January 2023) – 86 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Gasoline emissions contain high levels of pollutants, including particulate matter (PM), such as ultrafine particles (UFPs), which are associated with several health outcomes. Due to the depletion of fossil fuels, biofuels represent an attractive alternative, particularly second-generation biofuels (B2G) derived from lignocellulosic biomass. Compared to the abundant literature on diesel and gasoline emissions, relatively few studies are devoted to alternative fuels and their health outcomes. This study aimed to compare the adverse effects of gasoline and B2G emissions, with a focus on UFPs, on human bronchial epithelial cells using an air–liquid interface model. View this paper
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13 pages, 4375 KiB  
Article
Pollution and Distribution of Microplastics in Grassland Soils of Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, China
by Sumei Li, Ziyi Li, Jun Xue, Sha Chen, Hanbing Li, Jian Ji, Yixuan Liang, Jiaying Fei and Weiyi Jiang
Toxics 2023, 11(1), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11010086 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2022
Abstract
Microplastics (MPs) are plastic fragments with particle sizes smaller than 5 mm that have potentially harmful effects on ecosystems and human health. The soil environment is not only the source but also the sink of MPs. Thus, it is necessary to fully understand [...] Read more.
Microplastics (MPs) are plastic fragments with particle sizes smaller than 5 mm that have potentially harmful effects on ecosystems and human health. The soil environment is not only the source but also the sink of MPs. Thus, it is necessary to fully understand the pollution and distribution of MPs in soils. In this study, Qinghai Province, northeast of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, was selected as the research area, and 22 soil samples were collected and analyzed to study the levels and distribution characteristics of MPs in grassland soils. MPs were obtained from the soils by using density separation, and a laser confocal micro Raman spectrometer was used for MP identification. The results showed that MPs were detected in all of the soil samples. The total abundances of MPs ranged from 1125 to 1329 items/kg, with a mean abundance of 1202 items/kg. Various types, shapes, sizes, and colors of MPs were observed. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was the dominant polymer in all the grassland soil samples. The size range of 10–50 μm accounted for 50% of all identified MPs. Pellets were the dominant MP shape, and colored MPs accounted for 64% of all MPs. The results revealed the presence of large quantities of MPs in the grassland soils of remote areas as well. This study can act as a reference for further studies of MPs in terrestrial systems. At the end of the paper, the prospects and suggestions for pollution control by soil MPs are given. Full article
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23 pages, 3303 KiB  
Article
Perinatal Lead Exposure Promotes Sex-Specific Epigenetic Programming of Disease-Relevant Pathways in Mouse Heart
by Laurie K. Svoboda, Kai Wang, Jaclyn M. Goodrich, Tamara R. Jones, Justin A. Colacino, Karen E. Peterson, Martha M. Tellez-Rojo, Maureen A. Sartor and Dana C. Dolinoy
Toxics 2023, 11(1), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11010085 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1866
Abstract
Environmental contaminants such as the metal lead (Pb) are associated with cardiovascular disease, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. In particular, little is known about how exposure to Pb during early development impacts the cardiac epigenome at any point across the [...] Read more.
Environmental contaminants such as the metal lead (Pb) are associated with cardiovascular disease, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. In particular, little is known about how exposure to Pb during early development impacts the cardiac epigenome at any point across the life course and potential differences between sexes. In a mouse model of human-relevant perinatal exposures, we utilized RNA-seq and Enhanced Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing (ERRBS) to investigate the effects of Pb exposure during gestation and lactation on gene expression and DNA methylation, respectively, in the hearts of male and female mice at weaning. For ERRBS, we identified differentially methylated CpGs (DMCs) or differentially methylated 1000 bp regions (DMRs) based on a minimum absolute change in methylation of 10% and an FDR < 0.05. For gene expression data, an FDR < 0.05 was considered significant. No individual genes met the FDR cutoff for gene expression; however, we found that Pb exposure leads to significant changes in the expression of gene pathways relevant to cardiovascular development and disease. We further found that Pb promotes sex-specific changes in DNA methylation at hundreds of gene loci (280 DMCs and 99 DMRs in males, 189 DMCs and 121 DMRs in females), and pathway analysis revealed that these CpGs and regions collectively function in embryonic development. In males, differential methylation also occurred at genes related to immune function and metabolism. We then investigated whether genes exhibiting differential methylation at weaning were also differentially methylated in hearts from a cohort of Pb-exposed mice at adulthood. We found that a single gene, Galnt2, showed differential methylation in both sexes and time points. In a human cohort investigating the influence of prenatal Pb exposure on the epigenome, we also observed an inverse association between first trimester Pb concentrations and adolescent blood leukocyte DNA methylation at a locus in GALNT2, suggesting that this gene may represent a biomarker of Pb exposure across species. Together, these data, across two time points in mice and in a human birth cohort study, collectively demonstrate that Pb exposure promotes sex-specific programming of the cardiac epigenome, and provide potential mechanistic insight into how Pb causes cardiovascular disease. Full article
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18 pages, 8949 KiB  
Article
Methyl Parathion Exposure Induces Development Toxicity and Cardiotoxicity in Zebrafish Embryos
by Tianyi Chen, Haoze Chen, Anli Wang, Weixuan Yao, Zhongshi Xu, Binjie Wang, Jiye Wang and Yuanzhao Wu
Toxics 2023, 11(1), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11010084 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2421
Abstract
Methyl parathion (MP) has been widely used as an organophosphorus pesticide for food preservation and pest management, resulting in its accumulation in the aquatic environment. However, the early developmental toxicity of MP to non-target species, especially aquatic vertebrates, has not been thoroughly investigated. [...] Read more.
Methyl parathion (MP) has been widely used as an organophosphorus pesticide for food preservation and pest management, resulting in its accumulation in the aquatic environment. However, the early developmental toxicity of MP to non-target species, especially aquatic vertebrates, has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, zebrafish embryos were treated with 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/L of MP solution until 72 h post-fertilization (hpf). The results showed that MP exposure reduced spontaneous movement, hatching, and survival rates of zebrafish embryos and induced developmental abnormalities such as shortened body length, yolk edema, and spinal curvature. Notably, MP was found to induce cardiac abnormalities, including pericardial edema and decreased heart rate. Exposure to MP resulted in the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, increased catalase (CAT) activity, elevated malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and caused cardiac apoptosis in zebrafish embryos. Moreover, MP affected the transcription of cardiac development-related genes (vmhc, sox9b, nppa, tnnt2, bmp2b, bmp4) and apoptosis-related genes (p53, bax, bcl2). Astaxanthin could rescue MP-induced heart development defects by down-regulating oxidative stress. These findings suggest that MP induces cardiac developmental toxicity and provides additional evidence of MP toxicity to aquatic organisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Agrochemicals and Food Toxicology)
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13 pages, 137524 KiB  
Article
Chemical Gas Telemetry System Based on Multispectral Infrared Imaging
by Kun Li, Shaoli Duan, Lingling Pang, Weilai Li, Zhixiong Yang, Yaohang Hu and Chunchao Yu
Toxics 2023, 11(1), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11010083 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1779
Abstract
Environmental monitoring, public safety, safe production, and other areas all benefit greatly from the use of gas detection technologies. The infrared image of a gas could be used to determine its type from a long distance in gas detection. The infrared image can [...] Read more.
Environmental monitoring, public safety, safe production, and other areas all benefit greatly from the use of gas detection technologies. The infrared image of a gas could be used to determine its type from a long distance in gas detection. The infrared image can show the spatial distribution of the gas cloud and the background, allowing for long-distance and non-contact detection during safety production and hazardous chemical accident rescue. In this study, a gas detection system based on multispectral infrared imaging is devised, which can detect a variety of gases and determine the types of gas by separating the infrared radiation. It is made up of an imaging optical system, an uncooled focal plane detector, a filter controller, and a data gathering and processing system. The resolution of the infrared image is 640 × 512 and the working band of the system is 6.5~15 μm. The system can detect traces of pollutants in ambient air or gas clouds at higher concentrations. Ammonia, sulfur hexafluoride, methane, sulfur dioxide, and dimethyl methyl phosphonate were all successfully detected in real time. Ammonia clouds could be detected at a distance of 1124.5 m. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis, Exposure and Health Risk of Atmospheric Pollution)
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15 pages, 4591 KiB  
Article
Prenatal Lipopolysaccharide Exposure Alters Hepatic Drug-Metabolizing Enzyme Expression in Mouse Offspring via Histone Modifications
by Hanhan Zhu, Guangming Liu, Qi Chang, Mengyao Yan, Kun Yang, Yanxin Li, Yali Nie, Xiaotian Li, Shengna Han, Pei Wang and Lirong Zhang
Toxics 2023, 11(1), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11010082 - 15 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1864
Abstract
Inflammation is a major regulator of drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs), therefore contributing to the interindividual variability of drug effects. However, whether prenatal inflammation affects DMEs expression in offspring remains obscure. This study investigated the effects of prenatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure on hepatic expression of [...] Read more.
Inflammation is a major regulator of drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs), therefore contributing to the interindividual variability of drug effects. However, whether prenatal inflammation affects DMEs expression in offspring remains obscure. This study investigated the effects of prenatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure on hepatic expression of inflammatory-related genes, nuclear receptors, and DMEs in offspring mice. Prenatal LPS exposure on gestational day (GD) 10 led to higher expression of NF-κB, Pxr, and Cyp2b10, while lower expression of Car, Ahr, Cyp3a11, and Ugt1a1 in postnatal day (PD) 30 offspring. However, multiple doses of LPS exposure on GD10-14 resulted in higher levels of inflammatory-related genes, Cyp1a2, and Cyp2b10, and lower levels of Pxr and Cyp3a11 in PD30 offspring liver. For PD60 offspring, decreased hepatic expression of NF-κB and IL-6, and increased expression of Pxr and Cyp3a11 were seen in single-dose LPS groups, whereas opposite results were observed in the multiple-dose LPS groups. Notably, enhanced H3K4me3 levels in the PXR response elements of the Cyp3a11 promoter were observed in the liver of PD60 offspring mice from dams treated with multiple doses of LPS during pregnancy. Overall, this study suggests that parental LPS exposure could persistently alter the hepatic expression of DMEs, and histone modifications may contribute to the long-term effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Early Life Exposure, Biological Response and Molecular Mechanisms)
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16 pages, 3429 KiB  
Article
Efficient Wastewater Treatment and Removal of Bisphenol A and Diclofenac in Mesocosm Flow Constructed Wetlands Using Granulated Cork as Emerged Substrate
by Salma Bessadok, Khadija Kraiem, Fatma Arous, Karim Suhail Al Souki, Dorra Tabassi, Safa El Toumi and Atef Jaouani
Toxics 2023, 11(1), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11010081 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1869
Abstract
Constructed wetlands (CWs) are considered as low-cost and energy-efficient wastewater treatment systems. Media selection is one of the essential technical keys for their implementation. The purpose of this work was essentially to evaluate the removal efficiency of organic pollution and nitrogen from municipal [...] Read more.
Constructed wetlands (CWs) are considered as low-cost and energy-efficient wastewater treatment systems. Media selection is one of the essential technical keys for their implementation. The purpose of this work was essentially to evaluate the removal efficiency of organic pollution and nitrogen from municipal wastewater (MWW) using different selected media (gravel/gravel amended with granulated cork) in mesocosm horizontal flow constructed wetlands (HFCWs). The results showed that the highest chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonium nitrogen removal of 80.53% and 42%, respectively, were recorded in the units filled with gravel amended with cork. The influence of macrophytes (Phragmites australis and Typha angustifolia) was studied and both species showed steeper efficiencies. The system was operated under different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) i.e., 6 h, 24 h, 30 h, and 48 h. The obtained results revealed that the COD removal efficiency was significantly enhanced by up to 38% counter to the ammonium rates when HRT was increased from 6 h to 48 h. Moreover, the removal efficiency of two endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) namely, bisphenol A (BPA) and diclofenac (DCF) was investigated in two selected HFCWs, at 48 h HRT. The achieved results proved the high capacity of cork for BPA and DCF removal with the removal rates of 90.95% and 89.66%, respectively. The results confirmed the role of these engineered systems, especially for EDC removal, which should be further explored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sources and Removal of Organic Pollutants in Wastewater)
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11 pages, 1692 KiB  
Article
Gas Particle Partitioning of PAHs Emissions from Typical Solid Fuel Combustions as Well as Their Health Risk Assessment in Rural Guanzhong Plain, China
by Bin Zhang, Zezhi Peng, Jing Lv, Qin Peng, Kun He, Hongmei Xu, Jian Sun and Zhenxing Shen
Toxics 2023, 11(1), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11010080 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1543
Abstract
Air pollutants from the incomplete combustion of rural solid fuels are seriously harmful to both air quality and human health. To quantify the health effects of different fuel–stove combinations, gas and particle partitioning of twenty-nine species of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from [...] Read more.
Air pollutants from the incomplete combustion of rural solid fuels are seriously harmful to both air quality and human health. To quantify the health effects of different fuel–stove combinations, gas and particle partitioning of twenty-nine species of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from seven fuel–stove combinations were examined in this study, and the benzo (a) pyrene toxicity equivalent (BaPeq) and cancer risks were estimated accordingly. The results showed that the gas phase PAHs (accounting for 68–78% of the total PAHs) had higher emission factors (EFs) than particulate ones. For all combustion combinations, pPAHs accounted for the highest proportion (84.5% to 99.3%) in both the gas and particulate phases, followed by aPAHs (0.63–14.7%), while the proportions of nPAHs and oPAHs were much lower (2–4 orders of magnitude) than pPAHs. For BaPeq, particulate phase PAHs dominated the BaPeq rather than gas ones, which may be due to the greater abundance of 5-ring particle PAHs. Gas and particle pPAHs were both predominant in the BaPeq, with proportions of 95.2–98.6% for all combustion combinations. Cancer risk results showed a descending order of bituminous coal combustion (0.003–0.05), biomass burning (0.002–0.01), and clean briquette coal combustion (10−5–0.001), indicating that local residents caused a severe health threat by solid fuel combustion (the threshold: 10−4). The results also highlighted that clean briquette coal could reduce cancer risks by 1–2 orders of magnitude compared to bulk coal and biomass. For oPAH, BcdPQ (6H-benzo(c,d)pyrene-6-one) had the highest cancer risk, ranging from 4.83 × 10−5 to 2.45 × 10−4, which were even higher than the total of aPAHs and nPAHs. The dramatically high toxicity and cancer risk of PAHs from solid fuel combustion strengthened the necessity and urgency of clean heating innovation in Guanzhong Plain and in similar places. Full article
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16 pages, 5447 KiB  
Article
Experimental and Numerical Calculation Study on the Slope Stability of the Yellow River Floodplain from Wantan Town to Liuyuankou
by Hao Wang, Qing Hu, Weiwei Liu, Liqun Ma, Zhiying Lv, Hongyu Qin and Jianbo Guo
Toxics 2023, 11(1), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11010079 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1429
Abstract
More than two million people live on the floodplains along the middle and lower streams of the Yellow River. The rapid development of industry and agriculture on both sides of the Yellow River has caused serious pollution of the floodplain soil. Erosion by [...] Read more.
More than two million people live on the floodplains along the middle and lower streams of the Yellow River. The rapid development of industry and agriculture on both sides of the Yellow River has caused serious pollution of the floodplain soil. Erosion by water has led to the destruction of the floodplain which has not only compressed people’s living space but also resulted in a large amount of sediment containing heavy metals entering the river, aggravating water pollution. To further study the law governing the release of pollutants in soil, this work, based on field surveys of the Yellow River floodplain slopes from Wantan town to Liuyuankou, was focused on determining the failure mechanism and laws for the floodplain slope through the combination of a flume experiment and numerical calculations. The results showed that the floodplain slopes, composed of clay and silty sand, presented an interactive structure. Under the action of water erosion, the slope was first scoured to form a curved, suspended layer structure, and then the upper suspended layer toppled. The bank stability coefficient decreased by about 65% when the scour width increased from 0.07 m to 0.42 m, and the water content increased from 20% to 40%. For the failure characteristics, the angle of the failure surface was negatively correlated with the scour width, and the distance from the top failure surface to the bank edge was about 2.5 times that of the scour width. Full article
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12 pages, 1902 KiB  
Article
Photoneutrons and Gamma Capture Dose Rates at the Maze Entrance of Varian TrueBeam and Elekta Versa HD Medical Linear Accelerators
by Ibrahim I. Suliman, Ghada A. Khouqeer and Fareed H. Mayhoub
Toxics 2023, 11(1), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11010078 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1631
Abstract
Herein, we evaluated the neutron and gamma capture dose equivalent rates at the maze entrance of Varian TrueBeam and Elekta Versa HD™ medical linear accelerators (linacs) using experimental measurements as well as empirical calculations. Dose rates were measured using calibrated neutron and gamma [...] Read more.
Herein, we evaluated the neutron and gamma capture dose equivalent rates at the maze entrance of Varian TrueBeam and Elekta Versa HD™ medical linear accelerators (linacs) using experimental measurements as well as empirical calculations. Dose rates were measured using calibrated neutron and gamma area survey meters placed side-by-side at the measurement point of interest. Measurements were performed at a source-to-detector distance of 100 cm, with a 10 × 10 cm2 field size therapeutic X-ray beam, and a 30 × 30 × 15 cm3 solid water patient equivalent phantom, with a linac operating at 15, 10 MV, and 10 MV flattened filter-free (FFF). Dose rates were also measured at different points at the centerline along the maze towards the maze entrance. The measured dose equivalent rates at the maze entrance were comparable to those reported in the literature. The dose rates along the maze decreased exponentially towards the maze entrance and were significant for short maze lengths. The evaluated empirical methods for estimating neutron dose rates at the maze entrance of a linac proposed by Kersey, the modified Kersey method and Falcão method, agree by a factor of two from the experimental measurements. The results revealed vital radiation protection considerations owing to neutron contamination in external beam therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation Exposure and Health Effects)
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12 pages, 18782 KiB  
Article
Impact of Chewing Bags, E-Cigarettes, and Combustible Cigarettes on Arterial Stiffness and Small Airway Function in Healthy Students
by Annabelle Susann Hauck, Isabel Buchwald, Henrik Watz, Frederik Trinkmann, Charlotte Söling, Andrea Rabenstein, Tobias Ruether, Kai Mortensen, Daniel Drömann and Klaas Frederik Franzen
Toxics 2023, 11(1), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11010077 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2060
Abstract
Several substitute products are discussed as a healthier alternative to smoking, thereunder e-cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products, e.g., chewing bags, which are increasingly used in this context. We investigated the acute effects of chewing bags compared to combustible cigarettes and e-cigarettes with and [...] Read more.
Several substitute products are discussed as a healthier alternative to smoking, thereunder e-cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products, e.g., chewing bags, which are increasingly used in this context. We investigated the acute effects of chewing bags compared to combustible cigarettes and e-cigarettes with and without nicotine on small airways and arterial stiffness in a head-to-head design. This single-center, four-arm cross-overstudy included 20 healthy occasional smokers (25 ± 0.6 years). On four test days, participants consumed one product per day. Before, during, and after consumption, peripheral and central hemodynamic as well as arterial stiffness parameters were measured by Mobil-O-Graph™ (I.E.M., Germany). Resistance and small airway function were assessed by tremoFlo® c-100 (THORASYS Thoracic Medical Systems Inc.). The combustible cigarette and the e-cigarettes with and without nicotine significantly increased the resistance of the small airways (p < 0.05), while chewing bags had no effect. All nicotine containing products (e-cigarette with nicotine, combustible cigarette, chewing bag) as well as the e-cigarette without nicotine significantly increased parameters of hemodynamic and arterial stiffness. Changes in blood pressure and arterial stiffness were similar after smoking, vaping, and using chewing bags. We conclude that e-cigarettes and combustible cigarettes have similar acute harmful effects on small airway dysfunction. All nicotine containing products are associated with an increased cardiovascular risk compared with no product use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessing Novel Tobacco Products)
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18 pages, 301 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of Toxics in 2022
by Toxics Editorial Office
Toxics 2023, 11(1), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11010076 - 13 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1171
Abstract
High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...] Full article
10 pages, 2211 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Effects of Ozonation on the Concentrations of Personal Care Products and Acute Toxicity in Sludges of Wastewater Treatment Plants
by Chi-Ying Hsieh, Ya-Chin Wu, Sunaina Mudigonda, Hans-Uwe Dahms and Meng-Chun Wu
Toxics 2023, 11(1), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11010075 - 13 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1372
Abstract
The aim of this study was to understand the distribution of the personal care products nonylphenol (NP), triclosan (TCS), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), and caffeine in the sludges from three wastewater treatment plants (WWTP-A, -B, and -C) in southern Taiwan. The four compounds were analyzed [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to understand the distribution of the personal care products nonylphenol (NP), triclosan (TCS), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), and caffeine in the sludges from three wastewater treatment plants (WWTP-A, -B, and -C) in southern Taiwan. The four compounds were analyzed from activated sludge and dewatered sludge samples, and then the samples were treated with pressure-assisted ozonation under different conditions and removal efficiencies. All four target compounds were detected, especially NP, which was detected in the highest concentrations in the activated sludges of WWTP-A and dewatered sludges of WWTP-C at 17.19 ± 4.10 and 2.41 ± 1.93 µg/g, respectively. TCS was dominant in dewatered sludges from WWTP-B, and the highest detected concentration was 13.29 ± 6.36 µg/g. Removals of 70% and 90% were attained under 150 psi at 40 cycles for NP and TCS, respectively, with 5 min of ozonation reaction time, a solid/water ratio of 1:20, and 2% ozone concentration. Ecological risk quotients (RQs) were calculated by the ratios of the 10-day Hyalella azteca (freshwater amphipod) LC50 to the environmental concentrations of the target compounds. High RQs were found to be >10 for NP, TCS, and BP-3 in untreated sludges, resulting in significant ecological risks to aquatic organisms when the sludges are arbitrarily disposed. However, the toxic effects on Hyalella azteca were not significantly different among ozone sludge treatments. The reason for this may be related to the formation of toxic oxidation by-products and incomplete mineralization of organic compounds. This could also be true for unknown intermediates. The relatively high detection frequencies of these emerging compounds in WWTP sludges requires further applications and treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ecotoxicology)
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24 pages, 8430 KiB  
Article
PFAS Biotransformation Pathways: A Species Comparison Study
by Richard C. Kolanczyk, Megan R. Saley, Jose A. Serrano, Sara M. Daley and Mark A. Tapper
Toxics 2023, 11(1), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11010074 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4149
Abstract
Limited availability of fish metabolic pathways for PFAS may lead to risk assessments with inherent uncertainties based only upon the parent chemical or the assumption that the biodegradation or mammalian metabolism map data will serve as an adequate surrogate. A rapid and transparent [...] Read more.
Limited availability of fish metabolic pathways for PFAS may lead to risk assessments with inherent uncertainties based only upon the parent chemical or the assumption that the biodegradation or mammalian metabolism map data will serve as an adequate surrogate. A rapid and transparent process, utilizing a recently created database of systematically collected information for fish, mammals, poultry, plant, earthworm, sediment, sludge, bacteria, and fungus using data evaluation tools in the previously described metabolism pathway software system MetaPath, is presented. The fish metabolism maps for 10 PFAS, heptadecafluorooctyl(tridecafluorohexyl)phosphinic acid (C6/C8 PFPiA), bis(perfluorooctyl)phosphinic acid (C8/C8 PFPiA), 2-[(6-chloro-1,1,2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6-dodecafluorohexyl)oxy]-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethanesulfonic acid (6:2 Cl-PFESA), N-Ethylperfluorooctane-1-sulfonamide (Sulfuramid; N-EtFOSA), N-Ethyl Perfluorooctane Sulfonamido Ethanol phosphate diester (SAmPAP), Perfluorooctanesulfonamide (FOSA), 8:2 Fluorotelomer phosphate diester (8:2 diPAP), 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2 FTOH), 10:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (10:2 FTOH), and 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonamide alkylbetaine (6:2 FTAB), were compared across multiple species and systems. The approach demonstrates how comparisons of metabolic maps across species are aided by considering the sample matrix in which metabolites were quantified for each species, differences in analytical methods used to identify metabolites in each study, and the relative amounts of metabolites quantified. Overall, the pathways appear to be well conserved across species and systems. For PFAS lacking a fish metabolism study, a composite map consisting of all available maps would serve as the best basis for metabolite prediction. This emphasizes the importance and utility of collating metabolism into a searchable database such as that created in this effort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue PFAS Toxicology and Metabolism)
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15 pages, 2244 KiB  
Article
Biomonitoring of Alterations in Fish That Inhabit Anthropic Aquatic Environments in a Basin from Semi-Arid Regions
by Juan Manuel Pérez-Iglesias, Nadia Carla Bach, Patricia Laura Colombetti, Pablo Acuña, Jorge Esteban Colman-Lerner, Silvia Patricia González, Julie Celine Brodeur and Cesar Américo Almeida
Toxics 2023, 11(1), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11010073 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1601
Abstract
Industrial, agricultural, and urban areas can be sources of pollution and a cause of habitat fragmentation. The Conlara River located in the northeast of San Luis Province suffers different environmental pressures along its course from urban to agro-industrial areas. The present study aims [...] Read more.
Industrial, agricultural, and urban areas can be sources of pollution and a cause of habitat fragmentation. The Conlara River located in the northeast of San Luis Province suffers different environmental pressures along its course from urban to agro-industrial areas. The present study aims to assess the water quality of the Conlara basin by evaluating how metals and pesticide contamination as well as physicochemical parameters relate to physiological stress in Jenynsia multidentata. Samplings were carried out in four sites characterized by a growing gradient of anthropic impact from the springs to the final sections of the river, starting with tourism passing through urban areas and ending with large agricultural areas (from S1 to S4) during both the dry and wet seasons. A total of 27 parameters were determined (11 physicochemical, 9 heavy metals, and 7 pesticides) in surface waters. Biomarkers (CAT, TBARS, ChE, and MN) showed significant physiological and cytological alterations in J. multidentata depending on the hydrology season. The combination of physicochemical parameters, metals, and pesticide levels allowed typification and differentiation of the sites. Some metal (Cr, Mn, Pb, and Zn) and pesticide (α-BHC, chlorpyrifos, permethrin and cypermethrin, and endosulfan α) levels recorded exceeded the recommended Argentinian legislation values. A principal component analysis (PCA) allowed detection of differences between both seasons and across sites. Furthermore, the differences in distances showed by PCA between the sites were due to differences in the presence of physicochemical parameters, metals, and pesticides correlated with several biomarkers’ responses depending on type of environmental stressor. Water quality evaluation along the Conlara River shows deterioration and different types of environmental stressors, identifying zones, and specific sources of pollution. Furthermore, the biomarkers suggest that the native species could be sensitive to anthropogenic environmental pressures. Full article
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13 pages, 1053 KiB  
Review
Epigenetics and Methylmercury-Induced Neurotoxicity, Evidence from Experimental Studies
by Tao Ke, Alexey A. Tinkov, Anatoly V. Skalny, Abel Santamaria, Joao B. T. Rocha, Aaron B. Bowman, Wen Chen and Michael Aschner
Toxics 2023, 11(1), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11010072 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2366
Abstract
MeHg is an environmental neurotoxin that can adversely affect the development of the nervous system. The molecular integrity of chromatin in the nucleus is an important target of MeHg. Low levels of MeHg trigger epigenetic mechanisms that may be involved in long-lasting and [...] Read more.
MeHg is an environmental neurotoxin that can adversely affect the development of the nervous system. The molecular integrity of chromatin in the nucleus is an important target of MeHg. Low levels of MeHg trigger epigenetic mechanisms that may be involved in long-lasting and transgenerational neurotoxicity after exposure. Emerging evidence has shown that these mechanisms include histone modification, siRNA, and DNA methylation. The MeHg-induced inhibition of neurodifferentiation and neurogenesis are mechanistically associated with epigenetic alterations in critical genes, such as neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Further, MeHg exposure has been shown to alter the activity and/or expression of the upstream regulators of chromatin structure, including histone deacetylases (HDACs) and DNA methyltransferase (DNMTs), which may trigger permanent alterations in histone modifications and DNA methylation. MeHg-exposure also alters several species of miRNA that are associated with neurodevelopment. Genetic studies in the C. elegans model of MeHg-induced toxicity proposes a potential interplay between exogenous RNAi and antioxidant defense. In this review, we discuss the molecular basis for MeHg exposure-induced alterations in chromatin structure and the roles of histone modifications, siRNA, and DNA methylation in MeHg-induced neurotoxic effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Neurotoxicity)
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11 pages, 1629 KiB  
Article
Effects of Exogenous Chlorinated Amino Acetic Acid on Cadmium and Mineral Elements in Rice Seedlings
by Shuangyue Liu, Lin Fu, Changbo Zhang, Jiawei Deng, Weijie Xue and Yun Deng
Toxics 2023, 11(1), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11010071 - 12 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1391
Abstract
To explore the effect of exogenous application of chlorinated amino acetic acid on cadmium (Cd) transport characteristics in rice seedlings, X24 and Z35 rice were taken as the research objects to carry out hydroponics experiments, and the changes of Cd content in rice [...] Read more.
To explore the effect of exogenous application of chlorinated amino acetic acid on cadmium (Cd) transport characteristics in rice seedlings, X24 and Z35 rice were taken as the research objects to carry out hydroponics experiments, and the changes of Cd content in rice seedlings, rice mineral elements and amino acid content in rice were analyzed. The results showed that exogenous application of 1.2 mmol·L−1 chlorinated amino acetic acid inhibited cadmium in shoots and roots of rice seedlings; Cd content in shoots and roots were reduced by up to 62.19% and 45.61%, respectively. The majority of cadmium was in the cell wall of shoots and roots; this decreased with the increase of the concentration of chlorinated acetic acid. In addition, the Mn content in shoots and Ca content in roots of rice seedlings increased significantly after the application of chlorinated amino acetic acid. The results of amino acid analysis showed that the contents of aspartic acid, glutamic acid and cystine in rice seedlings were increased. These results indicate that exogenous application of chlorinated amino acetic acid is beneficial to the synthesis of aspartic acid, glutamic acid and cysteine in rice seedlings, increases the content of Mn in shoots and Ca in roots of rice seedlings, and significantly alleviates cadmium stress in seedlings. This provides a theoretical basis for the development of an environmentally friendly Cd-lowering foliar fertilizer for rice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety Utilization and Remediation of Heavy Metal Polluted Farmland)
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13 pages, 3490 KiB  
Article
Recyclable Carbon Cloth-Supported ZnO@Ag3PO4 Core–Shell Structure for Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Dye
by Yuan Yi, Qifang Guan, Wenguang Wang, Siyuan Jian, Hengchao Li, Liangpeng Wu, Haiyan Zhang and Chuanjia Jiang
Toxics 2023, 11(1), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11010070 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1735
Abstract
The extensive use of organic dyes in industry has caused serious environmental problems, and photocatalysis is a potential solution to water pollution by organic dyes. The practical application of powdery photocatalysts is usually limited by the rapid recombination of charge carriers and difficulty [...] Read more.
The extensive use of organic dyes in industry has caused serious environmental problems, and photocatalysis is a potential solution to water pollution by organic dyes. The practical application of powdery photocatalysts is usually limited by the rapid recombination of charge carriers and difficulty in recycling. In this study, recyclable carbon cloth-supported ZnO@Ag3PO4 composite with a core–shell structure was successfully prepared by solvothermal treatment and subsequent impregnation–deposition. The as-prepared carbon cloth-supported ZnO@Ag3PO4 composite showed an improved photocatalytic activity and stability for the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB), a model organic dye, under visible light irradiation. The decomposition ratio of RhB reached 87.1% after exposure to visible light for 100 min, corresponding to a reaction rate constant that was 4.8 and 15.9 times that of carbon cloth-supported Ag3PO4 or ZnO alone. The enhanced performance of the composite can be attributed to the effectively inhibited recombination of photoinduced electron–hole pairs by the S-scheme heterojunction. The carbon fibers further promoted the transfer of charges. Moreover, the carbon cloth-supported ZnO@Ag3PO4 can be easily separated from the solution and repeatedly used, demonstrating a fair recyclability and potential in practical applications. Full article
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18 pages, 3051 KiB  
Article
Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Sources and Its Individual Contribution Estimation Using a Positive Matrix Factorization Model
by Gahye Lee, Minkyeong KIM, Duckshin Park and Changkyoo Yoo
Toxics 2023, 11(1), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11010069 - 11 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1634
Abstract
The effective management and regulation of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is essential in the Republic of Korea, where PM2.5 concentrations are very high. To do this, however, it is necessary to identify sources of PM2.5 pollution and determine the [...] Read more.
The effective management and regulation of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is essential in the Republic of Korea, where PM2.5 concentrations are very high. To do this, however, it is necessary to identify sources of PM2.5 pollution and determine the contribution of each source using an acceptance model that includes variability in the chemical composition and physicochemical properties of PM2.5, which change according to its spatiotemporal characteristics. In this study, PM2.5 was measured using PMS-104 instruments at two monitoring stations in Bucheon City, Gyeonggi Province, from 22 April to 3 July 2020; the PM2.5 chemical composition was also analyzed. Sources of PM2.5 pollution were then identified and the quantitative contribution of each source to the pollutant mix was estimated using a positive matrix factorization (PMF) model. From the PMF analysis, secondary aerosols, coal-fired boilers, metal-processing facilities, motor vehicle exhaust, oil combustion residues, and soil-derived pollutants had average contribution rates of 5.73 μg/m3, 3.11 μg/m3, 2.14 μg/m3, 1.94 μg/m3, 1.87 μg/m3, and 1.47 μg/m3, respectively. The coefficient of determination (R2) was 0.87, indicating the reliability of the PMF model. Conditional probability function plots showed that most of the air pollutants came from areas where PM2.5-emitting facilities are concentrated and highways are present. Pollution sources with high contribution rates should be actively regulated and their management prioritized. Additionally, because automobiles are the leading source of artificially-derived PM2.5, their effective control and management is necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Air Pollution and Health)
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14 pages, 527 KiB  
Article
Health Risk in a Geographic Area of Thailand with Endemic Cadmium Contamination: Focus on Albuminuria
by Soisungwan Satarug, David A. Vesey, Glenda C. Gobe, Supabhorn Yimthiang and Aleksandra Buha Đorđević
Toxics 2023, 11(1), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11010068 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2288
Abstract
An increased level of cadmium (Cd) in food crops, especially rice is concerning because rice is a staple food for over half of the world’s population. In some regions, rice contributes to more than 50% of the total Cd intake. Low environmental exposure [...] Read more.
An increased level of cadmium (Cd) in food crops, especially rice is concerning because rice is a staple food for over half of the world’s population. In some regions, rice contributes to more than 50% of the total Cd intake. Low environmental exposure to Cd has been linked to an increase in albumin excretion to 30 mg/g creatinine, termed albuminuria, and a progressive reduction in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to below 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, termed reduced eGFR. However, research into albuminuria in high exposure conditions is limited. Here, we applied benchmark dose (BMD) analysis to the relevant data recorded for the residents of a Cd contamination area and a low-exposure control area. We normalized the excretion rates of Cd (ECd) and albumin (Ealb) to creatinine clearance (Ccr) as ECd/Ccr and Ealb/Ccr to correct for differences among subjects in the number of surviving nephrons. For the first time, we defined the excretion levels of Cd associated with clinically relevant adverse kidney health outcomes. Ealb/Ccr varied directly with ECd/Ccr (β = 0.239, p < 0.001), and age (β = 0.203, p < 0.001), while normotension was associated with lower Ealb/Ccr (β = −0.106, p = 0.009). ECd/Ccr values between 16.5 and 35.5 ng/L of the filtrate were associated with a 10% prevalence of albuminuria, while the ECd/Ccr value of 59 ng/L of the filtrate was associated with a 10% prevalence of reduced eGFR. Thus, increased albumin excretion and eGFR reduction appeared to occur at low body burdens, and they should form toxicity endpoints suitable for the calculation of health risk due to the Cd contamination of food chains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental and Health Effects of Heavy Metal)
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10 pages, 1032 KiB  
Article
Negligible Toxicokinetic Differences of Glyphosate by Different Vehicles in Rats
by Yu-Jin Kim, Nitin Nitin and Kyu-Bong Kim
Toxics 2023, 11(1), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11010067 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1375
Abstract
Glyphosate is a non-selective herbicide. Although glyphosate is not acutely toxic, the intake of glyphosate-based herbicides has caused many accidents. Some studies have suggested that surfactants might be the cause. The purpose of this study was to compare the toxicokinetic (TK) properties of [...] Read more.
Glyphosate is a non-selective herbicide. Although glyphosate is not acutely toxic, the intake of glyphosate-based herbicides has caused many accidents. Some studies have suggested that surfactants might be the cause. The purpose of this study was to compare the toxicokinetic (TK) properties of glyphosate according to different vehicles in rats. Glyphosate (1%) was dissolved in distilled water (DW), polyoxyethylene tallow amine (POEA), and Tween 20. After a single oral treatment of glyphosate (50 mg/kg), blood was collected at time intervals, and glyphosate concentrations in the target organ (liver and kidney) were determined 24 h after final blood collection. All samples were analyzed using LC-MS/MS. The TK parameters of glyphosate were similar in the DW and Tween 20 groups. However, there were significant differences in Tmax and volume of distribution (Vd) between the DW and POEA group (p < 0.05). Glyphosate was absorbed about 10 times faster in POEA group rather than DW, and exhibited a higher distribution. However, other important TK parameters of T1/2, AUC, and Cmax were not statistically different among the different vehicle groups. Although glyphosate concentration in the liver was significantly higher in the POEA group than in the DW group, there was no significant difference in the kidney. These results indicate that the toxicokinetics of glyphosate are not significantly affected by POEA. It can be concluded that POEA toxicity itself can be attributed to the acute toxicity of glyphosate-containing products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicokinetics of Chemicals in Consumer Products)
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3 pages, 199 KiB  
Editorial
Advantages and Disadvantages of Electronic Cigarettes
by Andrzej Sobczak and Leon Kośmider
Toxics 2023, 11(1), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11010066 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2214
Abstract
Despite nearly nine thousand publications on e-cigarettes (EC) in the PubMed database, there is still no consensus in the scientific community and among decision makers regarding the risks and benefits of using these products [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advantages and Disadvantages of Electronic Cigarettes)
18 pages, 5446 KiB  
Article
Gestational Exposure to Phthalates and Phthalate Replacements in Relation to Neurodevelopmental Delays in Early Childhood
by Seonyoung Park, Emily Zimmerman, Gredia Huerta-Montañez, Zaira Rosario-Pabón, Carmen M. Vélez-Vega, José F. Cordero, Akram Alshwabekah, John D. Meeker and Deborah J. Watkins
Toxics 2023, 11(1), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11010065 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1894
Abstract
Phthalates have been linked to changes in child neurodevelopment. However, sex-specificity has been reported inconsistently, and little is known about the impact of recent phthalate replacement chemicals. Our analysis included mother–child pairs (N = 274) from the PROTECT birth cohort in Puerto Rico. [...] Read more.
Phthalates have been linked to changes in child neurodevelopment. However, sex-specificity has been reported inconsistently, and little is known about the impact of recent phthalate replacement chemicals. Our analysis included mother–child pairs (N = 274) from the PROTECT birth cohort in Puerto Rico. Phthalate metabolites were measured in multiple maternal urine collected during pregnancy. Neurodevelopment was measured at 6, 12, and 24 months of age using the Battelle Developmental Inventory-2nd edition (BDI), which provides scores for adaptive, personal-social, communication, motor, and cognitive domains. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine associations between phthalate metabolite concentrations and BDI scores, adjusting for maternal age, maternal education, child age, and specific gravity. Sex-specificity was assessed with sex X exposure interaction terms and stratified models. Results show that all five domains were significantly associated with mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP) at age 24 months, suggesting a holistic developmental delay related to this metabolite. Sex-specificity existed for all timepoints (p-interaction < 0.2), in general, showing stronger associations among boys. For example, metabolites of a recent phthalate replacement, di-2-ethylhexyl terephthalate (DEHTP), were differentially associated with the adaptive domain (boys −7.53%/IQR, 95% CI: −14.58, −0.48 vs. girls −0.85%/IQR, 95% CI: −5.08, 3.37), and the cognitive domain (boys −6.05%/IQR, 95% CI: −10.88, −1.22 vs. girls −1.93%/IQR, 95%CI: −4.14, 0.28) at 6 months. To conclude, gestational exposure to phthalates and phthalate replacements was associated with neurodevelopmental delay across multiple domains, with differences by sex and child age. Full article
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15 pages, 1422 KiB  
Article
Co-Application of Silicate and Low-Arsenic-Accumulating Rice Cultivars Efficiently Reduces Human Exposure to Arsenic—A Case Study from West Bengal, India
by Arkaprava Roy, Siba Prasad Datta, Mandira Barman, Debasis Golui, Somnath Bhattacharyya, Mahesh Chand Meena, Viswanathan Chinnusamy, Suchitra Pushkar, Punyavrat S. Pandey and Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman
Toxics 2023, 11(1), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11010064 - 09 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1840
Abstract
We investigated the effect of practically realizable doses of silicate on arsenic (As) uptake by differential-As-accumulating rice cultivars grown on geogenically As-polluted soil. The possible health risk from the dietary ingestion of As through rice was also assessed. In addition, a solution culture [...] Read more.
We investigated the effect of practically realizable doses of silicate on arsenic (As) uptake by differential-As-accumulating rice cultivars grown on geogenically As-polluted soil. The possible health risk from the dietary ingestion of As through rice was also assessed. In addition, a solution culture experiment was conducted to examine the role of root-secreted weak acids in differential As acquisition by rice cultivars. When grown without silicate, Badshabhog accumulated a much smaller amount of As in grain (0.11 mg kg−1) when compared to the other three varieties. Satabdi, IR-36, and Khitish accumulated As in grain beyond the permissible limit (0.2 mg kg−1) for human consumption. The application of silicate effectively reduced the As content in the grain, husk, and straw of all of the cultivars. The grain As content fell to 17.2 and 27.6% with the addition of sodium metasilicate at the rates of 250 and 500 mg kg−1, respectively. In the case of Khitish, the grain As content was brought down within permissible limits by the applied silicate (500 mg kg−1). The integrated use of low-As-accumulating cultivars and silicate has great potential to reduce the public health risks associated with As. A positive correlation between root-secreted total weak acid and grain As content could explain the different rice cultivars’ differential As acquisition capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental and Health Effects of Heavy Metal)
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27 pages, 19267 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Xenoestrogens in Jordanian Water System: Activity and Identification
by Yazan Akkam, Derar Omari, Hassan Alhmoud, Mohammad Alajmi, Nosaibah Akkam and Islam Aljarrah
Toxics 2023, 11(1), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11010063 - 09 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1796
Abstract
Sex hormone disruptors (xenoestrogens) are a global concern due to their potential toxicity. However, to date, there has been no study to investigate the presence of xenoestrogen pollutants in the Jordanian water system. Samples in triplicates were collected from six locations in Jordan, [...] Read more.
Sex hormone disruptors (xenoestrogens) are a global concern due to their potential toxicity. However, to date, there has been no study to investigate the presence of xenoestrogen pollutants in the Jordanian water system. Samples in triplicates were collected from six locations in Jordan, including dams, surface water, tap or faucet water, and filtered water (drinking water—local company). Xenoestrogens were then extracted and evaluated with a yeast estrogen screen utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Later, possible pollutants were mined using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with a Bruker impact II Q-TOF-MS. Possible hits were identified using MetaboScape software (4000 compounds), which includes pesticide, pharmaceutical pollutant, veterinary drug, and toxic compound databases and a special library of 75 possible xenoestrogens. The presence of xenoestrogens in vegetable samples collected from two different locations was also investigated. The total estrogen equivalents according to the YES system were 2.9 ± 1.2, 9.5 ± 5, 2.5 ± 1.5, 1.4 ± 0.9 ng/L for King Talal Dam, As-Samra Wastewater Treatment Plant, King Abdullah Canal, and tap water, respectively. In Almujeb Dam and drinking water, the estrogenic activity was below the detection limit. Numbers of identified xenoestrogens were: As-Samra Wastewater Treatment Plant 27 pollutants, King Talal Dam 20 pollutants, Almujeb Dam 10 pollutants, King Abdullah Canal 16 pollutants, Irbid tap water 32 pollutants, Amman tap water 30 pollutants, drinking water 3 pollutants, and vegetables 7 pollutants. However, a large number of compounds remained unknown. Xenoestrogen pollutants were detected in all tested samples, but the total estrogenic capacities were within the acceptable range. The major source of xenoestrogen pollutants was agricultural resources. Risk evaluations for low xenoestrogen activity should be taken into account, and thorough pesticide monitoring systems and regular inspections should also be established. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ecotoxicology)
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21 pages, 383 KiB  
Review
Intrauterine and Neonatal Exposure to Opioids: Toxicological, Clinical, and Medico-Legal Issues
by Giuseppe Davide Albano, Corinne La Spina, Walter Pitingaro, Vanessa Milazzo, Valentina Triolo, Antonina Argo, Ginevra Malta and Stefania Zerbo
Toxics 2023, 11(1), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11010062 - 09 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2018
Abstract
Opioids have a rapid transplacental passage (i.e., less than 60 min); furthermore, symptoms characterize the maternal and fetal withdrawal syndrome. Opioid withdrawal significantly impacts the fetus, inducing worse outcomes and a risk of mortality. Moreover, neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) follows the delivery, lasts [...] Read more.
Opioids have a rapid transplacental passage (i.e., less than 60 min); furthermore, symptoms characterize the maternal and fetal withdrawal syndrome. Opioid withdrawal significantly impacts the fetus, inducing worse outcomes and a risk of mortality. Moreover, neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) follows the delivery, lasts up to 10 weeks, and requires intensive management. Therefore, the prevention and adequate management of NAS are relevant public health issues. This review aims to summarize the most updated evidence in the literature regarding toxicological, clinical, and forensic issues of intrauterine exposure to opioids to provide a multidisciplinary, evidence-based approach for managing such issues. Further research is required to standardize testing and to better understand the distribution of opioid derivatives in each specimen type, as well as the clinically relevant cutoff concentrations in quantitative testing results. A multidisciplinary approach is required, with obstetricians, pediatricians, nurses, forensic doctors and toxicologists, social workers, addiction specialists, and politicians all working together to implement social welfare and social services for the baby when needed. The healthcare system should encourage multidisciplinary activity in this field and direct suspected maternal and neonatal opioid intoxication cases to local referral centers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Identification of Drug Abuse)
9 pages, 8233 KiB  
Article
Can Maternal Exposure to Air Pollution Affect Post-Natal Liver Development?
by Yong Song, Ling Chen, Ellen Bennett, Amanda J. Wheeler, Katherine Southam, Seiha Yen, Fay Johnston and Graeme R. Zosky
Toxics 2023, 11(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11010061 - 09 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1640
Abstract
Emerging evidence suggests that inhalation of particulate matter (PM) can have direct adverse effects on liver function. Early life is a time of particular vulnerability to the effects of air pollution. On that basis, we tested whether in utero exposure to residential PM [...] Read more.
Emerging evidence suggests that inhalation of particulate matter (PM) can have direct adverse effects on liver function. Early life is a time of particular vulnerability to the effects of air pollution. On that basis, we tested whether in utero exposure to residential PM has an impact on the developing liver. Pregnant mice (C57BL/6J) were intranasally administered 100 µg of PM sampled from residential roof spaces (~5 mg/kg) on gestational days 13.5, 15.5, and 17.5. The pups were euthanized at two weeks of age, and liver tissue was collected to analyse hepatic metabolism (glycogen storage and lipid level), cellular responses (oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis), and genotoxicity using a range of biochemical assays, histological staining, ELISA, and qPCR. We did not observe pronounced effects of environmentally sampled PM on the developing liver when examining hepatic metabolism and cellular response. However, we did find evidence of liver genomic DNA damage in response to in utero exposure to PM. This effect varied depending on the PM sample. These data suggest that in utero exposure to real-world PM during mid-late pregnancy has limited impacts on post-natal liver development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Air Pollution and Health)
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4 pages, 477 KiB  
Case Report
Rat Bait, Not Healthy Rice!
by Kuan-I Lee, Jing-Hua Lin, Yen-Jung Chu, Jou-Fang Deng, Wei-Lan Chu and Dong-Zong Hung
Toxics 2023, 11(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11010060 - 08 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2163
Abstract
Bromadiolone, a potent, long-acting anticoagulant rodenticide is frequently tinted to a red or pink color and mixed with cereals as rat bait. Six peoples working in a small factory suffered from a severe bleeding tendency several weeks after consuming a rice meal that [...] Read more.
Bromadiolone, a potent, long-acting anticoagulant rodenticide is frequently tinted to a red or pink color and mixed with cereals as rat bait. Six peoples working in a small factory suffered from a severe bleeding tendency several weeks after consuming a rice meal that was tainted with bromadiolone mistaken to be healthy food. High serum levels of bromadiolone and excessive bleeding were found in these individuals, and they needed vitamin K1 therapy for weeks. These cases indicated that long-acting anticoagulant rodenticide might induce cumulative toxicity in repeated, low-dose exposure, and the blood levels of bromadiolone might be an indicator for antidote therapy if available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical and Post-Mortem Toxicology)
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14 pages, 1707 KiB  
Article
Size-Resolved Redox Activity and Cytotoxicity of Water-Soluble Urban Atmospheric Particulate Matter: Assessing Contributions from Chemical Components
by Athanasios Besis, Maria Pia Romano, Eleni Serafeim, Anna Avgenikou, Athanasios Kouras, Maria Giulia Lionetto, Maria Rachele Guascito, Anna Rita De Bartolomeo, Maria Elena Giordano, Annarosa Mangone, Daniele Contini and Constantini Samara
Toxics 2023, 11(1), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11010059 - 07 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1748
Abstract
Throughout the cold and the warm periods of 2020, chemical and toxicological characterization of the water-soluble fraction of size segregated particulate matter (PM) (<0.49, 0.49–0.95, 0.95–1.5, 1.5–3.0, 3.0–7.2 and >7.2 μm) was conducted in the urban agglomeration of Thessaloniki, northern Greece. Chemical analysis [...] Read more.
Throughout the cold and the warm periods of 2020, chemical and toxicological characterization of the water-soluble fraction of size segregated particulate matter (PM) (<0.49, 0.49–0.95, 0.95–1.5, 1.5–3.0, 3.0–7.2 and >7.2 μm) was conducted in the urban agglomeration of Thessaloniki, northern Greece. Chemical analysis of the water-soluble PM fraction included water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), humic-like substances (HULIS), and trace elements (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb). The bulk (sum of all size fractions) concentrations of HULIS were 2.5 ± 0.5 and 1.2 ± 0.3 μg m−3, for the cold and warm sampling periods, respectively with highest values in the <0.49 μm particle size fraction. The total HULIS-C/WSOC ratio ranged from 17 to 26% for all sampling periods, confirming that HULIS are a significant part of WSOC. The most abundant water-soluble metals were Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn. The oxidative PM activity was measured abiotically using the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. In vitro cytotoxic responses were investigated using mitochondrial dehydrogenase (MTT). A significant positive correlation was found between OPmDTT, WSOC, HULIS and the MTT cytotoxicity of PM. Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) showed a good relationship between OPMDTT, HULIS and Cu. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis, Exposure and Health Risk of Atmospheric Pollution)
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13 pages, 2376 KiB  
Article
Novel Brominated Flame Retardants in Dust from E-Waste-Dismantling Workplace in Central China: Contamination Status and Human Exposure Assessment
by Xuelin Li, Yu Wang, Wenbin Bai, Qiuyue Zhang, Leicheng Zhao, Zhipeng Cheng, Hongkai Zhu and Hongwen Sun
Toxics 2023, 11(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11010058 - 06 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2206
Abstract
Novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) have been widely used as alternatives to legacy BFRs. However, information on the contamination status and human exposure risks of electronic waste (e-waste)-derived NBFRs in the e-waste workplace is limited. In this study, six NBFRs and the legacy [...] Read more.
Novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) have been widely used as alternatives to legacy BFRs. However, information on the contamination status and human exposure risks of electronic waste (e-waste)-derived NBFRs in the e-waste workplace is limited. In this study, six NBFRs and the legacy BFRs, hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), were analyzed in 50 dust samples from an e-waste-dismantling workplace in Central China. The dust concentration of NBFRs in e-waste-dismantling workshops (median, 157–169 ng/g) was found to be significantly higher than those in an outdoor environment (17.3 ng/g) (p < 0.01). Differently, the highest median concentration of HBCDs was found in dust from the dismantling workshop for cellphones and computers (367 ng/g) among studied areas. The bis(2-ethylhexyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrabromo-phthalate (BEHTBP) was the predominant compound, which contributed 66.0–88.0% of measured NBFR concentrations. NBFRs might originate from plastic and rubber materials in wastes based on the correlation and principal component analysis. Moreover, the total estimated daily intakes (average scenario) of NBFRs were calculated at 2.64 × 10−2 ng/kg bw/d and 2.91× 10−2 ng/kg bw/d for the male and female dismantling workers, respectively, via dust ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact pathways, which were lower than the reference dose values, and thus indicated a limited human exposure risk for NBFRs at the current level. Although the dust concentrations and daily intakes of NBFRs were still lower than those of other emerging pollutants (e.g., organophosphate and nitrogenous flame retardants) measured in the same sampling set, the elevated levels of NBFRs suggested the progressive BFR replacement process in China, which deserves more attention regarding their adverse effects on both the environment and human health. Full article
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18 pages, 1331 KiB  
Article
Exposure Characteristics and Cumulative Risk Assessment for Phthalates in Children Living near a Petrochemical Complex
by Chih-Wen Wang, Po-Keng Cheng, Vinoth Kumar Ponnusamy, Hung-Che Chiang, Wan-Ting Chang and Po-Chin Huang
Toxics 2023, 11(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11010057 - 06 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1842
Abstract
Background: School-aged children living near plastics–producing factories may have higher risk of exposure to phthalates released during the manufacturing processes. Objectives: We aimed to investigate the urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites in school-aged children living near a petrochemical complex and estimate the cumulative [...] Read more.
Background: School-aged children living near plastics–producing factories may have higher risk of exposure to phthalates released during the manufacturing processes. Objectives: We aimed to investigate the urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites in school-aged children living near a petrochemical complex and estimate the cumulative risk of phthalate exposure. Methods: We used a well-established cohort (Taiwan Petrochemical Complex Cohort for Children, TPE3C) of school-aged children (6–13 years old) living near polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) factories in central Taiwan from October 2013 to September 2014. A total of 257 children were included from five elementary schools: Syu-Cuo Branch (n = 58, school A, ~0.9 km), Feng-An (n = 40, school B, ~2.7 km), Ciao-Tou (n = 58, school C, ~5.5 km), Mai-Liao (n = 37, school D, ~6.9 km), and Lung-Feng (n = 57, school E, ~8.6 km). We analyzed 11 metabolites of seven phthalates (including di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP)) in urine. Daily intakes (DIs) were compared with acceptable intake levels to calculate the hazard quotient (HQ) for individual phthalates, and the cumulative risk for each child was assessed using a hazard index (HI), which was the sum of the the individual HQs. Results: The geometric mean and proportion of participants with HIs exceeding one for hepatic (HIhep) and reproductive (HIrep) effects were 0.33 (13.2%) and 0.24 (7.8%), respectively. The major contributors to phthalate exposure risk were DEHP, di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP) and DnBP in all children. Moreover, we observed a U shaped distribution of DEHP exposure by school distance from the PVC and VCM factories (school A: 7.48 μg/kg/day and school E: 80.44 μg/kg/day). This may be due to emissions (closest) and and being located downwind of PVC scrap incineration (farthest). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that children living near a petrochemical complex were at a greater risk of phthalate exposure than normal school-aged children and that phthalate exposure was mainly attributed to DEHP, DiBP and DnBP. In addition, inhalation may have been a risk factor for people living near to PVC and VCM factories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasticizer Exposure: Harmful Impact on Human Health)
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