Special Issue "Nutrition for Sport and Exercise"

A special issue of Healthcare (ISSN 2227-9032). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Public Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2022 | Viewed by 12100

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Kijin Kim
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physical Education, College of Physical Education, Keimyung University, 1095 Dalgubeuldaero, Dalseo-gu, Daegu 42601, Korea
Interests: My primary topic of research involves examining the effect of exercise training and dietary modifications on metabolic syndrome associated with obesity, type II diabetes, and atherosclerosis. I am also interested in assessing the responses of cytokines and immune factors to exercise training in obese, metabolic syndrome patients and elderly subjects.
Dr. Nayoung Ahn
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Sport & Leisure Studies, College of Physical Education, Keimyung University, Daegu 42601, Korea
Interests: exercise training effects in aging; obesity and immune function; exercise rehabilitation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, the nutritional approach has been regarded as a very important field in the process of the sports science approach to health promotion and athletes' performance improvement. The combination of exercise training and nutritional intervention is considered to be a very effective method for creating a synergistic effect that can improve the health of the general public and improve the performance of athletes. However, the detailed effect analysis of these treatment methods is still considered insufficient. In particular, the biological basis for the effectiveness of the treatment could greatly help develop these programs. Therefore, we would like to give you the opportunity to publish various research results related to the physiological, biochemical, and molecular biological mechanisms of the nutritional approach to health promotion and performance improvement. In particular, we would like to invite excellent research results related to the sports nutrition approach to preventing the aging process and various diseases. We hope to receive many great studies related to nutrition for sport and exercise.

Dr. Kijin Kim
Dr. Nayoung Ahn
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • exercise
  • sport
  • nutrition
  • performance
  • aging
  • immune function
  • obesity
  • metabolic syndrome

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Article
Dynamic Resistance Exercise Alters Blood ApoA-I Levels, Inflammatory Markers, and Metabolic Syndrome Markers in Elderly Women
Healthcare 2022, 10(10), 1982; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10101982 - 09 Oct 2022
Viewed by 565
Abstract
Combined endurance and dynamic-resistance exercise has important anti-inflammatory effects, altering vascular endothelial function, and helping to prevent and treat aging-related metabolic syndrome (MS). We studied changes in 40 elderly women aged ≥ 65 years (control group (no MS), n = 20, mean age: [...] Read more.
Combined endurance and dynamic-resistance exercise has important anti-inflammatory effects, altering vascular endothelial function, and helping to prevent and treat aging-related metabolic syndrome (MS). We studied changes in 40 elderly women aged ≥ 65 years (control group (no MS), n = 20, mean age: 68.23 ± 2.56 years; MS group, n = 19, mean age: 71.42 ± 5.87 years; one left). The exercise program comprised dynamic-resistance training using elastic bands, three times weekly, for six months. We analyzed body composition, blood pressure, physical fitness, and MS-related blood variables including ApoA-I, antioxidant factors, and inflammatory markers. After the program, the MS group showed significant reductions in waist-hip ratio, waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, blood insulin, and HOMA-IR, and a significant increase in HSP70 (p < 0.05). Both groups showed significant increases in ApoA-I levels, ApoA-I/HDL-C ratio, SOD2, IL-4, and IL-5 levels (p < 0.05). Active-resistance training-induced changes in ApoA-I were significantly positively correlated with changes in HDL-C and HSP70, and significantly negatively correlated with changes in triglycerides, C-reactive protein, and TNF-α (p < 0.05). Active-resistance training qualitatively altered HDL, mostly by altering ApoA-I levels, relieving vascular inflammation, and improving antioxidant function. This provides evidence that dynamic-resistance exercise can improve physical fitness and MS risk factors in elderly women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Sport and Exercise)
Article
Carbohydrate Restriction with or without Exercise Training Improves Blood Pressure and Insulin Sensitivity in Overweight Women
Healthcare 2021, 9(6), 637; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9060637 - 27 May 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2113
Abstract
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 4-week low-carbohydrate diet (LC) with or without exercise training on cardiometabolic health-related profiles in overweight/obese women. Methods: Fifty overweight/obese Chinese women (age: 22.2 ± 3.3 years, body mass index (BMI): [...] Read more.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 4-week low-carbohydrate diet (LC) with or without exercise training on cardiometabolic health-related profiles in overweight/obese women. Methods: Fifty overweight/obese Chinese women (age: 22.2 ± 3.3 years, body mass index (BMI): 25.1 ± 3.1 kg·m−2) were randomized to either a LC control group (LC-CON, n = 16), a LC and high-intensity interval training group (LC-HIIT, n = 17), or a LC and moderate-intensity continuous training group (LC-MICT, n = 17). All groups consumed LC for 4 weeks, while the LC-HIIT and LC-MICT groups followed an additional five sessions of HIIT (10 × 6 s cycling sprints and 9 s rest intervals, 2.5 min in total) or MICT (cycling continuously at 50–60% of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) for 30 min) weekly. Blood pressure, fasting glucose, insulin sensitivity, and several metabolic or appetite regulating hormones were measured before and after intervention. Results: Significant reductions in body weight (− ~2.5 kg, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.772) and BMI (− ~1 unit, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.782) were found in all groups. Systolic blood pressure was reduced by 5–6 mmHg (p < 0.001, η2 = 0.370); fasting insulin, leptin, and ghrelin levels were also significantly decreased (p < 0.05), while insulin sensitivity was improved. However, there were no significant changes in fasting glucose, glucagon, and gastric inhibitory peptide levels. Furthermore, no group differences were found among the three groups, suggesting that extra training (i.e., LC-HIIT and LC-MICT) failed to trigger additional effects on these cardiometabolic profiles. Conclusions: The short-term carbohydrate restriction diet caused significant weight loss and improved blood pressure and insulin sensitivity in the overweight/obese women, although the combination with exercise training had no additional benefits on the examined cardiometabolic profiles. Moreover, the long-term safety and effectiveness of LC needs further study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Sport and Exercise)
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Article
Effect of Acute Ramadan Fasting on Muscle Function and Buffering System of Male Athletes
Healthcare 2021, 9(4), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9040397 - 01 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1669
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acute Ramadan fasting (RF) on the muscle function and buffering system. Twelve male athletes with 8 years of professional sports experience (age, 23.2 ± 1.3 years, body mass index: 24.2 ± 2.2 [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acute Ramadan fasting (RF) on the muscle function and buffering system. Twelve male athletes with 8 years of professional sports experience (age, 23.2 ± 1.3 years, body mass index: 24.2 ± 2.2 kg/m2) participated in this study. The subjects were tested twice, 3 weeks after the beginning of RF and 2 weeks after the end RF. Muscle function, buffering capacity, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during and after RF by using the Biodex isokinetic machine, blood gas analyzer, and RPE 6–20 Borg scale, respectively. Venous blood samples for pH and bicarbonate (HCO3) were measured during and after RF by using the Biodex isokinetic machine, blood gas analyzer, and RPE 6–20 Borg scale, respectively. Venous blood samples for pH and bicarbonate (HCO3) were taken immediately after 25 repetitions of isokinetic knee flexion and extension. Measures taken during isokinetic knee extension during RF were significantly lower than those after RF in extension peak torque (t = −4.72, p = 0.002), flexion peak torque (t = −3.80, p = 0.007), extension total work (t = −3.05, p = 0.019), extension average power (t = −4.20, p = 0.004), flexion average power (t = −3.37, p = 0.012), blood HCO3 (t = −2.02, p = 0.041), and RPE (Z = −1.69, p = 0.048). No influence of RF was found on the blood pH (t = 0.752, p = 0.476). RF has adverse effects on muscle function and buffering capacity in athletes. It seems that a low-carbohydrate substrate during RF impairs muscle performance and reduces the buffering capacity of the blood, leading to fatigue in athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Sport and Exercise)
Article
Effect of Treadmill Exercise and Probiotic Ingestion on Motor Coordination and Brain Activity in Adolescent Mice
Healthcare 2021, 9(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9010007 - 23 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1660
Abstract
High-intensity exercise can lead to chronic fatigue, which reduces athletic performance. On the contrary, probiotic supplements have many health benefits, including improvement of gastrointestinal health and immunoregulation. However, the effects of probiotics combined with exercise interventions on motor functions and brain activity have [...] Read more.
High-intensity exercise can lead to chronic fatigue, which reduces athletic performance. On the contrary, probiotic supplements have many health benefits, including improvement of gastrointestinal health and immunoregulation. However, the effects of probiotics combined with exercise interventions on motor functions and brain activity have not been fully explored. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the effects of probiotic supplements and aerobic exercise on motor function, immune response, and exercise intensity and probiotic ingestion. After four weeks of intervention, the motor functions were assessed by rotarod test, then the levels of cytokines, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and glutamate were detected. The improvement caused by the intake of probiotics in the moderate-intensity exercise group and the non-exercise group in the accelerating mode rotarod was significant (p = 0.038, p < 0.001, respectively). In constant-speed mode, the moderate-intensity exercise group with probiotic ingestion recorded longer runs than the corresponding non-exercise group (p = 0.023), and the improvement owing to probiotics was significant in all groups—non-exercise, moderate, and high-intensity (p = 0.036, p = 0.036, p = 0.012, respectively). The concentrations of inflammatory cytokines were lower, whereas GABA was higher in the probiotics-ingested group. Taken together, exercise and probiotics in adolescence could positively affect brain and motor function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Sport and Exercise)
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Article
The Relationship between Body Mass Index and Physical Fitness among Chinese University Students: Results of a Longitudinal Study
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 570; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040570 - 17 Dec 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2046
Abstract
Over the past few decades, a gradual increase in sedentary lifestyles along with the increased consumption of a modern, hypercaloric diet has resulted in a substantial increase in the number of those classified as overweight or obese in China. The prevalence of overweight [...] Read more.
Over the past few decades, a gradual increase in sedentary lifestyles along with the increased consumption of a modern, hypercaloric diet has resulted in a substantial increase in the number of those classified as overweight or obese in China. The prevalence of overweight and obesity has become a key public health issue. However, it is important to be cautious when interpreting the literature as the majority of studies apply cross-sectional data to assess and subjectively compare the relationship between physical fitness and being overweight and obese. In the present study, longitudinal data were collected from 3066 students (enrolled in 2014) at a university in China at the beginning of each academic year throughout their four-year university program. The aim of this study was to analyze the various associations between BMI, explosive power, flexibility, and cardiorespiratory endurance, and a random-intercept panel model (RIPM) was separately employed on male and female participants to identify between- and within-person variations. In this way, the associations for between-person physical fitness and normal/overweight/obese weight ranges, and for within-person physical fitness and normal/overweight/obese weight ranges could be observed. The results of this study revealed that every physical fitness test chosen for evaluation (such as the standing long jump for explosive power or the distance run for cardiorespiratory endurance) was negatively related to the BMI results, irrespective of sex, with the notable exception of the flexibility results. In addition, this study showed that both males and females exhibited positively correlated results in both between-person BMI and flexibility as well as within-person BMI and flexibility. Furthermore, the relationships between and within persons of cardiorespiratory endurance, explosive power, and flexibility all showed positive correlations across both sexes. The dynamics between physical fitness and BMI identified in this study could prove useful to practitioners and researchers investigating such relationships in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Sport and Exercise)
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Review

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Review
Personalized Healthcare for Dementia
Healthcare 2021, 9(2), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9020128 - 28 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1762
Abstract
Dementia is one of the most common health problems affecting older adults, and the population with dementia is growing. Dementia refers to a comprehensive syndrome rather than a specific disease and is characterized by the loss of cognitive abilities. Many factors are related [...] Read more.
Dementia is one of the most common health problems affecting older adults, and the population with dementia is growing. Dementia refers to a comprehensive syndrome rather than a specific disease and is characterized by the loss of cognitive abilities. Many factors are related to dementia, such as aging, genetic profile, systemic vascular disease, unhealthy diet, and physical inactivity. As the causes and types of dementia are diverse, personalized healthcare is required. In this review, we first summarize various diagnostic approaches associated with dementia. Particularly, clinical diagnosis methods, biomarkers, neuroimaging, and digital biomarkers based on advances in data science and wearable devices are comprehensively reviewed. We then discuss three effective approaches to treating dementia, including engineering design, exercise, and diet. In the engineering design section, recent advances in monitoring and drug delivery systems for dementia are introduced. Additionally, we describe the effects of exercise on the treatment of dementia, especially focusing on the effects of aerobic and resistance training on cognitive function, and the effects of diets such as the Mediterranean diet and ketogenic diet on dementia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Sport and Exercise)
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Other

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Systematic Review
Effects of Exercise in Improving Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Overweight Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Healthcare 2022, 10(1), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10010082 - 01 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1150
Abstract
This meta-analysis aims to evaluate the effects of exercise in improving cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight children and adolescents until the adolescent age, which is 18 years. A systemic search was conducted using the electronic databases PubMed/Medline, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar, from [...] Read more.
This meta-analysis aims to evaluate the effects of exercise in improving cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight children and adolescents until the adolescent age, which is 18 years. A systemic search was conducted using the electronic databases PubMed/Medline, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar, from inception to 29 June 2021. All statistical analyses were conducted in Review Manager 5.4.1. All studies meeting the inclusion criteria were selected. A random-effect model was used to pool the studies, and the results are reported in the odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% Confidence interval (CI). Twelve randomized control trials were selected for meta-analysis. Significant results were obtained for BMI in children after the interventions (0.38 95% CI 0.14, 0.62; p = 0.002; I2 = 65%). LDL level was also found significantly reduced (0.41 95% CI 0.01, 0.82; p = 0.05; I2 = 83%). Other factors such as HDL level, blood pressure, blood glucose level, body weight, and waist circumference were also analyzed. We found that exercise interventions significantly improved several cardiometabolic risk factors such as BMI, LDL level, BP, and blood glucose level. However, no significant effect on HDL concentration, waist circumference, and body weight were found. Long-term interventions are needed to attain improvement in all cardiometabolic risk factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Sport and Exercise)
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