Special Issue "Food Reward and Obesity"

A special issue of Healthcare (ISSN 2227-9032). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Public Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Susumu Koyama
Website
Guest Editor
Professor, Department of Advanced Pharmacology, Daiichi University of Pharmacy, 22-1 Tamagawa-cho, Minami-ku, Fukuoka 815-8511, Japan
Interests: neuroscience; electrophysiology; reward; nutrition; cognitive-behavioral therapy; obesity; type2 diabetes mellitus

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue of Healthcare will focus on the relationship between food reward and obesity, since understanding the hedonic aspect of feeding—which is not necessarily associated with the maintenance of the balance between energy intake and consumption—can provide useful strategies to prevent obesity and subsequent metabolic syndrome, impaired glucose tolerance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. This research topic is focused on, but not limited to, (1) crosstalk between adipose tissue and the brain, (2) the contribution of nutritional components to feeding behavior, (3) diet and weight loss in obesity, and (4) cognitive-behavioral therapy for obese patients. We will feature original research from animal models as well as clinical studies, reviews, short reports, or opinion pieces from researchers interested in these research topics.

Keywords

  • Reward
  • Obesity
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Adipokine
  • Brain
  • Dopamine
  • Nutrition
  • Feeding Behavior
  • Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
An Exercise Training and Healthy Eating Group Program (ATHENA) for Overweight and Obese Women with Urinary Incontinence: An Intervention Description
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 575; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040575 - 18 Dec 2020
Viewed by 319
Abstract
Background: Despite strong evidence for supervised pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) for women with urinary incontinence (UI), and weight loss and exercise for overweight and obese women with UI, implementation literature on these combined interventions is limited. This paper aimed to describe the [...] Read more.
Background: Despite strong evidence for supervised pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) for women with urinary incontinence (UI), and weight loss and exercise for overweight and obese women with UI, implementation literature on these combined interventions is limited. This paper aimed to describe the rigorous and systematic processes involved in the collaborative development, implementation, refinement and evaluation of a novel, holistic 12 week exercise training and healthy eating group program (ATHENA) for overweight and obese women with UI. Methods/Design: This intervention description paper is part of a larger mixed-methods feasibility study of implementing the ATHENA intervention within a physiotherapy service at a public hospital in Australia. The collaborative intervention design had input from clinicians, researchers and a consumer representative. Results: The intervention involved four evidence-based components—(1) supervised PFMT; (2) general exercise training; (3) pelvic health education; and (4) healthy eating education—delivered face to face over a 12 week period. Supporting resources developed included a Facilitator’s Guide and Participant Workbook. Conclusion: ATHENA is an evidence-based, multifaceted, group-based intervention targeting exercise training and healthy eating for management of UI for overweight and obese women. The structured development process and transparency of intervention content and resources aims to enhance practical application and success in future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Reward and Obesity)
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Open AccessArticle
Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Health Sciences Students in the Amazonia Region of Peru
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 538; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040538 - 04 Dec 2020
Viewed by 496
Abstract
A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate 199 health sciences students in the city of Iquitos. Their socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle, level of physical activity, type of food, substance abuse, and prevalence of overweight and obesity were ascertained using purpose-validated questionnaires, i.e., the Systematic [...] Read more.
A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate 199 health sciences students in the city of Iquitos. Their socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle, level of physical activity, type of food, substance abuse, and prevalence of overweight and obesity were ascertained using purpose-validated questionnaires, i.e., the Systematic Alcohol Consumption Interview (Interrogatorio Sistematizado de Consumos Alcohólicos/ISCA), a questionnaire on the frequency of dietary intake (CFCA), the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and anthropometric measurements. The prevalence of overweight (body mass index (BMI) of 25.0–29.9 kg/m2) was 26.5% (95% CI = 19.9–33.0%) and that of obesity (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m2) was 7.9% (95% CI = 3.8–12.1%). A total of 34.4% of students (95% CI = 27.4–41.4%) presented with a BMI > 25 kg/m2. The frequency of overweight was significantly higher in persons aged over 20 years (OR = 2.5) and smokers (OR = 3.2), and the frequency of obesity was significantly higher in older students (OR = 4.1) and males (OR = 5.5). In conclusion, a considerable proportion of health sciences students in the Amazonia region presented with a high BMI. The proportion of students with overweight was higher among students aged over 20 years and smokers, while that of obesity was also higher among males. In the university setting, the development of more overweight- and obesity-preventive activities and educational interventions would therefore be desirable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Reward and Obesity)
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Open AccessArticle
Obesity and Morbidity Risk in the U.S. Veteran
Healthcare 2020, 8(3), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8030191 - 29 Jun 2020
Viewed by 924
Abstract
The obesity epidemic in the United States has been well documented and serves as the basis for a number of health interventions across the nation. However, those who have served in the U.S. military (Veteran population) suffer from obesity in higher numbers and [...] Read more.
The obesity epidemic in the United States has been well documented and serves as the basis for a number of health interventions across the nation. However, those who have served in the U.S. military (Veteran population) suffer from obesity in higher numbers and have an overall disproportionate poorer health status when compared to the health of the older non-Veteran population in the U.S. which may further compound their overall health risk. This study examined both the commonalities and the differences in obesity rates and the associated co-morbidities among the U.S. Veteran population, utilizing data from the 2018 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). These data are considered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to be the nation’s best source for health-related survey data, and the 2018 version includes 437,467 observations. Study findings show not only a significantly higher risk of obesity in the U.S. Veteran population, but also a significantly higher level (higher odds ratio) of the associated co-morbidities when compared to non-Veterans, including coronary heart disease (CHD) or angina (odds ratio (OR) = 2.63); stroke (OR = 1.86); skin cancer (OR = 2.18); other cancers (OR = 1.73); chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR = 1.52), emphysema, or chronic bronchitis; arthritis (OR = 1.52), rheumatoid arthritis, gout, lupus, or fibromyalgia; depressive disorders (OR = 0.84), and diabetes (OR = 1.61) at the 0.95 confidence interval level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Reward and Obesity)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Efficacy of School-Based Interventions in Preventing Adolescent Obesity in Australia
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 514; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040514 - 25 Nov 2020
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Abstract
Current trends suggest that adolescent obesity is an on-going and recurrent decimal that is still on the rise in Australia and the social burden associated with it can significantly cause low self-esteem and lack of confidence in personal body image in adulthood. Nonetheless, [...] Read more.
Current trends suggest that adolescent obesity is an on-going and recurrent decimal that is still on the rise in Australia and the social burden associated with it can significantly cause low self-esteem and lack of confidence in personal body image in adulthood. Nonetheless, evidence-based prevention programs are not widely implemented in schools, even though they are commonplace for easy access to adolescents. The primary objective of this systematic review was to assess the scope and efficacy of adolescent obesity intervention strategies in Australian schools, to guide future research. Seven electronic databases were searched for peer-reviewed school-based intervention articles written in the English language and targeting 12–18-year-old adolescents. Intervention characteristics were extracted, and quality, efficacy and outcome measures were assessed utilizing thirteen studies that met the inclusion criteria for this review. Most of the Australian adolescent obesity research emanated from the State of New South Wales and none were nationwide. Five studies successfully met all the requirements in all measured outcomes, four met at least one measured outcome and the remaining four were unsuccessful. Despite the weak evidence of intervention efficacy for most of the reviewed studies, school-based interventions with multi-component combinations of physical activity, nutrition and alignment to a theory yielded promising results. Our findings point to the need for future research to assess the perceptions of school stakeholders in relation to the barriers and enablers to establishing school-based prevention and intervention programs for adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Reward and Obesity)
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