Physical Rehabilitation & Prevention in Sports Injuries

A special issue of Healthcare (ISSN 2227-9032). This special issue belongs to the section "Chronic Care".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2021) | Viewed by 57264

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
1. Department of Physical Therapy, College of Nursing, Healthcare Sciences and Human Ecology, Dong-Eui University, Busan, Korea
2. Integrated Physical Medicine Institute, Dong-Eui University, Busan, Korea
Interests: kinesiology taping; balance control; physiotherapy for sports injuries; musculoskeletal disorders; physiotherapy; muscle fatigue; cross taping; orthosis for misalignment
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As the performance of sportsmen and participation of broad population in the active lifestyle are increasing, the call for more effective training methods and improvement of the quality of physical care appears to be more appealing. Thus, proper understanding of physical movement along with its adequate intensity became a critical part of any elevated physical activity. In case of professional sportsmen, the responsibility for their physical condition applies to physiotherapists and trainers, who nowadays tend to be inspiration for the general public. Therefore, it is essential, the physiotherapists and trainers not only persistently update their knowledge and practices, but also renounce techniques that were proved to be inefficient or even harmful to human body. Consequences of these harmful methods are commonly visible particularly in case of young sportsmen, who due to improper training methods or immoderate intensity suffer with chronic pain or severe injuries later in age and are compelled to suspend or in more critical case quit their career earlier than expected.

In many cases, the pain can be alleviated or even completely eliminated through diverse methods of physical rehabilitation. However, physical rehabilitation should not be only focused on the elimination of pain and after-effects of injury, but also on detection of primary cause of the pain, so the prevention of injury’s origin later in time might be more effective. Although there are know many effective treatment methods at the present time, it is essential making constant progress in development of these techniques, so they can bring better and faster effects.

This Special Issue of Healthcare will collect wide range of research papers on the theme of physical rehabilitation, physiotherapy, and prevention in sports injuries for improving pre-injury policy and offering more effective post-injury treatment to help individuals to retrieve their physical health.

Prof. Junghoon Lee
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • physical rehabilitation
  • physiotherapy
  • sports rehabilitation
  • sport sciences
  • athletic training
  • prevention
  • methods of rehabilitation
  • sports injuries
  • movement quality
  • healthcare
  • development
  • physical health
  • balance control
  • muscle fatigue
  • physical exercise

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review, Other

4 pages, 212 KiB  
Editorial
The Guidelines for Application of Kinesiology Tape for Prevention and Treatment of Sports Injuries
by Adéla Andrýsková and Jung-Hoon Lee
Healthcare 2020, 8(2), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8020144 - 26 May 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5399
Abstract
The number of kinesiology tape’s users is increasing year by year. However, the insufficiency of fundamental knowledge about the appropriate usage of kinesiology tapes can generate undesired side-effects caused by incorrect application of kinesiology tapes and/or denouncement of kinesiology tapes as an ineffective [...] Read more.
The number of kinesiology tape’s users is increasing year by year. However, the insufficiency of fundamental knowledge about the appropriate usage of kinesiology tapes can generate undesired side-effects caused by incorrect application of kinesiology tapes and/or denouncement of kinesiology tapes as an ineffective practice. Therefore, it is necessary to arrange a set of general guidelines of kinesiology taping that must be followed. If not, the treatment may have to be ceased due to the side-effects such as skin’s troubles. Another problem, which impeaches effectivity of treatment by kinesiology tapes, is focusing solely on the present area of pain or discomfort. However, such solution is only short-termed and the likelihood of reappearance of the pain is remarkably high. Therefore, it is essential to find and eliminate the origin of the problem. If these fundamentals conditions of tape’s application are satisfied, the treatment by kinesiology tapes may bring us far more better results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Rehabilitation & Prevention in Sports Injuries)

Research

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13 pages, 2709 KiB  
Article
Effects of Two Foot-Ankle Interventions on Foot Structure, Function, and Balance Ability in Obese People with Pes Planus
by Du-Jin Park, Kyung-Sun Lee and Se-Yeon Park
Healthcare 2021, 9(6), 667; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9060667 - 03 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4234
Abstract
Obese people are prone to foot deformities such as flat feet. Foot management programs are important to prevent them. This study investigated the effects of two foot-ankle interventions on balance ability, foot arch, ankle strength, plantar fascia thickness, and foot functions in obese [...] Read more.
Obese people are prone to foot deformities such as flat feet. Foot management programs are important to prevent them. This study investigated the effects of two foot-ankle interventions on balance ability, foot arch, ankle strength, plantar fascia thickness, and foot functions in obese people with pes planus for four weeks. The experiment was designed as a randomized controlled trial. Twenty-four participants who met the inclusion criteria were selected, and they were randomly assigned to either a short foot group (SFG) or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation group (PNFG) according to foot-ankle intervention. Two interventions were commenced three times a week for 20 min over four weeks. The tests were conducted at two intervals: pre-intervention and at four weeks. The tests were conducted in the following order: the patient-specific functional scale test (PSFS), an ultrasound of the plantar fascia, the navicular drop test, balance test, and the four-way ankle strength test. Two groups showed significant differences in balance ability, foot arch, ankle strength, plantar fascia thickness, and foot functions between pre-test and post-test (p < 0.05). PNFG had significantly higher dorsiflexor and invertor strength than SFG (p < 0.05). SF and PNF interventions were effective to improve balance ability, foot arch, ankle strength, plantar fascia thickness, and foot functions in obese people with pes planus. Additionally, PNF intervention is more beneficial in increasing the dorsiflexor and invertor strength compared to SF intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Rehabilitation & Prevention in Sports Injuries)
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8 pages, 820 KiB  
Article
Effects of the Suboccipital Muscle Inhibition Technique on the Range of Motion of the Ankle Joint and Balance According to Its Application Duration: A Randomized Controlled Trial
by Han-Sol Kang, Hyung-Wook Kwon, Di-gud Kim, Kwang-Rak Park, Suk-Chan Hahm and Jeong-Hyun Park
Healthcare 2021, 9(6), 646; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9060646 - 29 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2998
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the effects of suboccipital muscle inhibition technique (SMIT) on active range of motion (AROM) of the ankle joint, lunge angle (LA), and balance in healthy adults, according to the duration of its application. A total of 80 participants [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of suboccipital muscle inhibition technique (SMIT) on active range of motion (AROM) of the ankle joint, lunge angle (LA), and balance in healthy adults, according to the duration of its application. A total of 80 participants were randomly allocated to the 4-min suboccipital muscle inhibition (SMI) group (SMI_4M, n = 20), 8-min SMI group (n = 20), 4-min sham-SMI (SSMI) group (n = 20), and 8-min SSMI group (n = 20). Accordingly, the SMIT and sham SMIT were applied for 4 min or 8 min in the respective groups. AROM of dorsiflexion and LA were assessed, and a single leg balance test (SLBT) was performed before and after the intervention. AROM (4 min, p < 0.001; 8 min, p < 0.001), LA (4 min, p < 0.001; 8 min, p < 0.001), and SLBT (4 min, p < 0.001; 8 min, p < 0.001) significantly improved after SMI application. Compared with the SSMI group, the SMI group showed a significant increase in AROM (p < 0.001), LA (p < 0.001), and SLBT (p < 0.001). Except for SLBT (p = 0.016), there were no significant interactions between intervention and application duration. The results suggest that the SMIT, at durations of both 4 and 8 min, could be effective tools for improving AROM, LA, and balance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Rehabilitation & Prevention in Sports Injuries)
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8 pages, 716 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Respiratory Muscle Function and Postural Stability in Male Soccer Players: A Case-Control Study
by Felipe León-Morillas, Carlos Lozano-Quijada, Miguel Ángel Lérida-Ortega, Martha Cecilia León-Garzón, Alfonso Javier Ibáñez-Vera and Silvana Loana de Oliveira-Sousa
Healthcare 2021, 9(6), 644; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9060644 - 29 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2061
Abstract
The important role of postural stability in exercise performance has been determined by several authors. Despite this, few studies have analyzed the relationship between respiratory muscles’ strength and postural stability in athletes. For this reason, the aim of this study was to investigate [...] Read more.
The important role of postural stability in exercise performance has been determined by several authors. Despite this, few studies have analyzed the relationship between respiratory muscles’ strength and postural stability in athletes. For this reason, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between postural stability and respiratory muscles’ function in male soccer players. A case-control study was conducted over twenty-eight healthy men (18 soccer players; 10 non-athletes). Inspiratory muscle strength (MIP) and respiratory resistance (MVV) were obtained through a digital spirometer. Stability variables were obtained in standing position on a stabilometric platform and in open and closed eyes conditions. The area and length of the center of pressures and displacements in the X and Y range were analyzed. Pearson’s coefficient was used to measure the linear correlation between MIP, MVV and stabilometric variables. In the soccer players’ group, MIP and MIP % predictive were inversely correlated with length (r = −0.535 and r = −0.585; p < 0.05) and X range (r = −0.527 and r = −0.560; p < 0.05), whereas MVV was directly correlated with length (r = 0.606; p < 0.01) and Y range (r = 0.558; p < 0.05). Our results show that the greater the inspiratory muscle strength, the less displacement of the pressure center, while at higher respiratory rates there is greater displacement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Rehabilitation & Prevention in Sports Injuries)
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11 pages, 2214 KiB  
Article
Effects of Shoes That Can Be Tightened Using Wire and Dial on the Dynamic Balance Following Ankle Muscle Fatigue: A Crossover Study
by Im-Rak Choi and Jung-Hoon Lee
Healthcare 2021, 9(5), 578; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9050578 - 13 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1722
Abstract
Ankle muscle fatigue causes joint instability and increased postural sway, which triggers imbalance, leading to injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of wearing shoes that can be tightened using wire and dial (SWD) compared to being barefoot [...] Read more.
Ankle muscle fatigue causes joint instability and increased postural sway, which triggers imbalance, leading to injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of wearing shoes that can be tightened using wire and dial (SWD) compared to being barefoot and wearing lace shoes of the slip-on type (LSS) on the dynamic balance of the ankle after muscle fatigue. Twenty-two healthy individuals were enrolled in this study. Muscle fatigue in the ankle was induced using Biodex, an isokinetic equipment. The participants were randomly allocated to the barefoot, LSS, and SWD groups, and the dynamic balance immediately after inducing muscle fatigue in each participant was measured using BIORescue, the Y-Balance test, and the side-hop test. The results showed that after inducing ankle muscle fatigue, wearing SWD leads to a more significant increase in dynamic balance than barefoot and wearing LSS (p < 0.05). Hence, to improve the dynamic balance of the ankle after muscle fatigue, wearing SWD is suggested as it allows the tightening of the ankle and dorsum of the foot using the wire and dial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Rehabilitation & Prevention in Sports Injuries)
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7 pages, 749 KiB  
Article
Can Foraminal Stenosis Due to Lumbar Isthmic Spondylolisthesis Cause Axonopathy in the Lower Extremity?
by Seong Hyeon Jo, Jang Hyuk Cho and Dong Gyu Lee
Healthcare 2021, 9(5), 511; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9050511 - 28 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1494
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate, using electrodiagnosis, whether foraminal stenosis due to isthmic spondylolisthesis (IS) causes peripheral nerve axonopathy. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of the Yeungnam University Hospital and included 46 patients (mean age = 60.8 ± 13.7 years; male:female = [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate, using electrodiagnosis, whether foraminal stenosis due to isthmic spondylolisthesis (IS) causes peripheral nerve axonopathy. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of the Yeungnam University Hospital and included 46 patients (mean age = 60.8 ± 13.7 years; male:female = 24:22) with foraminal stenosis due to IS. We classified foraminal stenosis grading based on T2 and T1 sagittal spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients were divided into mild (n = 18) and severe foraminal stenosis (n = 28) groups. To evaluate axonopathy in the lower extremity, results of compound motor action potential (CMAP) of the extensor digitorum brevis muscle (EDB) and abductor hallucis brevis muscle (AHB), and sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) of the sural nerve were retrieved. No statistically significant difference was observed in the amplitude of CMAP of the EDB and AHB and SNAP of the sural nerve with the severity of foraminal stenosis. However, age showed a statistically significant relationship with the amplitude of NCS in the EDB, AHB, and sural nerves (p < 0.001). The severity of foraminal stenosis due to IS showed no relationship with axonopathy beyond age-related degeneration of the lower extremities. Therefore, if there is robust axonopathy in lower extremities, physicians should consider pathologies other than foraminal stenosis due to IS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Rehabilitation & Prevention in Sports Injuries)
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9 pages, 1157 KiB  
Article
Biomechanical Analysis of Serious Neck Injuries Resulting from Judo
by Tomoyuki Nakanishi, Masahito Hitosugi, Haruo Murayama, Arisa Takeda, Yasuki Motozawa, Masahiro Ogino and Katsuhiro Koyama
Healthcare 2021, 9(2), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9020214 - 16 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2764
Abstract
To establish a basis for initial diagnosis and for proposing preventive measures for the serious neck injuries occasionally experienced by judo practitioners, the biomechanical mechanisms of these injuries were analyzed. Two male judo experts repeatedly threw an anthropomorphic test device (POLAR dummy) using [...] Read more.
To establish a basis for initial diagnosis and for proposing preventive measures for the serious neck injuries occasionally experienced by judo practitioners, the biomechanical mechanisms of these injuries were analyzed. Two male judo experts repeatedly threw an anthropomorphic test device (POLAR dummy) using three throwing techniques (Seoi-nage, Osoto-gari, and Ouchi-gari). The dummy’s kinematic data were captured using a high-speed digital camera, and the load and moment of the neck were measured with load cells. The neck injury criterion (Nij) and beam criterion were also calculated. In Seoi-nage, the anterior and parietal regions of the dummy’s head contacted the tatami (judo mat). Subsequently, most of the body weight was applied, with the neck experiencing the highest compression. However, in Osoto-gari and Ouchi-gari, the occipital region of the dummy’s head contacted the tatami. Significantly higher values of both Nij (median 0.68) and beam criterion (median 0.90) corresponding to a 34.7% to 37.1% risk of neck injury with an abbreviated injury scale score ≥2 were shown in Seoi-nage than in either Ouchi-gari or Osoto-gari. In judo, when thrown by the Seoi-nage technique, serious neck injuries can occur as a result of neck compression that occurs when the head contacts the ground. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Rehabilitation & Prevention in Sports Injuries)
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8 pages, 10438 KiB  
Article
The Real Time Geometric Effect of a Lordotic Curve-Controlled Spinal Traction Device: A Randomized Cross Over Study
by Chang-Hyung Lee, Sung Jin Heo and So Hyun Park
Healthcare 2021, 9(2), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9020125 - 27 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2858
Abstract
Background: A standard spinal traction (ST) device was designed to straighten the spine without considering physiological lumbar lordosis. Using lordotic curve-controlled traction (LCCT), which maintains the lordotic curve during traction, the traction force would be applied to the posterior spinal structure effectively. Thus, [...] Read more.
Background: A standard spinal traction (ST) device was designed to straighten the spine without considering physiological lumbar lordosis. Using lordotic curve-controlled traction (LCCT), which maintains the lordotic curve during traction, the traction force would be applied to the posterior spinal structure effectively. Thus, the purpose of our study was to evaluate real-time biomechanical changes while applying the LCCT and ST. Methods: In this study, 40 subjects with mild non-radicular low back pain (LBP) were included. The participants underwent LCCT and ST in random order. Anterior and posterior intervertebral distance, ratios of anterior/posterior intervertebral distance (A/P ratio), and lordotic angles of intervertebral bodies (L2~L5) were measured by radiography. Results: Mean intervertebral distances were greater during LCCT than those measured prior to applying traction (p < 0.05). Mean A/P ratio was also significantly greater during LCCT than during ST or initially (p < 0.05). In particular, for the L4/5 intervertebral segment, which is responsible for most of the lordotic curve, mean LCCT angle was similar to mean lordotic angle in the standing position (10.9°). Conclusions: Based on measurements of radiologic geometrical changes with real-time clinical setting, the newly developed LCCT appears to be a useful traction device for increasing intervertebral disc spaces by maintaining lordotic curves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Rehabilitation & Prevention in Sports Injuries)
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9 pages, 645 KiB  
Article
Examining the Relationship between Cellphone Use Behavior, Perceived Exercise Benefit and Physical Exercise Level among University Students in Taiwan
by Mei-Ling Lin, Wen-Yi Wang, Chun-Chin Liao, Yu-Jy Luo and Chun-Chieh Kao
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 556; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040556 - 11 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2613
Abstract
This study investigated how perceived exercise benefit affects the relationship between cellphone usage and physical activity level. This cross-sectional study performed a survey of Taiwanese university students selected using cluster sampling. A total of 975 students were recruited (male = 367, female = [...] Read more.
This study investigated how perceived exercise benefit affects the relationship between cellphone usage and physical activity level. This cross-sectional study performed a survey of Taiwanese university students selected using cluster sampling. A total of 975 students were recruited (male = 367, female = 608, average age = 20.10 ± 1.42). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and hierarchical regression. The results show that cellphone usage was negatively correlated with physical activity level, whereas perceived exercise benefit was negatively correlated with cellphone usage and positively correlated with physical activity level. In hierarchical regression, the main effects of cellphone usage and perceived exercise benefit explained 22% of the variance in physical activity level. After controlling for the main effect, the interaction term accounted for an additional 1% of the variance. Cellphone usage and perceived exercise benefit thus had significant power to explain physical activity level. The results of this study reveal a novel phenomenon—that students who perceived the benefits of exercise to be greater are more physically active. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Rehabilitation & Prevention in Sports Injuries)
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14 pages, 979 KiB  
Article
A Methodological Quality Assessment of Meta-Analysis Studies in Dance Therapy Using AMSTAR and AMSTAR 2
by Hye-Ryeon Kim, Chang-Hwan Choi and Eunhye Jo
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 446; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040446 - 01 Nov 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3030
Abstract
Although earlier meta-analysis studies have provided evidence-based information useful for decision-making, debate regarding their quality continues. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of meta-analysis studies in the field of dance therapy (DT) using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) and AMSTAR [...] Read more.
Although earlier meta-analysis studies have provided evidence-based information useful for decision-making, debate regarding their quality continues. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of meta-analysis studies in the field of dance therapy (DT) using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) and AMSTAR 2 assessment tools. Meta-analysis studies on DT were collected from various databases. Seven meta-analysis studies were selected for this study. Our findings showed that the quality level of the meta-analysis studies related to DT was “High” on the AMSTAR evaluation, but their quality decreased to “Low” on the AMSTAR 2 evaluation. Moreover, using AMSTAR 2, 71.43% of the studies fell within the category of “Moderate” or below. There was no statistically significant difference in the quality scores of the characteristics of these studies. Our results suggest that (1) education on meta-analysis guidelines is required to improve the quality of DT-related meta-analysis studies, and (2) methodological caution is warranted, since different outcomes in evaluation scores for each tool may be obtained when using AMSTAR and AMSTAR 2. Based on this study, it is expected that common and specific guidelines for meta-analysis in DT can be established. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Rehabilitation & Prevention in Sports Injuries)
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14 pages, 1872 KiB  
Article
Electroacupuncture and Manual Acupuncture Increase Joint Flexibility but Reduce Muscle Strength
by Daeho Kim, Sein Jang and Jihong Park
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 414; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040414 - 20 Oct 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3760
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of electroacupuncture and manual acupuncture on hip flexion range of motion (ROM), knee joint (flexion replication at 15° and 45°) and quadriceps (strength and activation) function. Forty-five neurologically healthy adults participated in [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of electroacupuncture and manual acupuncture on hip flexion range of motion (ROM), knee joint (flexion replication at 15° and 45°) and quadriceps (strength and activation) function. Forty-five neurologically healthy adults participated in this randomized controlled laboratory study. Straight leg raise test, modified Thomas test, and hip abductors strength test were performed to determine acupoints. Afterwards, one of three 15-min treatments (control—no treatment, electroacupuncture, or manual acupuncture) was randomly applied using determined acupoints. Measurements (hip flexion ROM, and knee joint and quadriceps function) were recorded at baseline, and at 0, 20, and 40 min post treatment. Both electroacupuncture (4.0°, ES = 0.41) and manual acupuncture (5.4°, ES = 0.95) treatment immediately increased hip flexion ROM, and the increased values persisted for 40-min (p = 0.01). Knee flexion replication (at 15°: p = 0.17; 45°: p = 0.19) and quadriceps activation (p = 0.71) did not change at any of the time points. Post-treatment, both electroacupuncture and manual acupuncture decreased quadriceps strength at 0-min (electroacupuncture: 9.2%, p < 0.0001, ES = 0.60) and 40-min (electroacupuncture: 7.3%, p = 0.005, ES = 0.55; manual acupuncture: 8.7%, p = 0.01, ES = 0.54). A single session of either electroacupuncture or manual acupuncture treatment (selected acupoints based on physical examination) may immediately improve joint flexibility but reduce muscle strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Rehabilitation & Prevention in Sports Injuries)
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9 pages, 228 KiB  
Article
Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Romanian Marx Activity Rating Scale for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
by Oana Suciu, Radu Prejbeanu, Horia Haragus, Cosmin Faur, Roxana Ramona Onofrei and Adrian Todor
Healthcare 2020, 8(3), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8030318 - 04 Sep 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2162
Abstract
Aim: We aimed to translate, cross-cultural adapt and validate the Marx activity rating scale (MARS) of the knee for Romanian patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Method: The original English form was translated according to guidelines. We included patients with ACL injury [...] Read more.
Aim: We aimed to translate, cross-cultural adapt and validate the Marx activity rating scale (MARS) of the knee for Romanian patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Method: The original English form was translated according to guidelines. We included patients with ACL injury undergoing reconstruction in two centers over 3 years. Subjects completed the translated MARS, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective knee form and EuroQol EQ5D. The examining physician completed the Tegner Lysholm scale as an objective evaluation. Re-testing was obtained after one month. We used Spearman`s correlation to evaluate construct validity and reproducibility, Cronbach’s alpha for internal consistency and intraclass correlation for test-retest reliability. Results: We collected valid forms from 99 patients (32.1 ± 8.8 years, 64.6% males) during the preoperative evaluation and 45 were re-tested. Significant, very good correlations were found between the MARS and Tegner Lysholm (Spearman’s r = 0.712, p < 0.0001) and IKDC (Spearman’s r = 0.801, p < 0.0001). Cronbach’s alpha was 0.893 at the initial completion and 0.799 at re-test. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.895. Conclusions: The Romanian-translated MARS is a valid, consistent and reliable physical activity outcome measure in patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Rehabilitation & Prevention in Sports Injuries)
9 pages, 3299 KiB  
Article
Immediate Effect of Balance Taping Using Kinesiology Tape on Dynamic and Static Balance after Ankle Muscle Fatigue
by Hyun-Su Choi and Jung-Hoon Lee
Healthcare 2020, 8(2), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8020162 - 09 Jun 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 5623
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate whether ankle balance taping (ABT) applied after muscle fatigue-inducing exercise can cause immediate improvements in dynamic and static balance. A total of 31 adults (16 males and 15 females) met the inclusion criteria. The experiment [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate whether ankle balance taping (ABT) applied after muscle fatigue-inducing exercise can cause immediate improvements in dynamic and static balance. A total of 31 adults (16 males and 15 females) met the inclusion criteria. The experiment was designed using a single-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Changes in static and dynamic balance were measured before and after inducing muscle fatigue in the ankles and after ABT or ankle placebo taping (APT). After ankle muscle fatigue-inducing exercise, both the ABT and APT groups showed significant increases in surface area ellipses in the static state with eyes open (p < 0.05), and significant increases in surface area ellipses in the static and dynamic states with eyes closed (both p < 0.05). After taping of the fatigued ankle, surface area ellipses decreased significantly when eyes were open and closed in the static and dynamic states, but only in the ABT group (p < 0.05). Static balance was significantly different between groups (eyes open, 36.2 ± 86; eyes closed, 22.9 ± 46.7). Dynamic balance was significantly different between groups (eyes open, 68.6 ± 152.1; eyes closed, 235.8 ± 317.6). ABT may help prevent ankle injuries in individuals who experience muscle fatigue around the ankles after sports and daily activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Rehabilitation & Prevention in Sports Injuries)
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Review

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25 pages, 330 KiB  
Review
Exercise-Induced Myokines can Explain the Importance of Physical Activity in the Elderly: An Overview
by Jenny Hyosun Kwon, Kyoung Min Moon and Kyueng-Whan Min
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 378; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040378 - 01 Oct 2020
Cited by 50 | Viewed by 9104
Abstract
Physical activity has been found to aid the maintenance of health in the elderly. Exercise-induced skeletal muscle contractions lead to the production and secretion of many small proteins and proteoglycan peptides called myokines. Thus, studies on myokines are necessary for ensuring the maintenance [...] Read more.
Physical activity has been found to aid the maintenance of health in the elderly. Exercise-induced skeletal muscle contractions lead to the production and secretion of many small proteins and proteoglycan peptides called myokines. Thus, studies on myokines are necessary for ensuring the maintenance of skeletal muscle health in the elderly. This review summarizes 13 myokines regulated by physical activity that are affected by aging and aims to understand their potential roles in metabolic diseases. We categorized myokines into two groups based on regulation by aerobic and anaerobic exercise. With aging, the secretion of apelin, β-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA), bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7), decorin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), interleukin-15 (IL-15), irisin, stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), sestrin, secreted protein acidic rich in cysteine (SPARC), and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) decreased, while that of IL-6 and myostatin increased. Aerobic exercise upregulates apelin, BAIBA, IL-15, IL-6, irisin, SDF-1, sestrin, SPARC, and VEGF-A expression, while anaerobic exercise upregulates BMP-7, decorin, IGF-1, IL-15, IL-6, irisin, and VEGF-A expression. Myostatin is downregulated by both aerobic and anaerobic exercise. This review provides a rationale for developing exercise programs or interventions that maintain a balance between aerobic and anaerobic exercise in the elderly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Rehabilitation & Prevention in Sports Injuries)

Other

11 pages, 1684 KiB  
Case Report
Isokinetic Strength and Functional Scores after Rehabilitation in Jiu-Jitsu Fighter with Repair Surgery of Pectoralis Major Muscle Rupture: A Case Report
by Guangyi Hu, Quan Jiang, Ji-Young Lee, Yong-Hwan Kim and Duk-Han Ko
Healthcare 2021, 9(5), 527; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9050527 - 30 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2666
Abstract
A pectoralis major muscle rupture is a rare injury that mainly occurs during exercise. This study examined the application of rehabilitation, strength and passive range of motion (ROM) change, and subjective assessment for 1 year undertaken after repair surgery of pectoralis major muscle [...] Read more.
A pectoralis major muscle rupture is a rare injury that mainly occurs during exercise. This study examined the application of rehabilitation, strength and passive range of motion (ROM) change, and subjective assessment for 1 year undertaken after repair surgery of pectoralis major muscle rupture in a Jiu-Jitsu fighter. We hypothesized that the application of ROM exercises and rehabilitation strategies contributed to muscle recovery and successful return to sports. The patient was a 34-year-old man who was injured after falling during a competitive event. The patient had pain and swelling in the front of the chest and shoulder, and the distal chest was deformed. Imaging revealed a complete rupture of the pectoralis major muscle. Reparative surgery was performed by a specialist. Immobilization was performed one week after the surgery. Passive ROM exercises began with the forward flexion 2 weeks after the surgery; abduction and external rotation ROM exercises at 4 weeks; low-intensity muscle strength exercises using tube bands at 6 weeks; machine-based pectoralis major muscle exercises at 3 months. Isokinetic equipment was used to measure horizontal adduction and internal rotation strengths, and the subjective shoulder functional and ROM scores were evaluated. Recovery of shoulder function and ROM occurred at 3 months and muscle recovery at 6 months. The participant was able to return to sports at 5 months and compete at 7 months. Although this study explored only one patient’s post-operative recovery, it suggests that ROM and strength exercises may be effective post-operative strategies for restoring function and strength to enable a return to sports. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Rehabilitation & Prevention in Sports Injuries)
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8 pages, 945 KiB  
Case Report
Short-Term Effect of Ankle Eversion Taping on Bilateral Acute Ankle Inversion Sprains in an Amateur College Football Goalkeeper: A Case Report
by Jung-Hoon Lee
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 403; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040403 - 15 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3441
Abstract
This case study aimed to investigate the short-term effects of ankle eversion taping (AET) using kinesiology tape on bilateral acute ankle inversion sprains in an amateur college soccer goalkeeper. Ankle eversion taping was applied for two weeks (average 16 h/day) on a 24-year-old [...] Read more.
This case study aimed to investigate the short-term effects of ankle eversion taping (AET) using kinesiology tape on bilateral acute ankle inversion sprains in an amateur college soccer goalkeeper. Ankle eversion taping was applied for two weeks (average 16 h/day) on a 24-year-old goalkeeper with bilateral grade 2 acute ankle inversion sprain with swelling (left ankle more severe) during a soccer match. The subject had a foot ankle outcome score (FAOS) of 41%; visual analog scale (VAS) scores of 5/10 and 7/10 for the right and left ankles, respectively; patient-specific functional and pain scale (PSFS) score of 12/50; and limited range of motion of the ankle. The swelling disappeared after AET in both ankles. In the weight-bearing lunge test, the right and left ankle distances increased from 2 cm to 12 cm, and from 0 cm to 12 cm, respectively. The FAOS improved from 20% to 97%, while the PSFS score improved from 12/50 to 50/50. The VAS scores decreased to 0/10 for both ankles. AET is a potential clinical treatment method for acute ankle inversion sprain with swelling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Rehabilitation & Prevention in Sports Injuries)
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