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Chemosensors, Volume 6, Issue 4 (December 2018)

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Open AccessReview Applications of Electronic-Nose Technologies for Noninvasive Early Detection of Plant, Animal and Human Diseases
Chemosensors 2018, 6(4), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors6040045
Received: 27 August 2018 / Revised: 21 September 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 4 October 2018
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Abstract
The development of electronic-nose (e-nose) technologies for disease diagnostics was initiated in the biomedical field for detection of biotic (microbial) causes of human diseases during the mid-1980s. The use of e-nose devices for disease-diagnostic applications subsequently was extended to plant and animal hosts
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The development of electronic-nose (e-nose) technologies for disease diagnostics was initiated in the biomedical field for detection of biotic (microbial) causes of human diseases during the mid-1980s. The use of e-nose devices for disease-diagnostic applications subsequently was extended to plant and animal hosts through the invention of new gas-sensing instrument types and disease-detection methods with sensor arrays developed and adapted for additional host types and chemical classes of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) closely associated with individual diseases. Considerable progress in animal disease detection using e-noses in combination with metabolomics has been accomplished in the field of veterinary medicine with new important discoveries of biomarker metabolites and aroma profiles for major infectious diseases of livestock, wildlife, and fish from both terrestrial and aquaculture pathology research. Progress in the discovery of new e-nose technologies developed for biomedical applications has exploded with new information and methods for diagnostic sampling and disease detection, identification of key chemical disease biomarkers, improvements in sensor designs, algorithms for discriminant analysis, and greater, more widespread testing of efficacy in clinical trials. This review summarizes progressive advancements in utilizing these specialized gas-sensing devices for numerous diagnostic applications involving noninvasive early detections of plant, animal, and human diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic nose’s, Machine Olfaction and Electronic Tongue’s)
Open AccessReview Stochastic and Temporal Models of Olfactory Perception
Chemosensors 2018, 6(4), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors6040044
Received: 3 August 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 18 September 2018 / Published: 26 September 2018
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Abstract
Olfactory systems typically process signals produced by mixtures composed of very many natural odors, some that can be elicited by single compounds. The several hundred different olfactory receptors aided by several dozen different taste receptors are sufficient to define our complex chemosensory world.
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Olfactory systems typically process signals produced by mixtures composed of very many natural odors, some that can be elicited by single compounds. The several hundred different olfactory receptors aided by several dozen different taste receptors are sufficient to define our complex chemosensory world. However, sensory processing by selective adaptation and mixture suppression leaves only a few perceptual components recognized at any time. Thresholds determined by stochastic processes are described by functions relating stimulus detection to concentration. Relative saliences of mixture components are established by relating component recognition to concentration in the presence of background components. Mathematically distinct stochastic models of perceptual component dominance in binary mixtures were developed that accommodate prediction of an appropriate range of probabilities from 0 to 1, and include errors in identifications. Prior short-term selective adaptation to some components allows temporally emergent recognition of non-adapted mixture-suppressed components. Thus, broadly tuned receptors are neutralized or suppressed by activation of other more efficacious receptors. This ‘combinatorial’ coding is more a process of subtraction than addition, with the more intense components dominating the perception. It is in this way that complex chemosensory mixtures are reduced to manageable numbers of odor notes and taste qualities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic nose’s, Machine Olfaction and Electronic Tongue’s)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Microfluidic Devices for Label-Free DNA Detection
Chemosensors 2018, 6(4), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors6040043
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 17 September 2018 / Accepted: 18 September 2018 / Published: 25 September 2018
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Abstract
Sensitive and specific DNA biomarker detection is critical for accurately diagnosing a broad range of clinical conditions. However, the incorporation of such biosensing structures in integrated microfluidic devices is often complicated by the need for an additional labelling step to be implemented on
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Sensitive and specific DNA biomarker detection is critical for accurately diagnosing a broad range of clinical conditions. However, the incorporation of such biosensing structures in integrated microfluidic devices is often complicated by the need for an additional labelling step to be implemented on the device. In this review we focused on presenting recent advances in label-free DNA biosensor technology, with a particular focus on microfluidic integrated devices. The key biosensing approaches miniaturized in flow-cell structures were presented, followed by more sophisticated microfluidic devices and higher integration examples in the literature. The option of full DNA sequencing on microfluidic chips via nanopore technology was highlighted, along with current developments in the commercialization of microfluidic, label-free DNA detection devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Label-Free Biosensors and Chemical Sensors)
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