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Review

Nutritional Intake and Meal Composition of Patients Consuming Texture Modified Diets and Thickened Fluids: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

1
Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, Discipline of Nutrition, The University of Auckland, Auckland 1010, New Zealand
2
Faculty of Science, School of Psychology, Speech Science, The University of Auckland, Auckland 1010, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 579; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040579
Received: 13 November 2020 / Revised: 10 December 2020 / Accepted: 17 December 2020 / Published: 21 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Disorders in Older Adults)
Texture-modified diets (TMDs) play an important role in ensuring safety for those with dysphagia but come with risks to nutrition and quality of life. The use of TMDs has been addressed with the increasing prevalence of dysphagia in previous decades. However, there is limited literature that investigates the nutrition perspectives of TMD consumers. This review summarises the nutrition outcomes of adults consuming TMDs and thickened fluids (TFs) and identifies the limitations of TMD and TF productions. A systematic database search following PICO criteria was conducted using Cochrane Central (via Ovid), MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Scopus databases. Nutrition intake, meal consumption, adequacy, and meal composition were identified as relevant outcomes. 35 studies were included for analysis. Consumption of TMDs demonstrated a poorer intake compared to regular diets, in particular significant in energy and calcium. Meta-analysis of mean differences showed favourable effects of shaped TMDs on both energy (−273.8 kJ/d; 95%CI: −419.1 to −128.6, p = 0.0002) and protein (−12.4 g/d; 95%CI: −17.9 to −6.8, p < 0.0001) intake compared to traditional cook-fresh TMDs. Nutrition intake was compromised in TMD consumers. Optimisation of nutrition intake was achievable through enrichment and adjusting meal texture and consistency. However, the heterogeneity of studies and the missing verification of the consistencies lead to difficulty in drawing conclusions regarding particular texture or intervention. View Full-Text
Keywords: older adults; texture-modified diet; dysphagia; deglutition; deglutition disorders; nutrition; foodservice older adults; texture-modified diet; dysphagia; deglutition; deglutition disorders; nutrition; foodservice
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wu, X.S.; Miles, A.; Braakhuis, A. Nutritional Intake and Meal Composition of Patients Consuming Texture Modified Diets and Thickened Fluids: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Healthcare 2020, 8, 579. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040579

AMA Style

Wu XS, Miles A, Braakhuis A. Nutritional Intake and Meal Composition of Patients Consuming Texture Modified Diets and Thickened Fluids: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Healthcare. 2020; 8(4):579. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040579

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wu, Xiaojing S., Anna Miles, and Andrea Braakhuis. 2020. "Nutritional Intake and Meal Composition of Patients Consuming Texture Modified Diets and Thickened Fluids: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" Healthcare 8, no. 4: 579. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040579

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