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Healthcare, Volume 8, Issue 4 (December 2020) – 181 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Risk Perception and Worries among Health Care Workers in the COVID-19 Pandemic: Findings from an Italian Survey
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 535; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040535 - 03 Dec 2020
Abstract
The ongoing pandemic scenario, due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has had a considerable impact on public health all over the world. Italy was one of the most affected countries, as the first European full-blown outbreak occurred there. The exposure of the [...] Read more.
The ongoing pandemic scenario, due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has had a considerable impact on public health all over the world. Italy was one of the most affected countries, as the first European full-blown outbreak occurred there. The exposure of the Italian health care workers to COVID-19 may be an important risk factor for psychological distress. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe worries and risk perception of being infected among Italian Health Care Workers (HCWs) during the first wave of the pandemic. In total, 2078 HCWs participated in a web survey (78.8% were females). The highest percentage of respondents were physicians (40.75%) and nurses (32.15%), followed by medical (18.00%), health care support (4.50%) and administrative (4.60%) staff. In a score range between 0 (not worried) and 4 (very worried), our results showed that participants declared that they were worried about the Coronavirus infection with a median score of 3 (IQR 2-3) and for 59.19% the risk perception of being infected was very high. In addition, HCWs reported they suffered from sleep disturbances (63.43%). From the analysis of the psychological aspect, a possible divergence emerged between the perceived need for psychological support (83.85%) and the relative lack of this service among health care providers emerged (9.38%). Our findings highlight the importance of psychological and psychiatric support services not only during the COVID-19 pandemic, but also in other emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) scenarios. These services may be useful for health authorities and policymakers to ensure the psychological well-being of health care professionals and to promote precautionary behaviors among them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Pandemic: Challenges Facing the Health System)
Open AccessArticle
Echocardiography Abnormal Findings and Laboratory Operations during the COVID-19 Pandemic at a High Volume Center in New York City
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 534; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040534 - 03 Dec 2020
Abstract
(1) Background: This study sought to explore how the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic affected the echocardiography (TTE) laboratory operations at a high volume medical center in New York City. Changes in cardiac imaging study volume, turn-around time, and abnormal findings were analyzed and [...] Read more.
(1) Background: This study sought to explore how the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic affected the echocardiography (TTE) laboratory operations at a high volume medical center in New York City. Changes in cardiac imaging study volume, turn-around time, and abnormal findings were analyzed and compared to a pre-pandemic period. (2) Methods: Volume of all cardiac imaging studies and TTE reports between 11 March 2020 to 5 May 2020 and the same calendar period in 2019 were retrospectively identified and compared. (3) Results: During the pandemic, our center experienced a 46.72% reduction in TTEs, 82.47% reduction in transesophageal echocardiograms, 83.16% reduction in stress echo, 70.32% reduction in nuclear tests, 46.25% reduction in calcium score, 73.91% reduction in coronary computed tomography angiography, and 87.23% reduction in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. TTE findings were overall similar between 2020 and 2019 (all p ≥ 0.05), except for a significantly higher right ventricular systolic pressure in 2020 (39.8 ± 14.2 vs. 34.6 ± 11.2 mmHg, p = 0.012). (4) Conclusions: Despite encountering an influx of critically ill patients, our hospital center experienced a reduction in the number of cardiac imaging studies, which likely represents a change in both patient mindset and physician management approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: Impact on Public Health and Healthcare)
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Open AccessArticle
An Open-Label, Head to Head Comparison Study between Prucalopride and Lactulose for Clozapine Induced Constipation in Patients with Treatment Resistant Schizophrenia
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 533; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040533 - 03 Dec 2020
Viewed by 61
Abstract
Clozapine remains as the gold standard for the management of treatment resistant schizophrenia. Nevertheless, mortality and morbidity associated with Clozapine is partly contributed by its adverse effect of constipation in view of its prominent anticholinergic properties. Despite the evidence that approximately 60% of [...] Read more.
Clozapine remains as the gold standard for the management of treatment resistant schizophrenia. Nevertheless, mortality and morbidity associated with Clozapine is partly contributed by its adverse effect of constipation in view of its prominent anticholinergic properties. Despite the evidence that approximately 60% of patients on Clozapine will experience constipation, there is no proper guideline as to the best laxative in the treatment of Clozapine induced constipation. Hence this study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Prucalopride and Lactulose in the treatment of Clozapine induced constipation. This was a four week, prospective, open-label head to head comparison study between Prucalopride and Lactulose in the treatment of Clozapine induced constipation. Male and female patients on Clozapine between the age of 18–60 with an established diagnosis of treatment resistant schizophrenia with ≤2 spontaneous complete bowel movement per week were recruited in this study. Eligible patients were assigned into two groups. Patients received Prucalopride 2 mg once daily or Lactulose 10 g once daily for four weeks. Efficacy was analyzed in 58 patients. The proportion of patient with ≥3 spontaneous complete bowel movement (SCBM) was higher in the Prucalopride 2 mg group, reaching significance at Week 4 with p-value of (p = 0.029). The proportion of patient with ≥3 SCBM at Week 1 was 71.4% in the Prucalopride 2 mg group and 60% in the Lactulose 10 g group. The proportion of patient with ≥3 SCBM at Week 4 was 85.7% in the Prucalopride 2 mg group and the proportion remained at 60% in the Lactulose 10 g group. The improvement in the dissatisfaction and treatment satisfaction subscales of the patient assessment of constipation—quality of life (PAC-QOL) were higher in the Prucalopride 2 mg group compared to the Lactulose 10 g group. The common adverse events associated with Prucalopride 2 mg were abdominal pain and loose stools which was transient and subsided within a few days. Over four weeks, in this population of patients with Clozapine induced constipation, Prucalopride 2 mg significantly improved the bowel movement and it was safe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Community Care)
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Open AccessArticle
Parental and Familial Factors Influencing Physical Activity Levels in Early Adolescence: A Prospective Study
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 532; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040532 (registering DOI) - 02 Dec 2020
Viewed by 138
Abstract
Parental/familial factors are important determinants of the physical activity level (PAL) in children and adolescents, but studies rarely prospectively evaluate their relationships. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in physical activity levels among adolescents from Bosnia and Herzegovina over a two-year period [...] Read more.
Parental/familial factors are important determinants of the physical activity level (PAL) in children and adolescents, but studies rarely prospectively evaluate their relationships. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in physical activity levels among adolescents from Bosnia and Herzegovina over a two-year period and to determine parental/familial predictors of PAL in early adolescence. A total of 651 participants (50.3% females) were tested at baseline (beginning of high school education; 14 years old on average) and at follow-up (approximately 20 months later). The predictors included sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender) and parental/familial factors (socioeconomic status of the family, maternal and paternal education, conflict with parents, parental absence from home, parental questioning, and parental monitoring). Physical activity levels were evidenced by the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A; criterion). Boys were more active than girls, both at baseline (t-test = 3.09, p < 0.001) and at follow-up (t-test = 3.4, p < 0.001). Physical activity level decreased over the observed two-year period (t-test = 16.89, p < 0.001), especially in boys, which is probably a consequence of drop-out from the sport in this period. Logistic regression evidenced parental education as a positive predictor of physical activity level at baseline (OR [95% CI]; 1.38 [1.15–170], 1.35 [1.10–1.65]), and at follow-up (1.35 [1.11–1.69], 1.29 [1.09–1.59], for maternal and paternal education, respectively). Parents with a higher level of education are probably more informed about the importance of physical activity on health status, and thus transfer this information to their children as well. The age from 14 to 16 years is likely a critical period for maintaining physical activity levels in boys, while further studies of a younger age are necessary to evaluate the dynamics of changes in physical activity levels for girls. For maintaining physical activity levels in adolescence, special attention should be paid to children whose parents are less educated, and to inform them of the benefits of an appropriate physical activity level and its necessity for maintaining proper health and growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Factors and Global Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Using Behavioral Nudges to Engage Pregnant Women in a Smoking Cessation Trial: An Online Field Quasi-Experiment
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 531; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040531 - 02 Dec 2020
Viewed by 160
Abstract
Evidence shows that behavioral nudges could be used to enhance enrollment rates in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) by addressing enrollment barriers, but research on this topic is limited. We conducted an online field quasi-experiment with separate pretest (October 2017–January 2018) and posttest (February–May [...] Read more.
Evidence shows that behavioral nudges could be used to enhance enrollment rates in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) by addressing enrollment barriers, but research on this topic is limited. We conducted an online field quasi-experiment with separate pretest (October 2017–January 2018) and posttest (February–May 2018) samples designed to examine the use of behavioral nudges to engage pregnant smokers in a couple-focused smoking cessation RCT relying on online enrollment through paid Facebook ads and a dedicated website, by reporting aggregate Facebook ads and Google Analytics data. The Facebook ads pretest conversion rate of 1.6% doubled and reached 3.41% in the posttest period. The pretest eligibility assessment rate decreased from 10.3% to 6.46%, but registered a relative increase of approximately 50% in the posttest period, as opposed to the pretest. The number of women who signed the informed consent in the posttest period has increased with 63%, from a proportion of 8.54% in the pretest to 11.73% in the posttest period. These findings might lend support to integrating behavioral nudges in the recruitment and enrollment materials of RCTs to boost enrollment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal and Child Health: Advances in Translational Research)
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Open AccessArticle
An Investigation of Healthcare Professionals’ Motivation in Public and Mission Hospitals in Meru County, Kenya
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 530; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040530 - 02 Dec 2020
Viewed by 199
Abstract
Strengthening health systems in developing countries such as Kenya is required to achieve the third United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goal of health for all, at all ages. However, Kenya is experiencing a “brain drain” and a critical shortage of healthcare professionals. There is [...] Read more.
Strengthening health systems in developing countries such as Kenya is required to achieve the third United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goal of health for all, at all ages. However, Kenya is experiencing a “brain drain” and a critical shortage of healthcare professionals. There is a need to identify the factors that motivate healthcare workers to work in the health sector in rural and marginalized areas. This cross-sectional study aims to investigate the factors associated with the level and types of motivation among healthcare professionals in public and mission hospitals in Meru county, Kenya. Data were collected from 24 public and mission hospitals using a self-administered structured questionnaire. A total of 553 healthcare professionals participated in this study; 78.48% from public hospitals and 21.52% from mission hospitals. Hospital ownership was statistically nonsignificant in healthcare professionals’ overall motivation (p > 0.05). The results showed that sociodemographic and work-environment factors explained 29.95% of the variation in overall motivation scores among participants. Findings indicate there are more similarities than disparities among healthcare professionals’ motivation factors, regardless of hospital ownership; therefore, motivation strategies should be developed and applied in both public and private not-for-profit hospitals to ensure an effective healthcare workforce and strengthen healthcare systems in Kenya. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Colectomy among Fee-for-Service Medicare Enrollees Coded as DRG 330: A Potential Platform to Allow Consumer Cost Transparency?
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 529; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040529 - 02 Dec 2020
Viewed by 152
Abstract
The use of Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Diagnosis Related Group (CMS-DRG) codes define hospital reimbursement for Medicare beneficiaries. Our objective was to assess all patients with comorbidities on admission who were discharged in the DRG 330 category to determine the impact [...] Read more.
The use of Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Diagnosis Related Group (CMS-DRG) codes define hospital reimbursement for Medicare beneficiaries. Our objective was to assess all patients with comorbidities on admission who were discharged in the DRG 330 category to determine the impact of postoperative complications on Medicare costs. The 5% Medicare Database was used to evaluate patients who underwent a colectomy and were coded as CMS-DRG 330. Patients were divided into two groups: No surgical complications (NSC) and surgical complications (SC). Length of stay (LOS), complications, hospital charges, CMS reimbursement, discharge destination, and inpatient mortality were assessed. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. In total, 13,072 patients were identified. The SC group had higher inpatient mortality, a longer LOS (p < 0.0001) and was more likely to be discharged with post-acute care support (p = 0.0005). The use of CMS-DRG coding has the potential to provide Medicare fiscal intermediaries, beneficiaries, and providers with a more accurate understanding of the relative impact of their baseline health. The data further suggest that providers may benefit by more fully understanding the cost of preventive measures as a means of reducing total cost of care for this population. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Oral Status in Pregnant Women from Post-Industrial Areas of Upper Silesia in Reference to Occurrence of: Preterm Labors, Low Birth Weight and Type of Labor
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 528; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040528 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 204
Abstract
Increased levels of steroid hormones, action of local irritants and the lack of proper hygiene measures are of great importance in the development of dental caries, gingivitis and inflammation of the periodontal area in pregnant women. The aim of the study was to [...] Read more.
Increased levels of steroid hormones, action of local irritants and the lack of proper hygiene measures are of great importance in the development of dental caries, gingivitis and inflammation of the periodontal area in pregnant women. The aim of the study was to evaluate the state of oral hygiene and the periodontal area is such a population and assess the effectiveness of performed hygiene treatments and analyse changes in hygiene habits after oral hygiene instructions. The study was performed in two parts on a group of 50 pregnant women. The first part took place between the 14th and 17th week of pregnancy. The control study was conducted between the 27th and 30th week of pregnancy. Patients were subjected to a dental examination. Poor oral hygiene was observed among the examined patients. After the first examination, oral hygiene instruction was provided to 25 randomly selected pregnant patients. The effect of periodontal diseases on the time of labor was observed. Oral hygiene instructions significantly affected the state of the periodontal area of pregnant women for whom it was performed. It was confirmed that the advancement of pregnancy influences deterioration of the periodontium and also term of childbirth. Undoubtedly, pregnant women receive insufficient dental care. Priority should be given to dental care education of for pregnant women and alleviating the impact of oral diseases on the organism of a pregnant woman. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal and Child Health: Advances in Translational Research)
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Open AccessCommentary
What Can COVID-19 Teach Us about Using AI in Pandemics?
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 527; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040527 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 277
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic put significant strain on societies and their resources, with the healthcare system and workers being particularly affected. Artificial Intelligence (AI) offers the unique possibility of improving the response to a pandemic as it emerges and evolves. Here, we utilize the [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic put significant strain on societies and their resources, with the healthcare system and workers being particularly affected. Artificial Intelligence (AI) offers the unique possibility of improving the response to a pandemic as it emerges and evolves. Here, we utilize the WHO framework of a pandemic evolution to analyze the various AI applications. Specifically, we analyzed AI from the perspective of all five domains of the WHO pandemic response. To effectively review the current scattered literature, we organized a sample of relevant literature from various professional and popular resources. The article concludes with a consideration of AI’s weaknesses as key factors affecting AI in future pandemic preparedness and response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Pandemic: Challenges Facing the Health System)
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Open AccessReview
The Perception and Impact of Relative Value Units (RVUs) and Quality-of-Care Compensation in Neurosurgery: A Literature Review
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 526; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040526 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 159
Abstract
The debate surrounding the integration of value in healthcare delivery and reimbursement reform has centered around integrating quality metrics into the current fee-for-service relative value units (RVU) payment model. Although a great amount of literature has been published on the creation and utilization [...] Read more.
The debate surrounding the integration of value in healthcare delivery and reimbursement reform has centered around integrating quality metrics into the current fee-for-service relative value units (RVU) payment model. Although a great amount of literature has been published on the creation and utilization of the RVU, there remains a dearth of information on how clinicians from various specialties view RVU and the quality-of-care metric in the compensation formula. The aim of this review is to analyze and consolidate existing theories on the RVU payment model in neurosurgery. Google and PubMed were searched for English-language literature describing opinions on the RVU in neurosurgery. Commentary was noted to be primary opinions if it was mentioned at least twice in the eight articles included in this review. Overall, seven primary opinions on the RVU were identified across the analyzed articles. Integration of quality into the RVU is viewed favorably by neurosurgeons with a few caveats and opportunities for further improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Healthcare Quality and Patient Safety)
Open AccessArticle
Analysis of SF-6D Health State Utility Scores: Is Beta Regression Appropriate?
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 525; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040525 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 206
Abstract
Background: Typically, modeling of health-related quality of life data is often troublesome since its distribution is positively or negatively skewed, spikes at zero or one, bounded and heteroscedasticity. Objectives: In the present paper, we aim to investigate whether Bayesian beta regression [...] Read more.
Background: Typically, modeling of health-related quality of life data is often troublesome since its distribution is positively or negatively skewed, spikes at zero or one, bounded and heteroscedasticity. Objectives: In the present paper, we aim to investigate whether Bayesian beta regression is appropriate for analyzing the SF-6D health state utility scores and respondent characteristics. Methods: A sample of 126 Lebanese members from the American University of Beirut valued 49 health states defined by the SF-6D using the standard gamble technique. Three different models were fitted for SF-6D via Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation methods. These comprised a beta regression, random effects and random effects with covariates. Results from applying the three Bayesian beta regression models were reported and compared based on their predictive ability to previously used linear regression models, using mean prediction error (MPE), root mean squared error (RMSE) and deviance information criterion (DIC). Results: For the three different approaches, the beta regression model was found to perform better than the normal regression model under all criteria used. The beta regression with random effects model performs best, with MPE (0.084), RMSE (0.058) and DIC (−1621). Compared to the traditionally linear regression model, the beta regression provided better predictions of observed values in the entire learning sample and in an out-of-sample validation. Conclusions: Beta regression provides a flexible approach to modeling health state values. It also accounted for the boundedness and heteroscedasticity of the SF-6D index scores. Further research is encouraged. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Care Management and Cost Estimation)
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Open AccessArticle
Do Health Professionals Sufficiently Address Patients’ Disposition Toward Changing Their Nutritional and Physical Activity Habits? Findings from a Pilot Study among People with Type 2 Diabetes in Northern Italy
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 524; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040524 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 197
Abstract
The aim of our study was to evaluate the disposition of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) toward changing their nutritional and physical activity habits and associated factors—particularly their perceptions about interacting and communicating with four health professions. Working with a local [...] Read more.
The aim of our study was to evaluate the disposition of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) toward changing their nutritional and physical activity habits and associated factors—particularly their perceptions about interacting and communicating with four health professions. Working with a local patients’ association, we invited 364 individuals with DM2, all at least 18 years old, to complete a paper-based survey with questions addressing their experiences of interacting and communicating with general practitioners, nurses, dieticians and diabetologists and about their readiness to change targeted habits, their health literacy and their clinical status. Of the 109 questionnaires collected, 100 were eligible for descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. Regarding nutritional habits, the highest percentage of participants were at the maintenance stage (26%), whereas regarding physical activity habits the highest percentage of participants were at the preparation stage (31%). Significant differences between the habits emerged for four of the five stages and for two psychological processes. The precontemplation stage was most associated with communication-related variables, whereas the maintenance stage was associated with higher health literacy for both habits, and waist-to-height ratio was associated with several stages of change and psychological processes for physical activity habits. Considering aggregated stages (i.e., active or passive stage), significant differences were observed for all psychological processes except readiness to change nutritional habits. Logistic regression analysis revealed associations of the active stage with higher self-efficacy and lower discrepancy processes for both habits. Nutritional habits were associated with normal HbA1c values and physical activity habits with high cholesterol. Understanding the combination of the stages of change and how they relate to psychological processes can afford meaningful insights into the potential internal and external communication skills of health professions and should be examined as possible elements for a patient evaluation model. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Evaluation of Facial Pressure and Air Leak with a Newly Designed Cushion for Non-Invasive Ventilation Masks
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040523 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 166
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a newly designed foam cushion on the air leakage and pressure when applied to the face. Methods: A teaching manikin connected to a bilevel positive airway pressure ventilator attached to four [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a newly designed foam cushion on the air leakage and pressure when applied to the face. Methods: A teaching manikin connected to a bilevel positive airway pressure ventilator attached to four different brands of oronasal masks (Amara, Mirage, Forma, and Wizard) was used. The foam cushions of 5-mm and 10-mm-thickness were attached to the masks, and each mask was tested without a cushion. Six pressure sensors were placed on the manikin’s face, and data were recorded. Inspiratory volume and air leak flow from the ventilator were observed. Results: Air leakage was influenced by both the mask brand and the presence of a cushion. The presence of a cushion did not affect the Wizard mask in terms of leakage (p = 0.317) or inspiratory volume (p = 0.726). The Wizard and Amara masks generated the lowest contact pressure on the frontal forehead (p < 0.001) compared to the other five points. Conclusions: Utilisation of a cushion reduces air leakage and maintains greater inspiratory volume regardless of its thickness. The contact pressure varies depending on the brand of the mask, which would require a difference in the thickness of the cushion for pressure reduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Healthcare Quality and Patient Safety)
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Open AccessArticle
Violence on the Job: The Experiences of Nurses and Midwives with Violence from Patients and Their Friends and Relatives
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 522; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040522 - 30 Nov 2020
Viewed by 192
Abstract
Violence in healthcare is recognised as a significant workplace issue worldwide, with nurses recognised as the profession at greatest risk. The purpose of this study was to explore nurses’ and midwives’ experiences of violence in different clinical areas, work sectors and geographical regions. [...] Read more.
Violence in healthcare is recognised as a significant workplace issue worldwide, with nurses recognised as the profession at greatest risk. The purpose of this study was to explore nurses’ and midwives’ experiences of violence in different clinical areas, work sectors and geographical regions. A cross-sectional design was employed to survey the membership of the New South Wales Nurses and Midwives’ Association about their experiences with violence from patients and/or their friends and relatives in their workplace. A total of 3416 participants returned a completed questionnaire and more than three-quarters of had experienced an episode of violence in the preceding six months. Participants working in the public health sector reported significantly more physically violent behaviours than their colleagues in the private sector. No statistically significant difference between the rates of violence (overall) was identified between different geographical areas. Violent behaviours were reported across all clinical settings, with emergency departments, mental health and drug and alcohol settings reporting the highest proportion of episodes. The results of this large study highlight the high levels of violence that nurses and midwives experience in the workplace across all sectors of employment, geographical regions and clinical settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Violence Prevention and Management in the Healthcare Sector)
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Open AccessArticle
Patient-Related Factors of Medialization Laryngoplasty with Autologous Thyroid Cartilage
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 521; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040521 - 30 Nov 2020
Viewed by 146
Abstract
(1) Background: Medialization laryngoplasty with autologous thyroid cartilage (MLATC) is a surgical treatment for glottal closure insufficiency (GCI) resulted from unilateral vocal fold paralysis/paresis (UVFP) and vocal fold atrophy. We aimed to survey the influence of patient-related factors on the outcomes after MLATC. [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Medialization laryngoplasty with autologous thyroid cartilage (MLATC) is a surgical treatment for glottal closure insufficiency (GCI) resulted from unilateral vocal fold paralysis/paresis (UVFP) and vocal fold atrophy. We aimed to survey the influence of patient-related factors on the outcomes after MLATC. (2) Methods: The study enrolled 35 patients with GCI who underwent MLATC. Patient voice data were recorded before and after MLATC by using multiple acoustic parameters and subjective assessment in a computerized speech laboratory. GCI patients were characterized into subgroups based on three factors: age, ≥60 vs. <60 years; sex, men vs. women; and BMI, ≥24 vs. <24. (3) Results: When the subgroups were compared, men did not have better results after surgery than women. Patients ages < 60 years did not exhibit any significantly different outcome compared with those aged ≥ 60 years. Patients with BMI ≥ 24 did not have any significantly different outcome compared with those with BMI < 24. The subgroups of age, sex, and BMI had no significant difference in cumulative voice recovery and summation of GRBAS (G = grade, R = roughness, B = breathiness, A = asthenia, and S = strain). (4) Conclusions: MLATC is a good alternative surgery with long-term improvement in GCI patients. There is no evidence that age, sex, or BMI affect the functional outcome. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ganoderma lucidum Effects on Mood and Health-Related Quality of Life in Women with Fibromyalgia
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 520; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040520 - 30 Nov 2020
Viewed by 240
Abstract
Fibromyalgia syndrome is a chronic rheumatic disorder characterized by generalized and widespread musculoskeletal pain. It is associated with several secondary symptoms such as psychological and pain-specific distress, which can directly impact daily functioning and quality of life, like anxiety and depression. The Ganoderma [...] Read more.
Fibromyalgia syndrome is a chronic rheumatic disorder characterized by generalized and widespread musculoskeletal pain. It is associated with several secondary symptoms such as psychological and pain-specific distress, which can directly impact daily functioning and quality of life, like anxiety and depression. The Ganoderma lucidum (GL) mushroom seems to be able to improve fibromyalgia symptoms, including depression and pain. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effects of GL on happiness, depression, satisfaction with life, and health-related quality of life in women with fibromyalgia. A double-blind, randomized placebo pilot trial was carried out, with one group taking 6 g/day of micro-milled GL carpophores for 6 weeks, during which the second group took a placebo. Our results did not show any statistically significant between-group differences, although a distinct trend of improved levels of happiness and satisfaction with life and reduced depression were evident at the end of treatment compared to the baseline in the GL group. However, due to the limitations of the study protocol, additional studies are necessary to confirm these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Women Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Design, Assessment, and Validation of a Questionnaire to Estimate Food-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis Prevalence in Latin American Population
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 519; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040519 - 29 Nov 2020
Viewed by 298
Abstract
There are no epidemiological data about food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA) in Latin America. Our aim was to design, assess, and validate a questionnaire to identify potential FDEIA cases and/or estimate its prevalence by self-report. Questions were included in the instrument to address the [...] Read more.
There are no epidemiological data about food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA) in Latin America. Our aim was to design, assess, and validate a questionnaire to identify potential FDEIA cases and/or estimate its prevalence by self-report. Questions were included in the instrument to address the main symptoms of FDEIA, type/intensity of physical activity, and anaphylaxis. The instrument’s clarity, comprehension and repeatability were evaluated. These evaluations were carried out by Hispanic people (Argentinians/Colombians/Mexicans/Peruvians), including nine individuals with medical diagnosis of FDEIA, and Brazilians. The Flesch–Kincaid score was calculated using the INFLESZ software. The instrument was translated from Spanish to Brazilian Portuguese following the translation back-translation procedure. The participants rated the two versions of the questionnaire as clear and comprehensible (three-point ordinal scale) and very easy to understand [0.33; average (scale 0–10)]. For these evaluations, the Kendall’s W coefficient showed strong agreement among raters (W = 0.80; average). The Flesch–Kincaid score was 63.5 in average (documents considered as readable). The Cohen’s Kappa coefficient showed almost perfect agreement in repeatability (0.88; average). The validation process of two versions of an instrument, used to identify potential FDEIA cases, was successfully carried out and it was found applicable to Latin American countries for generating epidemiological data. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Nutrition and Public Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Clinical Characteristics of the COVID-19 Patients with Pneumonia Detected by Computerized Tomography but Negative for Infiltration by X-ray
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 518; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040518 - 29 Nov 2020
Viewed by 307
Abstract
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread to all corners of the globe. Different diagnostic tools, such as Chest X-ray (CXR), lung ultrasound (LUS), and computerized tomography (CT), have been used to detect active pneumonic lesions associated with COVID-19 with their varying degrees [...] Read more.
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread to all corners of the globe. Different diagnostic tools, such as Chest X-ray (CXR), lung ultrasound (LUS), and computerized tomography (CT), have been used to detect active pneumonic lesions associated with COVID-19 with their varying degrees of sensitivity and specificity. This study was undertaken to investigate the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients with a pneumonic lung lesion detected by CT that is not detected by CXR. A total of 156 COVID-19 patients hospitalized at three nationally designated South Korean hospitals with no active lesion detected by CXR but on clinical suspicion of pneumonia underwent the CT examination and were enrolled. Medical records, which included demographic and clinical features, including comorbidity, symptoms, radiological, and laboratory findings on admission, were reviewed and analyzed. The risk factors of pneumonia detected by CT for patients without an active lesion detected by CXR were investigated. Of the 156 patients without an active lesion detected by CXR, 35 (22.44%) patients were found to have pneumonia by CT. The patients with pneumonia defined by CT were older than those without (64.1 years vs. 41.2 years). Comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, preexisting stroke, and dementia were more common among patients with pneumonia defined by CT than those without. Serum albumin level, C-reactive protein (CRP), stroke, and age ≥ 70 years were significantly associated with pneumonia defined by CT after adjustment for age. In multivariable regression analysis, serum albumin level (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.123, 95% CI = (0.035–0.429)) and preexisting stroke (AOR = 11.447, 95% CI = (1.168–112.220)) significantly and independently predicted pneumonia detection by CT. Our results suggest that CT scans should be performed on COVID-19 patients negative for a pneumonic lung lesion by CXR who are suspected to be pneumonic on clinical grounds. In addition, older patients with a lower albumin level and a preexisting stroke should be checked for the presence of pneumonia despite a negative CXR finding for an active lesion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: Impact on Public Health and Healthcare)
Open AccessReview
Rapid Telehealth Implementation during the COVID-19 Global Pandemic: A Rapid Review
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 517; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040517 - 29 Nov 2020
Viewed by 259
Abstract
The implementation and continued expansion of telehealth services assists a variety of health care organizations in the delivery of care during the current COVID-19 global pandemic. However, limited research has been conducted on recent, rapid telehealth implementation and expansion initiatives regarding facilitators and [...] Read more.
The implementation and continued expansion of telehealth services assists a variety of health care organizations in the delivery of care during the current COVID-19 global pandemic. However, limited research has been conducted on recent, rapid telehealth implementation and expansion initiatives regarding facilitators and barriers surrounding the provision of quality patient care. Our rapid review evaluated the literature specific to rapid telehealth implementation during the current COVID-19 pandemic from three research databases between January 2020 and May 2020 and reported using preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA). The results indicate the rapid implementation and enhanced use of telehealth during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States surrounding the facilitators and barriers to the provision of patient care, which are categorized into three identified themes: (1) descriptive process-oriented implementations, (2) the interpretation and infusion of the CARES Act of 2020 telehealth exemptions related to the relaxation of patient privacy and security (HIPAA) protocols, and (3) the standard of care protocols and experiences addressing organizational liability and the standard of care. While the study limitation of sample size exists (n = 21), an identification of rapid telehealth implementation advancements and challenges during the current pandemic may assist health care organizations in the delivery of ongoing quality care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Pandemic: Challenges Facing the Health System)
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Open AccessArticle
Gender Medicine and Physiotherapy: A Need for Education. Findings from an Italian National Survey
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 516; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040516 - 27 Nov 2020
Viewed by 298
Abstract
Background: Gender medicine permeates all sectors of medicine, from prevention to treatment and rehabilitation; it aims to customize the care path, ensuring equity in the access to health care system services. It is unclear to what extent physiotherapists’ treatment choices align with gender [...] Read more.
Background: Gender medicine permeates all sectors of medicine, from prevention to treatment and rehabilitation; it aims to customize the care path, ensuring equity in the access to health care system services. It is unclear to what extent physiotherapists’ treatment choices align with gender medicine principles. The aim of this survey is to detect the need of Italian physiotherapists to deepen knowledge in gender medicine. Materials and methods: An 18-item survey assessed the characteristics of responders about knowledge of gender medicine. An online survey was performed in 2020 using SurveyMonkey Software. Data were analyzed by statistical regression. Results: A total of 617 physiotherapists voluntarily participated in the study (53.84% of the target population). The majority of responders (68.4%) declared having general information about gender medicine, but 55.43% of them claimed to have heard of it but did not know properly what gender medicine was about; 92.38% of the physiotherapists believed that they needed training to acquire knowledge in gender medicine. Conclusions: Gender equity matters for health. Moderate knowledge of gender medicine’ principles and modest application of these findings were used in clinical practice of physiotherapy. Physiotherapists declared that they need training in gender medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Comprehensive Clinical Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation)
Open AccessArticle
Institutional Diversity in Response to the COVID-19 Emergency
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 515; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040515 - 27 Nov 2020
Viewed by 224
Abstract
Four-quadrant modeling may offer some constructive insights into the institutional diversity of the emergency responses to COVID-19. This study utilized a typological method to investigate institutional arrangements and the emergency management of epidemic responses in China. The task environment for emergencies was divided [...] Read more.
Four-quadrant modeling may offer some constructive insights into the institutional diversity of the emergency responses to COVID-19. This study utilized a typological method to investigate institutional arrangements and the emergency management of epidemic responses in China. The task environment for emergencies was divided into four categories. Targeted policies were assigned to explicit task environments by placing them in one of the four quadrants: public health procedures, medical operation standards, supervisory and regulatory measures, and norms and instructions. Institutional diversity resulted when the very loci of decision-making carried a dominant or subordinate role, providing a hierarchical system for relating the institutional processes needed to address the challenges of institutional fragments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Pandemic: Challenges Facing the Health System)
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Open AccessReview
The Efficacy of School-Based Interventions in Preventing Adolescent Obesity in Australia
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 514; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040514 - 25 Nov 2020
Viewed by 397
Abstract
Current trends suggest that adolescent obesity is an on-going and recurrent decimal that is still on the rise in Australia and the social burden associated with it can significantly cause low self-esteem and lack of confidence in personal body image in adulthood. Nonetheless, [...] Read more.
Current trends suggest that adolescent obesity is an on-going and recurrent decimal that is still on the rise in Australia and the social burden associated with it can significantly cause low self-esteem and lack of confidence in personal body image in adulthood. Nonetheless, evidence-based prevention programs are not widely implemented in schools, even though they are commonplace for easy access to adolescents. The primary objective of this systematic review was to assess the scope and efficacy of adolescent obesity intervention strategies in Australian schools, to guide future research. Seven electronic databases were searched for peer-reviewed school-based intervention articles written in the English language and targeting 12–18-year-old adolescents. Intervention characteristics were extracted, and quality, efficacy and outcome measures were assessed utilizing thirteen studies that met the inclusion criteria for this review. Most of the Australian adolescent obesity research emanated from the State of New South Wales and none were nationwide. Five studies successfully met all the requirements in all measured outcomes, four met at least one measured outcome and the remaining four were unsuccessful. Despite the weak evidence of intervention efficacy for most of the reviewed studies, school-based interventions with multi-component combinations of physical activity, nutrition and alignment to a theory yielded promising results. Our findings point to the need for future research to assess the perceptions of school stakeholders in relation to the barriers and enablers to establishing school-based prevention and intervention programs for adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Reward and Obesity)
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Open AccessCase Report
A Novel Autologous Micrografts Technology in Combination with Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) for Quick Granulation Tissue Formation in Chronic/Refractory Ulcer
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 513; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040513 - 25 Nov 2020
Viewed by 148
Abstract
Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has been commonly used over the years for a wide range of chronic/refractory lesions. Alternatively, autologous micrografting technology is recently becoming a powerful modality for initiating wound healing. The case presented is of a patient with a lower [...] Read more.
Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has been commonly used over the years for a wide range of chronic/refractory lesions. Alternatively, autologous micrografting technology is recently becoming a powerful modality for initiating wound healing. The case presented is of a patient with a lower leg ulcer that had responded poorly to NPWT alone for three weeks. Consequently, the patient was put on a combination therapy of NPWT and micrografting. After injection of a dermal tissue micrografts suspension into the entire wound bed, NPWT was performed successively for two weeks, resulting in fresh granulation tissue formation. Thereafter, the autologous skin graft was taken well. This case study indicates that for a chronic/refractory ulcer patient with poor NPWT outcome, combination therapy using micrografting treatment and NPWT could rapidly initiate and enhance granulation tissue formation, creating a favorable bedding for subsequent skin grafting. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Eating Experiences of People with Disabilities: A Qualitative Study in Spain
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 512; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040512 - 24 Nov 2020
Viewed by 312
Abstract
Background: Disability causes changes in the eating process, which is central to the definition of each individual’s social and psychological spaces. Methods: This is a qualitative study based on grounded theory. Interviews were carried out in clinical hospital settings and headquarters of several [...] Read more.
Background: Disability causes changes in the eating process, which is central to the definition of each individual’s social and psychological spaces. Methods: This is a qualitative study based on grounded theory. Interviews were carried out in clinical hospital settings and headquarters of several disability organisations. The study included 27 individuals, aged between 18–75 years. All participants had a disability that caused a functional deficiency in the occupational aspects of the eating process. Results: The respondents’ narratives were analysed through observations made in different contexts, allowing us to describe and understand the significance attributed by the participants to their reality and experiences. Three key themes emerged from the analysis: (1) waning bodies (assumption of a diminished corporality); (2) redefinition of food-related social spaces; and (3) perceived burdensomeness, shame, and loneliness. Conclusions: Assisted feeding tends to prioritise the nutritional component of food ingestion. However, cultural, social, and contextual factors have a critical impact on an individual’s well-being and quality of life. This study stresses the importance of re-addressing intervention models affecting differently-abled people and incorporating approaches that take into account the contextual aspects of occupational therapy. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Maternal Coronavirus Infections and Neonates Born to Mothers with SARS-CoV-2: A Systematic Review
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 511; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040511 - 24 Nov 2020
Viewed by 323
Abstract
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is continuously affecting the lives of all people. Understanding the impact of COVID-19 on pregnancy in terms of morbidity, mortality, and perinatal maternal and fetal outcomes is essential to propose strategies for prevention and infection control. Here, [...] Read more.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is continuously affecting the lives of all people. Understanding the impact of COVID-19 on pregnancy in terms of morbidity, mortality, and perinatal maternal and fetal outcomes is essential to propose strategies for prevention and infection control. Here, we conducted a systematic review to investigate pregnant women infected with COVID-19 in terms of signs and symptoms, type of delivery, comorbidities, maternal and neonatal outcomes, and the possibility of vertical transmission. A search on Embase and PubMed databases was performed on 31 October 2020. Observational studies and case reports on pregnant women infected with COVID-19 were included without language restrictions. The 70 selected studies included a total of 1457 pregnant women diagnosed with COVID-19 in the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy. The most common signs and symptoms were fever, cough, and nausea. The most frequent comorbidities were obesity, hypertensive disorders, and gestational diabetes. Among maternal and fetal outcomes, premature birth (n = 64), maternal death (n = 15), intrauterine fetal death or neonatal death (n = 16), cases of intrauterine fetal distress (n = 28), miscarriage (n = 7), decreased fetal movements (n = 19), and severe neonatal asphyxia (n = 5) were the most frequent. Thirty-nine newborns tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA was detected in the placenta (n = 13) and breast milk (n = 6). This review indicates that COVID-19 during pregnancy can result in maternal, fetal, and neonatal complications. In addition, SARS-CoV-2 viral exposure of neonates during pregnancy and delivery cannot be ruled out. Thus, we highlight the need for long-term follow-up of newborns from mothers diagnosed with COVID-19 to establish the full implications of SARS-CoV-2 infection in these children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: Impact on Public Health and Healthcare)
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Open AccessErratum
Erratum: Petrofsky, J., et al. Greater Postural Sway and Tremor during Balance Tasks in Patients with Plantar Fasciitis Compared to Age-Matched Controls. Healthcare 2020, 8, 219
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 510; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040510 - 23 Nov 2020
Viewed by 310
Abstract
Some details of the author affiliations should be corrected in the article [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Pain Care and Management)
Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Teammates’ Online Reputations on Physicians’ Online Appointment Numbers: A Social Interdependency Perspective
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 509; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040509 - 23 Nov 2020
Viewed by 187
Abstract
Online medical team is an emerging online medical model in which patients can choose a doctor to register and consult. A doctor’s reputation cannot be ignored. It is worth studying how that online reputation affects the focal doctor’s appointment numbers on the online [...] Read more.
Online medical team is an emerging online medical model in which patients can choose a doctor to register and consult. A doctor’s reputation cannot be ignored. It is worth studying how that online reputation affects the focal doctor’s appointment numbers on the online medical team. Based on the online reputation mechanism and social interdependence theory, this study empirically studied the impact of the focal doctor’s own reputation and other teammates’ reputation on his/her appointment numbers. Our data include 31,143 doctors from 6103 online expert teams of Guahao.com. The results indicate that for a leader doctor, his/her appointment numbers are not related to his/her own reputation, and there was an inverted U-shaped relationship with the ordinary doctors’ reputations on the team. For an ordinary doctor, his/her appointment numbers were positively correlated with his/her own reputation and positively correlated with his/her leader’s reputation and there was an inverted U-shaped relationship with the other ordinary doctors’ reputations. The research showed that there is a positive spillover effect on the team leader’s reputation. There are two relationships between team doctors: competition and cooperation. This study provides guidance for the leader to select team members and the ordinary doctor to select a team. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Exploring the Relationship between Innovative Work Behavior, Job Anxiety, Workplace Ostracism, and Workplace Incivility: Empirical Evidence from Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs)
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 508; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040508 - 23 Nov 2020
Viewed by 210
Abstract
The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between workplace ostracism (WO), workplace incivility (WI), and innovative work behavior (IWB), using job anxiety as a mediating variable. Building on the conservation of resource (COR) theory, this study proposes a theoretical framework. [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between workplace ostracism (WO), workplace incivility (WI), and innovative work behavior (IWB), using job anxiety as a mediating variable. Building on the conservation of resource (COR) theory, this study proposes a theoretical framework. In this framework, workplace ostracism and workplace incivility are theorized to strengthen innovative work behavior, directly and indirectly, through job anxiety. Data were collected from the workers of small and medium sized enterprise (SME) entrepreneurs located in Pakistan. To estimate the proposed relationships in the conceptual model, we used structural equation modeling (SEM) through AMOS-21. The outcomes of this study confirmed that workplace ostracism and workplace incivility had a negative impact on innovative work behavior. It was also confirmed that job anxiety mediates in the relationship between workplace ostracism, workplace incivility, job anxiety, and innovative work behavior. At the end of the study, we thoroughly discussed the conclusions, practical implications, limitations, and future research directions of the study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout, Perceived Efficacy, Compassion Fatigue and Job Satisfaction)
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Open AccessArticle
Association between Health Indicators and Health-Related Quality of Life according to Physical Activity of Older Women
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 507; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040507 - 22 Nov 2020
Viewed by 336
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to compare sociodemographic factors, health factors and nutritional status according to the physical activity of older women, and to analyze the factors affecting their quality of life. The subjects of this study were 5661 older women aged [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to compare sociodemographic factors, health factors and nutritional status according to the physical activity of older women, and to analyze the factors affecting their quality of life. The subjects of this study were 5661 older women aged 60 or older who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey (KNHANES) from 2008 to 2013. The socioeconomic factors, subjective health status and disease status, lifestyle and dietary quality, and life quality were compared among two groups (active group and inactive group). The inactive group had significantly higher rates of obesity and unemployment, comorbidities, numbers without spouses, experiencing stress, poor subjective health status, depression or suicidal thoughts, and also higher rates of skipping meals. The life quality index and dietary quality was also significantly lower in the inactive group, and subjects experienced significantly higher pain or discomfort and problems in mobility and the usual activities. The results of multivariate analysis after adjusting for age in groups engaging in physical activities showed the life quality index to increase in accordance with the diet quality, economic income, and education level. It was confirmed that life quality was significantly low if the participant showed a poor subjective health evaluation, obese with many diseases, spouseless, and experienced high levels of stress. Considering the rapid aging and high life expectancy of women, regular physical activity is very important for maintaining health and improving the life quality of older women, and it is believed that comprehensive attention and management of lifestyle and diet quality are necessary. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Barriers to and Facilitators of School Health Care for Students with Chronic Disease as Perceived by Their Parents: A Mixed Systematic Review
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 506; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040506 - 21 Nov 2020
Viewed by 326
Abstract
Understanding parental perspectives through mixed systematic reviews is imperative for developing effective school health care for children and adolescents with chronic disease. A mixed systematic review was conducted to explore barriers to and facilitators of school health care for students with chronic disease [...] Read more.
Understanding parental perspectives through mixed systematic reviews is imperative for developing effective school health care for children and adolescents with chronic disease. A mixed systematic review was conducted to explore barriers to and facilitators of school health care for students with chronic disease as perceived by their parents. Four databases (2010–2020) were searched, following which critical appraisals were conducted to determine the validity of the selected studies using the Mixed Method Appraisal Tool, version 2018. Twenty articles were synthesized using the convergent integrated approach from the Joanna Briggs Institute’s mixed method systematic review methodology. We examined 20 articles regarding parents’ perceived barriers and facilitators and found views across four levels: intrapersonal, interpersonal, institutional, and public and policy. Parents perceived more barriers than facilitators. Barriers on the institutional level were the most frequently reported of all levels of barriers. These results suggest that multi-level school health interventions could be a valuable resource to facilitate effective school guidelines and public policies for students with chronic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nursing)
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