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Healthcare, Volume 11, Issue 16 (August-2 2023) – 137 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In recent years, there has been a fundamental shift in healthcare towards shared decision making (SDM). This study explores the perspective of individuals affected by mental illness and their family members, as well as the needs, barriers and facilitators of SDM based on fifteen telephone interviews. The results indicate that there is a strong desire for SDM. Barriers are potentially modifiable and a variety of approaches for interventions in the psychiatric sector could be identified. As stigmatization is a significant barrier to SDM, destigmatization should be increased. Peer support, self-help associations and psychosocial counseling services could promote empowerment and strengthen recovery. This study also demonstrates the importance of understanding SDM as a process that should begin at the diagnostic phase. View this paper
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17 pages, 1264 KiB  
Article
Assessing Health and Economic Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Cardiovascular Disease in the Republic of Korea
by Moon Seong Kim, Jin Man Kim, Sang Gyeong Lee, Eun Jin Jung, Sang Hoon Lee, Wen Yan Huang, Bok Kyung Han, Da Eun Jung, Sung Bum Yang, Inbae Ji, Young Jun Kim and Ji Youn Hong
Healthcare 2023, 11(16), 2365; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11162365 - 21 Aug 2023
Viewed by 2205
Abstract
Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the primary cause of mortality worldwide and imposes a significant social burden on many countries. Methods: This study assessed the health and economic benefits of omega-3 associated with CVD. The meta-analysis estimated the risk ratio (RR) and absolute [...] Read more.
Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the primary cause of mortality worldwide and imposes a significant social burden on many countries. Methods: This study assessed the health and economic benefits of omega-3 associated with CVD. The meta-analysis estimated the risk ratio (RR) and absolute risk reduction (ARR), and the economic impact was calculated using direct and indirect costs related to CVD treatments in Korean adults. Results: A total of 33 studies were included in the meta-analysis on CVD outcomes, with 80,426 participants in the intervention group and 80,251 participants in the control group. The meta-analysis determined a significant reduction in omega-3 in CVD (RR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.86~0.97) and ARR (1.48%). Additionally, the subgroup analysis indicated that higher doses and the long-term consumption of omega-3 could further enhance these effects. After applying ARR from meta-analysis to the target population of about 1,167,370 in 2021, the Republic of Korea, it was estimated that omega-3 consumption could result in an economic benefit of KRW 300 billion by subtracting the purchase expenses of omega-3 supplements from the total social cost savings. Conclusion: Omega-3 supplements can help to reduce the risk of CVD and subsequent economic benefits in the Republic of Korea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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23 pages, 890 KiB  
Article
Korean Medicine Clinical Practice Guideline Update for Temporomandibular Disorders: An Evidence-Based Approach
by Hyungsuk Kim, Jae Woo Shim, Woo-Chul Shin, Yoon Jae Lee, In-Hyuk Ha, Koh-Woon Kim and Jae-Heung Cho
Healthcare 2023, 11(16), 2364; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11162364 - 21 Aug 2023
Viewed by 914
Abstract
Many updated clinical research results have been published since the Korean Medicine Clinical Practice Guidelines (KMCPGs) for temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) were published in 2018. Therefore, it is necessary to update the existing clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). This study presents updated recommendations for TMD [...] Read more.
Many updated clinical research results have been published since the Korean Medicine Clinical Practice Guidelines (KMCPGs) for temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) were published in 2018. Therefore, it is necessary to update the existing clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). This study presents updated recommendations for TMD treatment based on current research data published up to February 2020. The draft version of the level of evidence and grade of recommendation was determined through an assessment of the risk of bias and a meta-analysis of selected literature based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE). The final guidelines were derived using the Delphi method. Eighteen recommendations were derived for eight items of Korean medicine treatment for TMDs. Compared with previous Korean medicine CPGs for TMDs, the grades of seven recommendations, including acupuncture, pharmacopuncture, and Chuna manual therapy, were increased. The grades of the two recommendations have been changed. Six new recommendations were added to fully reflect clinical reality. Acupuncture, pharmacopuncture, and Chuna manual therapy are recommended for TMD patients in clinical practice. Concurrent conventional conservative therapy with Korean medicine or a combination of Korean medicines should be considered in clinical practice in patients with temporomandibular disorders. Full article
19 pages, 5428 KiB  
Article
Fitting Early Phases of the COVID-19 Outbreak: A Comparison of the Performances of Used Models
by Veronica Sciannameo, Danila Azzolina, Corrado Lanera, Aslihan Şentürk Acar, Maria Assunta Corciulo, Rosanna Irene Comoretto, Paola Berchialla and Dario Gregori
Healthcare 2023, 11(16), 2363; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11162363 - 21 Aug 2023
Viewed by 800
Abstract
The COVID-19 outbreak involved a spread of prediction efforts, especially in the early pandemic phase. A better understanding of the epidemiological implications of the different models seems crucial for tailoring prevention policies. This study aims to explore the concordance and discrepancies in outbreak [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 outbreak involved a spread of prediction efforts, especially in the early pandemic phase. A better understanding of the epidemiological implications of the different models seems crucial for tailoring prevention policies. This study aims to explore the concordance and discrepancies in outbreak prediction produced by models implemented and used in the first wave of the epidemic. To evaluate the performance of the model, an analysis was carried out on Italian pandemic data from February 24, 2020. The epidemic models were fitted to data collected at 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 98 days (the entire time series). At each time step, we made predictions until May 31, 2020. The Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and the Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) were calculated. The GAM model is the most suitable parameterization for predicting the number of new cases; exponential or Poisson models help predict the cumulative number of cases. When the goal is to predict the epidemic peak, GAM, ARIMA, or Bayesian models are preferable. However, the prediction of the pandemic peak could be made carefully during the early stages of the epidemic because the forecast is affected by high uncertainty and may very likely produce the wrong results. Full article
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23 pages, 12105 KiB  
Article
Toward a Value-Based Therapy Recommendation Model
by Zhang Liu and Liang Xiao
Healthcare 2023, 11(16), 2362; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11162362 - 21 Aug 2023
Viewed by 938
Abstract
Patient value is an important factor in clinical decision making, but conventionally, it is not incorporated in the decision processes. Clinical decision making has some clinical guidelines as a reference. There are very few value-based clinical guidelines, but knowledge about how values affect [...] Read more.
Patient value is an important factor in clinical decision making, but conventionally, it is not incorporated in the decision processes. Clinical decision making has some clinical guidelines as a reference. There are very few value-based clinical guidelines, but knowledge about how values affect decision making is mentioned in some scattered studies in the literature. We use a literature review method to extract evidence and integrate it as part of the decision-making model. In this paper, a value-based therapy recommendation comprehensive model is proposed. A literature analysis is conducted to collect value-based evidence. The patients’ values are defined and classified with fine granularity. Categorized values and candidate therapies are used in combination as filtering keywords to build this literature database. The literature analysis method generates a literature database used as a source of arguments for influencing decision making based on values. Then, a formalism model is put forward to integrate the value-based evidence with clinical evidence, and the literature databases and clinical guidelines are collected and analyzed to populate the evidence repository. During the decision-making processes, the evidence repository is utilized to match patients’ clinical information and values. Decision-makers can dynamically adjust the relative importance of the two pieces of evidence to obtain a treatment plan that is more suitable for the patient. A prototype system was implemented using a case study for breast cancer and validated for feasibility and effectiveness through controlled experiments. Full article
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17 pages, 534 KiB  
Article
Relationships between Community Festival Participation, Social Capital, and Subjective Well-Being in a Cross-Cultural Context
by Young-joo Ahn, Eunice Minjoo Kang, Kiattipoom Kiatkawsin and Seweryn Zielinski
Healthcare 2023, 11(16), 2361; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11162361 - 21 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1591
Abstract
This study explores the relationships among social capital, community festival participation, and subjective well-being (SWB). It examines the mediating role of festival participation between social capital and SWB. The dataset Social Well-being Survey in Asia from the Philippines and Thailand was collected using [...] Read more.
This study explores the relationships among social capital, community festival participation, and subjective well-being (SWB). It examines the mediating role of festival participation between social capital and SWB. The dataset Social Well-being Survey in Asia from the Philippines and Thailand was collected using nationwide surveys in 2016. The total number of respondents was 1057 in the Philippines and 982 in Thailand. The results affirm several determinants related to SWB, which is composed of happiness and overall life satisfaction. The models show significant relationships among festival participation, social capital, and SWB. The results indicate strong associations among social capital with family and relatives, festival participation, and SWB. The interaction effects between the two countries are included. Structural and cognitive social capital with kinship groups were important determinants in facilitating festival participation, and positively associated with SWB. Moreover, the results identify the mediating effect of festival participation between social capital with family and relatives and SWB. The results can provide similarities and differences in the relationships among social capital and kinship groups, community festival participation, and SWB between the Philippines and Thailand. This study offers important empirical evidence of a cross-cultural study in the context of the Philippines and Thailand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Health Related to Social, Ambient and Built Environment)
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19 pages, 341 KiB  
Review
Chemoprevention and Lifestyle Modifications for Risk Reduction in Sporadic and Hereditary Breast Cancer
by Eliza Del Fiol Manna, Davide Serrano, Gaetano Aurilio, Bernardo Bonanni and Matteo Lazzeroni
Healthcare 2023, 11(16), 2360; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11162360 - 21 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1318
Abstract
Female breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy worldwide. Risk assessment helps to identify women at increased risk of breast cancer and allows the adoption of a comprehensive approach to reducing breast cancer incidence through personalized interventions, including lifestyle modification, chemoprevention, intensified [...] Read more.
Female breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy worldwide. Risk assessment helps to identify women at increased risk of breast cancer and allows the adoption of a comprehensive approach to reducing breast cancer incidence through personalized interventions, including lifestyle modification, chemoprevention, intensified surveillance with breast imaging, genetic counseling, and testing. Primary prevention means acting on modifiable risk factors to reduce breast cancer occurrence. Chemoprevention with tamoxifen, raloxifene, anastrozole, and exemestane has already shown benefits in decreasing breast cancer incidence in women at an increased risk for breast cancer. For healthy women carrying BRCA 1 or BRCA 2 pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) germline variants, the efficacy of chemoprevention is still controversial. Adopting chemoprevention strategies and the choice among agents should depend on the safety profile and risk–benefit ratio. Unfortunately, the uptake of these agents has been low. Lifestyle modifications can reduce breast cancer incidence, and the recommendations for BRCA 1 or BRCA 2 P/LP germline variant carriers are comparable to the general population. This review summarizes the most recent evidence regarding the efficacy of chemoprevention and lifestyle interventions in women with sporadic and hereditary breast cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breast Cancer Prevention in Healthcare: A Comprehensive Overview)
10 pages, 554 KiB  
Communication
Understanding the Role of Cancer Diagnosis in the Associations between Personality and Life Satisfaction
by Weixi Kang, Edward Whelan and Antonio Malvaso
Healthcare 2023, 11(16), 2359; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11162359 - 21 Aug 2023
Viewed by 722
Abstract
Life satisfaction refers to the degree a person enjoys their life. An integrated account of life satisfaction is discussed in the literature, which proposes that life satisfaction is made up of personality traits and areas of life satisfaction (e.g., satisfaction with health, job, [...] Read more.
Life satisfaction refers to the degree a person enjoys their life. An integrated account of life satisfaction is discussed in the literature, which proposes that life satisfaction is made up of personality traits and areas of life satisfaction (e.g., satisfaction with health, job, and social life). In addition, disruptions in one domain (e.g., health) may disrupt the association between personality traits and life satisfaction. The current research was interested in if clinically diagnosed cancer could influence the association between the Big Five personality traits and life satisfaction. The current study analyzed data from 1214 people with a diagnosis of cancer (38.55% males) with an average age of 59.70 (S.D. = 15.53) years and 13,319 people without a cancer diagnosis (38.13% males) with an average age of 59.97 (S.D. = 11.10) years who participated in Understanding Society: the UK Household Longitudinal Study (UKHLS). For the first time, our study revealed that cancer markedly influences the relationship between Agreeableness and life satisfaction, after accounting for demographic variables. Neuroticism was negatively associated with life satisfaction in people with and without clinically diagnosed cancer, whereas Agreeableness and Extraversion were positively associated with life satisfaction in people with and without clinically diagnosed cancer. Openness and Conscientiousness were positively related to life satisfaction in people without cancer but were not significant predictors in people with cancer. Health professionals should develop strategies and interventions by fostering personality traits, including Agreeableness, Openness, Conscientiousness, and Extraversion, while reducing Neuroticism. Full article
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13 pages, 1580 KiB  
Article
Dose-Response Relationship between Gestational Weight Gain and Neonatal Birthweight in Chinese Women with Excess Weight/Obesity and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
by Jing He, Kaili Hu, Binghua Wang, Zhen Chen and Hui Wang
Healthcare 2023, 11(16), 2358; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11162358 - 21 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 783
Abstract
Total gestational weight gain (GWG) is identified as a strong and potentially controllable predictor of long-term health outcomes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and infants. When the total GWG of women with excess weight/obesity and GDM does not exceed the Institute [...] Read more.
Total gestational weight gain (GWG) is identified as a strong and potentially controllable predictor of long-term health outcomes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and infants. When the total GWG of women with excess weight/obesity and GDM does not exceed the Institute of Medicine (IOM) suggested range, neonatal birthweight outcomes may be favorable, but the evidence is limited. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the dose-response relationship between increased total GWG and the risk of neonatal birthweight in Chinese women with excess weight/obesity and GDM. This study obtained electronic medical records (EMR) from the hospital information system (HIS) of the Chongqing Health Center for Women and Children between July 2017, and June 2020. A retrospective study analyzed the effect of the total GWG of women with excess weight/obesity and GDM on neonatal birthweight. The dose-response relationship between total GWG and neonatal birthweight was studied using a generalized linear model and embedded restricted cubic splines (RCS). The average age of all women with GDM was 31.99 ± 4.47 years, and 27.61% were advanced maternal age (≥35 years). The total GWG among women with excess weight and obesity and GDM greater than the IOM recommendations were found in 42.96% and 58.62% of cases, respectively. Total GWG in women with excess weight and excessing the IOM recommended range is a risk factor for large gestational age (LGA) [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.1.47, 1.08–2.01] and macrosomia (aOR 1.55, 1.04–2.31). In the obesity above group, excessive weight gain increased the risk of LGA (aOR 2.92, 1.33–6.41) and macrosomia (aOR 2.83, 1.03–7.72). We used an RCS to examine pregnant women with excess weight and GDM and discovered a linear dose-response relationship between total GWG and LGA/macrosomia. In women with excess weight and obesity, increases in total GWG above the lowest end of the IOM recommendations range (7 kg and 5 kg) were associated with an increased risk of LGA and macrosomia. Therefore, research is urgently needed to support maternal and newborn health to provide recommendations for the ideal weight increase in women with excess weight/obesity and GDM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Women's Health Care)
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11 pages, 1526 KiB  
Article
Associations between Degenerative Lumbar Scoliosis Structures and Pain Distribution in Adults with Chronic Low Back Pain
by Shoji Kojima, Tatsunori Ikemoto, Young-Chang Arai, Atsuhiko Hirasawa, Masataka Deie and Nobunori Takahashi
Healthcare 2023, 11(16), 2357; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11162357 - 21 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 893
Abstract
Background: This study aimed to investigate the location and distribution of pain in adults with chronic low back pain (LBP) with degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DLS) according to coronal deformities. Methods: We enrolled 100 adults with chronic LBP and DLS, dividing them into two [...] Read more.
Background: This study aimed to investigate the location and distribution of pain in adults with chronic low back pain (LBP) with degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DLS) according to coronal deformities. Methods: We enrolled 100 adults with chronic LBP and DLS, dividing them into two groups, a right-convex DLS group (n = 50) and a left-convex DLS group (n = 50). Dominant pain location was analyzed by dividing it into three parts—left side, right side, and center—and pain areas were identified using the pain drawing method; then, a heat map was created for each group. An association between pain location and convex side was analyzed as the primary outcome. Additionally, we assessed pain characteristics and radiological parameters, such as the curve structure and degree of degeneration. We used the Mann–Whitney U test or the chi-squared test to compare the clinical characteristics of the two groups, and generalized linear models were utilized to determine which variables were associated with pain severity or pain area. Results: The results indicated that there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the association between the curve structure, pain severity and location. In multivariate analysis, although we did not find any variables associated with pain severity, we observed that age and a left-convex DLS were negatively correlated with pain area among all participants. The heat map demonstrated that individuals with chronic LBP frequently experienced pain in the central lumbar region, regardless of the coronal curve structure. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that degenerative coronal lumbar deformities may not have a specific pain pattern associated with a curved structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Pathology and Current State of Treatment of Chronic Pain)
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12 pages, 267 KiB  
Article
Perceived Cardiovascular Disease Risk Following Preeclampsia: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Nahed Ahmed Hussien, Nazia Shuaib, Zeinab Ali Baraia, Adel Omar Laradhi, Wenna Wang and Zhenxiang Zhang
Healthcare 2023, 11(16), 2356; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11162356 - 21 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 793
Abstract
Preeclampsia has been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and the preeclamptic women were unaware of this link. Therefore, this study aims to assess women’s knowledge and perception of future CVD after preeclampsia. This study used a cross-sectional descriptive design. [...] Read more.
Preeclampsia has been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and the preeclamptic women were unaware of this link. Therefore, this study aims to assess women’s knowledge and perception of future CVD after preeclampsia. This study used a cross-sectional descriptive design. Two hundred and forty-six women with a preeclampsia history were recruited from the Al Salam MCH Center and Suez Canal University Hospital. Data were collected during March 2022 using a socio-demographic questionnaire, an Adapted Coronary Heart disease knowledge tool for preeclamptic women, and The Perception of Risk of Heart Disease Scale (PRHDS). Most women (96%) were unaware of the relationship between CVD and preeclampsia. The women had a low CVD knowledge level (10.26 ± 6.08) as well as a low perception of cardiovascular disease risk (37.15 ± 7.22). There was a significant positive correlation between CVD knowledge and CVD risk perception (r = 0.434, p = 0.000). This study found that preeclampsia survivors underestimated their CVD risk. Based on these findings, preeclamptic women should receive health education sessions on CVD risk and prevention from their nurses and obstetricians. The hospital pre-discharge plan must contain these sessions in written and electronic formats to help women remember and follow CVD risk reduction measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Focus on Maternal, Pregnancy and Child Health)
26 pages, 5221 KiB  
Review
Spinal Injections: A Narrative Review from a Surgeon’s Perspective
by Dong Ah Shin, Yoo Jin Choo and Min Cheol Chang
Healthcare 2023, 11(16), 2355; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11162355 - 21 Aug 2023
Viewed by 938
Abstract
Spinal pain is one of most frequent complaints of the general population, which can cause decreased activities of daily living and absence from work. Among numerous therapeutic methods, spinal injection is one of the most effective treatments for spinal pain and is currently [...] Read more.
Spinal pain is one of most frequent complaints of the general population, which can cause decreased activities of daily living and absence from work. Among numerous therapeutic methods, spinal injection is one of the most effective treatments for spinal pain and is currently widely applied in the clinical field. In this review, spinal injection is discussed from a surgeon’s perspective. Recently, although the number of spinal surgeries has been increasing, questions are arising as to whether they are necessary. The failure rate after spinal surgery is high, and its long-term outcome was reported to be similar to spinal injection. Thus, spinal surgeries should be performed conservatively. Spinal injection is largely divided into diagnostic and therapeutic blocks. Using diagnostic blocks, such as the diagnostic selective nerve root block, disc stimulation test, and diagnostic medial branch block (MBB), the precise location causing the pain can be confirmed. For therapeutic blocks, transforaminal nerve root injection, therapeutic MBB, and percutaneous epidural neuroplasty are used. When unbearable spinal pain persists despite therapeutic spinal injections, spinal surgeries can be considered. Spinal injection is usefully used to identify the precise location prior to a patient undergoing injection treatment or surgery and can reduce pain and improve quality of life, and help to avoid spinal surgery. Pain physicians should treat patients with spinal pain by properly utilizing spinal injection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pain Management)
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11 pages, 498 KiB  
Article
Link between Oral Health, Periodontal Disease, Smoking, and Systemic Diseases in Romanian Patients
by Christoph Schwarz, Adrian Ioan Hajdu, Ramona Dumitrescu, Ruxandra Sava-Rosianu, Vanessa Bolchis, Diana Anusca, Andreea Hanghicel, Aurora Doris Fratila, Roxana Oancea, Daniela Jumanca, Atena Galuscan and Marius Leretter
Healthcare 2023, 11(16), 2354; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11162354 - 21 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1256
Abstract
(1) Background: The link between oral and systemic health is becoming increasingly obvious. Oral diseases, particularly periodontitis, have been linked to various diseases including diabetes and cardiovascular disease, among others. This survey aimed to assess the oral health condition of individuals, considering both [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The link between oral and systemic health is becoming increasingly obvious. Oral diseases, particularly periodontitis, have been linked to various diseases including diabetes and cardiovascular disease, among others. This survey aimed to assess the oral health condition of individuals, considering both their overall health and periodontal status, by performing oral examinations and collecting data using questionnaires. (2) Methods: After obtaining approval from the University’s Ethics Committee, the study was carried out from 2021 to 2022 at the Department of Oral Health, located in the Emergency Municipal Hospital in Timisoara, Timis County, Romania. Bivariate correlations were performed using nonparametric Spearman’s Rho using SPPS software version 23. To assess the importance of smoking frequency related to the severity of periodontitis diagnosis, the ANOVA Simple test (one-way) and Hochberg GT2 post hoc analysis were utilized. The chi-squared test was employed for nominal variables. A significance level of 0.05 (alpha = 0.05) was adopted for all statistical tests. (3) Results: There is a significant positive association between the frequency of systemic disease and the severity of the periodontitis diagnosis taken as a total, Rho (242) = 0.151, p < 0.05, and taken as a stage, Rho (242) = 0.199, p < 0.01, thus as the severity of the diagnosis increases, the patient presents comorbidities. Hochberg GT2 post hoc analysis indicates that the non-smoking group has statistically significantly lower diagnostic severity (Mdif = −0.81, p = 0.01), with a strong effect size (Cohen’s d = 0.73). (4) Conclusions: The findings are increasingly indicating a potential association between oral diseases and a range of systemic diseases. The impact of periodontal disease on the quality of life is significant, especially in individuals with associated systemic conditions and present risk factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Healthcare: Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment)
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11 pages, 1662 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Conservative Treatment Trends for Lumbar Disc Herniation with Radiculopathy in Korea: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study
by Sohyun Cho, Yu-Cheol Lim, Eun-Jung Kim, Yeoncheol Park, In-Hyuk Ha, Ye-Seul Lee and Yoon Jae Lee
Healthcare 2023, 11(16), 2353; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11162353 - 21 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1022
Abstract
This study aimed to analyze the trends in conservative treatment and associated medical costs for lumbar intervertebral disc disorders with radiculopathy in Korea. This population-based cross-sectional study included patients aged ≥ 20 years with at least one “intervertebral disc disorder with radiculopathy” claim [...] Read more.
This study aimed to analyze the trends in conservative treatment and associated medical costs for lumbar intervertebral disc disorders with radiculopathy in Korea. This population-based cross-sectional study included patients aged ≥ 20 years with at least one “intervertebral disc disorder with radiculopathy” claim (Korean Standard Classification of Diseases (KCD)-7 code: M511) who sought treatment from tertiary, general, or Korean Medicine hospitals or clinics between 2010 and 2019 and whose data were extracted from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service National Patients Sample database. Intervention frequency, ratio, and medical costs, including medication, were analyzed. The number of patients with lumbar intervertebral disc disorders and radiculopathy undergoing conservative treatment increased by >30%, and medical costs increased from USD 3,342,907 to USD 5,600,456 during the 10-year period. The non-surgical treatments mainly used were medication and physiotherapy, and the most commonly prescribed medication was non-opioid analgesics. Meanwhile, the number of patients who used nerve plexus and root and ganglion nerve blocks showed the most significant increase. In conclusion, the number of patients with radiculopathy who received nerve blocks, particularly nerve plexus and root and ganglion nerve blocks, and related expenditure increased, implying a gradual shift in medical decisions from systemic pain reduction to specific and targeted pain treatments. Future studies and clinical practice guidelines may require further inspection of real-world practice to advise optimal treatment choices for an effective treatment plan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pain Management)
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16 pages, 1759 KiB  
Article
Workshop for Basic Gynaecological Examinations: Improving Medical Student Learning through Clinical Simulation
by Yolanda Cuñarro-López, Lucia Sánchez Llanos, Ignacio Cueto Hernández, Blanca González-Garzón De Zumárraga, María Del Pilar Pintado Recarte, Francisco Javier Ruiz Labarta, Óscar Cano-Valderrama, Olga Aedo Ocaña, Raquel Pérez Lucas, María Del Carmen Viñuela Benéitez, Zurine Raquel Reyes Angullo, María Fernández Muñoz, Juan Manuel Pina Moreno, Maria Mercedes Sanchez Rodriguez, Rocío Aracil Rodríguez, Laura Pérez Burrel, Ainoa Sáez Prat, Andrea Fraile López, Beatriz Gutiérrez Del Río, María de Guadalupe Quintana Coronado, Tamara Cisternas, Marta Feltrer Hidalgo, Pablo González Navarro, Miguel A. Ortega, Carlos López Ramón y Cajal and Juan Antonio De León-Luisadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Healthcare 2023, 11(16), 2352; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11162352 - 21 Aug 2023
Viewed by 782
Abstract
Introduction: This study was designed to evaluate whether the Workshop on Basic Principles for Clinical Gynaecological Exploration, offered to medical students, improves theoretical–practical knowledge, safety, confidence, global satisfaction and the achievement of the proposed objectives in the area of gynaecological clinical examinations. Materials [...] Read more.
Introduction: This study was designed to evaluate whether the Workshop on Basic Principles for Clinical Gynaecological Exploration, offered to medical students, improves theoretical–practical knowledge, safety, confidence, global satisfaction and the achievement of the proposed objectives in the area of gynaecological clinical examinations. Materials and Methods: This was a quasi-experimental pre–post-learning study carried out at the Gynaecology and Obstetrics department of Gregorio Marañón Hospital in Madrid (Spain). The volunteer participants were 4th-year students earning a degree in Medicine during the 2020–2021 and 2021–2022 academic years. The study period was divided into the following stages: pre-workshop, intra-workshop and 2 weeks post-workshop. In the pre-workshop stage, students completed a brief online course to prepare for the workshop. The effectiveness of the workshop was evaluated through multiple-choice tests and self-administered questionnaires to assess self-assurance, self-confidence, self-satisfaction and the achievement of the objectives. Results: Of the 277 students invited in both academic years, 256 attended the workshop (92.4%), with a total participation in the different stages of the study greater than 70%. A total of 82.5% of the students in the 2020–2021 academic year and 80.6% of students in the 2021–2022 academic year did not have any type of experience performing gynaecological clinical examinations. Between the pre-workshop and 2 weeks post-workshop stages, there was significant improvement in theoretical–practical knowledge (improvement mean = 1.38 and 1.21 in 2020–2021 and 2021–2022 academic years, respectively). The security and confidence of the students prior to the workshop were low (average scores less than 5 points) in both academic years. However, post-workshop scores for satisfaction and the achievement of objectives were high in the two academic years; all the values approached or exceeded 8 points. Conclusions: Our students, after outstanding participation, evaluated the BPCGE, and improved their theoretical and practical knowledge, as well as their skills in a gynaecological clinical examination. Moreover, in their view, after the workshop, they felt very satisfied, far outreaching the proposed aims. In addition, excellent results were maintained over time, year after year. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Professional Education and Primary Health Care)
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12 pages, 1749 KiB  
Article
Slow Breathing Reduces Biomarkers of Stress in Response to a Virtual Reality Active Shooter Training Drill
by Courtney C. Dillard, Hunter Martaindale, Stacy D. Hunter and Matthew J. McAllister
Healthcare 2023, 11(16), 2351; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11162351 - 21 Aug 2023
Viewed by 905
Abstract
Tactical occupations regularly encounter life-threatening situations while on duty. Although these occupations are often trained to utilize slow breathing (SB) during intense stress, there is no evidence supporting the effects on markers of stress in response to a virtual reality active shooter training [...] Read more.
Tactical occupations regularly encounter life-threatening situations while on duty. Although these occupations are often trained to utilize slow breathing (SB) during intense stress, there is no evidence supporting the effects on markers of stress in response to a virtual reality active shooter training drill (VR-ASD). The purpose of the study was to determine the impact of acute SB on biomarkers of stress in response to a VR-ASD. Seventy-nine (n = 79) subjects performed either slow breathing method 1 (SB1), slow breathing method 2 (SB2), or normal breathing (control) for five minutes, both pre- and post-VR-ASD. Saliva samples were analyzed for stress markers, including α-amylase (sAA) and secretory immunoglobulin-A (SIgA). Both methods of SB resulted in significantly lower sAA concentrations at 5 (p < 0.001) and 30 min post-VR-ASD (SB1: p = 0.008; SB2: p < 0.001) compared to the control. In the control condition, the sAA concentrations were significantly elevated 5 min post-VR-ASD (p < 0.001) but did not change across time in SB1 or SB2 (p > 0.05). Thus, both SB1 and SB2 reduced the sAA response and resulted in lower concentrations post-VR-ASD. This study was pre-registered as a clinical trial (“Impact of Breathing Interventions on Stress Markers”; NCT05825846). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health, Safety, and Readiness of Tactical Populations)
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11 pages, 264 KiB  
Article
Examining Health Literacy in Taiwanese Smoking Cessation Populations: A Multidimensional Evaluation of Sociodemographic Factors and Domain-Specific Competencies
by Chi-Wei Lin, Wei-Hsuan Lin, Wei-Chieh Hung, Yi-Che Lee, Yi-Ching Yang, Ying-Wei Wang, Ching-Jung Ho and Tao-Qian Tang
Healthcare 2023, 11(16), 2350; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11162350 - 21 Aug 2023
Viewed by 667
Abstract
Background: Cigarette smoking is a serious global health issue. Limited studies previously analyzed health literacy components in patients undergoing smoking cessation interventions. This study focuses on individuals enrolled in smoking cessation services and investigates the distribution of health literacy in three domains (health [...] Read more.
Background: Cigarette smoking is a serious global health issue. Limited studies previously analyzed health literacy components in patients undergoing smoking cessation interventions. This study focuses on individuals enrolled in smoking cessation services and investigates the distribution of health literacy in three domains (health care, disease prevention, and health promotion) and four abilities (access, understand, appraise, and apply health information). The study also explores the correlation between background factors (age, BMI, etc.) and health literacy, as well as the differences in health literacy levels among different background variables (gender, etc.). Methods: 228 individuals completed the health literacy questionnaire. Descriptive statistical analysis, Pearson Correlation, and a Chi-Squared Test were employed to investigate the various health literacy levels and background variables. Results: 68% had excellent or sufficient health literacy. A total of 32% were considered problematic or to have inadequate health literacy. Of the three domains of health literacy, participants performed better in the healthcare domain. More than one-third were problematic in accessing and appraising information. Conclusions: this paper, being the pilot study in providing an analysis of health literacy components in individuals undergoing smoking cessation, could serve as a useful reference for devising interventions for different population groups in trying to maximize successful cessation rates. Full article
3 pages, 192 KiB  
Editorial
Prevention, Intervention and Care of Neurodegenerative Diseases
by Christos Bakirtzis, Marina-Kleopatra Boziki and Nikolaos Grigoriadis
Healthcare 2023, 11(16), 2349; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11162349 - 21 Aug 2023
Viewed by 922
Abstract
Chronic neurodegenerative diseases encompass a wide spectrum of disorders and affect millions of people worldwide [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevention, Intervention, and Care of Neurodegerative Diseases)
9 pages, 259 KiB  
Article
Effect of Winter Outdoor Physical Activity on Body Composition and Motor Performance of Polish Adult Men
by Monika Stanaszek, Jarosław Fugiel, Sławomir Kozieł, Anna Sebastjan, Agnieszka Suder and Zofia Ignasiak
Healthcare 2023, 11(16), 2348; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11162348 - 20 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1366
Abstract
There is a relationship between physical activity and environmental factors, including weather conditions. Winter should not be a season in which physical activity is abandoned. Previous studies indicate that reducing the daily level of physical activity in adults has a negative impact on [...] Read more.
There is a relationship between physical activity and environmental factors, including weather conditions. Winter should not be a season in which physical activity is abandoned. Previous studies indicate that reducing the daily level of physical activity in adults has a negative impact on their motor proficiency and respiratory endurance, which subsequently translates into diminished quality of life. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of winter outdoor physical activity on somatic parameters, body composition, and motor performance of adult men (age 45.4 ± 5.9 years) involved in regular physical activity (physically active PA, n = 31) during the winter season (study group) compared to the control group of physically inactive men (PI, n = 22). Somatic parameters and selected parameters of motor fitness (Eurofit for Adults) were measured in both groups twice, at the beginning (pre) and at the end (post) of the winter season. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures and a post hoc LSD test were performed to evaluate the difference between the mean parameter values. In the PA group, a decrease in body fat mass, waist circumference, and abdominal obesity indicators, as well as an increase in skeletal muscle mass were confirmed. Improvements in motor performance parameters, i.e., flexibility, the speed of upper limb movements, hand and forearm muscle grip strength, the strength of the lower part of the torso, and cardiorespiratory endurance were also observed. Regular physical activity in the open air during the winter brings measurable health benefits, positively influencing the body composition and motor efficiency of adult men. Full article
14 pages, 318 KiB  
Review
What Is the Comparative Efficacy of Surgical, Endoscopic, Transanal Resection, and Radiotherapy Modalities in the Treatment of Rectal Cancer?
by Alexandru Isaic, Alexandru Cătălin Motofelea, Dan Costachescu, Gheorghe Nicusor Pop, Bogdan Totolici, Dorel Popovici and Razvan Gheorghe Diaconescu
Healthcare 2023, 11(16), 2347; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11162347 - 20 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 918
Abstract
Background: Rectal cancer is a significant healthcare burden, and effective treatment is crucial. This research aims to compare the effectiveness of surgical and endoscopic resection, transanal resection, and radiotherapy. Methods: A literature analysis was conducted in order to identify relevant studies, by comparing [...] Read more.
Background: Rectal cancer is a significant healthcare burden, and effective treatment is crucial. This research aims to compare the effectiveness of surgical and endoscopic resection, transanal resection, and radiotherapy. Methods: A literature analysis was conducted in order to identify relevant studies, by comparing the different surgical approaches and variables affecting treatment decisions. The findings were analyzed and synthesized to provide a comprehensive overview. Results: Surgical treatment, particularly TME (total mesorectal excision), proved consistent efficacy in achieving complete tumor resection and improving long-term survival. Endoscopic treatment and transanal resection techniques were promising for early-stage tumors but were associated with higher local recurrence rates. Radiotherapy, especially in combination with chemotherapy, played a crucial role in locally advanced cases, improving local control and reducing recurrence risk. Patient data, tumor characteristics, and healthcare system factors were identified as important factors in treatment modality selection. Conclusion: Surgical treatment, specifically TME, remains the recommended standard approach for rectal cancer, providing excellent oncological outcomes. Endoscopic treatment and transanal resection techniques can be considered for selected early-stage cases, while radiotherapy is beneficial for locally advanced tumors. Treatment decisions should be personalized based on patient and tumor characteristics, considering the available resources and expertise within the healthcare system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Treatment of Gastrointestinal Cancer)
11 pages, 649 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Systemic Sclerosis on Sexual Health: An Italian Survey
by Alessandro Ferdinando Ruffolo, Maurizio Serati, Arianna Casiraghi, Vittoria Benini, Chiara Scancarello, Maria Carmela Di Dedda, Carla Garbagnati, Andrea Braga, Massimo Candiani and Stefano Salvatore
Healthcare 2023, 11(16), 2346; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11162346 - 20 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1430
Abstract
Objective: To evaluate the impact of systemic sclerosis (SSc) on vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) and sexual health in an Italian population. Methods: An Italian survey about the prevalence and severity of VVA (on a 0 to 10 scale) and sexual dysfunction (using the Female [...] Read more.
Objective: To evaluate the impact of systemic sclerosis (SSc) on vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) and sexual health in an Italian population. Methods: An Italian survey about the prevalence and severity of VVA (on a 0 to 10 scale) and sexual dysfunction (using the Female Sexual Function Index—FSFI) through an anonymous online questionnaire. We investigated couple relationships and intimacy with partners, the predisposition of patients to talk about their sexual problems, physicians’ receptivity, and treatment scenarios. Risk factors for VVA symptoms and sexual dysfunction were assessed. Results: A total of 107 women affected by SSc were enrolled. Of these, 83.2% of women (89/107) complained about VVA symptoms and 89.7% (among sexually active women; 87/97) about sexual dysfunction. Menopausal status did not affect VVA symptoms, while age was the only independent risk factor for sexual dysfunction. About 70% (74/107) of women reported a negative impact of disturbances on intimacy with their partner. A total of 63 women (58.9%) had never discussed their sexual problems and VVA condition with a physician. Lubricants were the only treatment prescribed, and 75% of women would welcome new therapies, even if experimental (62.9%). Conclusions: In women with SSc, VVA symptoms and sexual dysfunction are highly prevalent, independently from menopause. In more than half of the investigated women with SSc, we found reluctance to talk about their sexual problems, despite being symptomatic. This should encourage physicians to investigate vulvovaginal and sexual health. SSc patients would welcome the advent of new treatment possibilities for their VVA and sexual complaints. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urinary Tract Health and Care)
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10 pages, 14435 KiB  
Case Report
Maxillary Impacted Canine and Upper Lateral Incisor Agenesis Treatment with “Canine First Technique” and Clear Aligners: A Case Report
by Tecla Bocchino, Stefano Martina, Carolina Sangiuolo, Marzio Galdi, Alessandra Valletta and Vincenzo D’Antò
Healthcare 2023, 11(16), 2345; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11162345 - 20 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1216
Abstract
The aim of this study was to show a case of an impacted canine in an adult patient with agenesis of the maxillary lateral incisor treated with clear aligners (CA). A 19-year-old male with a persistence of 5.3 and absence of 1.2 came [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to show a case of an impacted canine in an adult patient with agenesis of the maxillary lateral incisor treated with clear aligners (CA). A 19-year-old male with a persistence of 5.3 and absence of 1.2 came to our department of the School of Orthodontics at the University of Federico II in Naples and asked for an aesthetic treatment. The Canine First approach was used to surgically expose the canine and pull it into the dental arch. In order to ensure long-term aesthetic, periodontal, and occlusal results, a treatment with CAs to close the space through the mesial placement of the canine and the enameloplasty of the tooth crown was performed. At the end of the treatment, the occlusal objectives were achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Healthcare: Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment)
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18 pages, 2335 KiB  
Article
Relevance of Sociocultural Inequalities and Parents’ Origins in Relation to the Oral Health of Preschoolers in Lanzarote, Spain
by Beatriz Prieto-Regueiro, Gladys Gómez-Santos, Daniele Grini, Laura Burgueño-Torres and Montserrat Diéguez-Pérez
Healthcare 2023, 11(16), 2344; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11162344 - 20 Aug 2023
Viewed by 684
Abstract
Approaching inequalities to achieve health equity requires joint action. Early childhood caries affects disadvantaged population groups. The objective of this study was to determine the relevance of sociocultural inequalities and parental origin with respect to oral health in preschool children in Lanzarote. A [...] Read more.
Approaching inequalities to achieve health equity requires joint action. Early childhood caries affects disadvantaged population groups. The objective of this study was to determine the relevance of sociocultural inequalities and parental origin with respect to oral health in preschool children in Lanzarote. A transversal epidemiological study was carried out. Sociocultural data and information about parental origin were collected via a questionnaire. The decayed and filled teeth (dft), decayed teeth (dt), filled teeth (ft), restorative index (RI), plaque index (PI) and gingival index (GI) were obtained via an investigator’s examination. Statistical analysis of the data indicated that children of semi-skilled manual workers (28.15%) had the highest prevalence of caries (46.9%). Additionally 43.7 of the mothers had second grade and first cycle studies. When relating the medium and high level of education, there were statistically significant differences in relation to the cod index (p = 0.046). When the origin was foreign (48.4%), preschoolers presented 10.7% more active or untreated caries than Spaniards (p = 0.038). Low socioeconomic cultural level and foreign origin is associated with a more deficient state of oral health in preschoolers. Oral health programs are needed to minimize social inequalities. Full article
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19 pages, 348 KiB  
Article
Supporting Return to Work after Breast Cancer: A Mixed Method Study
by Nicola Magnavita, Reparata Rosa Di Prinzio, Igor Meraglia, Maria Eugenia Vacca, Gabriele Arnesano, Marco Merella, Igor Mauro, Angela Iuliano and Daniela Andreina Terribile
Healthcare 2023, 11(16), 2343; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11162343 - 19 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1047
Abstract
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common invasive cancer in the world. Most BC survivors (BCSs) continue working while dealing with cancer-related disabilities. BCSs’ return-to-work (RTW) after cancer treatment is an important stage of their recovery and is associated with a higher survival [...] Read more.
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common invasive cancer in the world. Most BC survivors (BCSs) continue working while dealing with cancer-related disabilities. BCSs’ return-to-work (RTW) after cancer treatment is an important stage of their recovery and is associated with a higher survival rate. In this study, we addressed the RTW of BCSs with the intention of facilitating this process through direct action in the workplace. Thirty-two women who requested assistance from January to December 2022 were enrolled in the study. Semi-structured interviews and medical examinations were conducted by a team of three physicians. Interviews were analyzed using Thematic Analysis. Moreover, a quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted to compare the health status of BCSs with that of a control group of 160 working women, using standardized questionnaires on work ability, fatigue, sleep problems, anxiety, depression, and happiness. BCSs were also asked to rate the level of organizational justice they perceived at work prior to their illness. From the qualitative analysis emerged three facilitating/hindering themes: (1) person-related factors, (2) company-related factors, and (3) society-related factors. In the quantitative analysis, BCSs had significantly higher scores for anxiety, depression, sleep problems and fatigue, and lower levels of happiness than controls. The RTW of BCSs entails adapting working conditions and providing adequate support. The work-related analysis of each case made it possible to highlight the measures that need to be taken in the workplace to promote RTW. The treatment of cancer should be paired with advice on the best way to regain the ability to work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Women's Health Care)
16 pages, 747 KiB  
Systematic Review
Cardiac Troponin Release after Exercise in Healthy Young Athletes: A Systematic Review
by Enric Conesa-Milian, Rafel Cirer-Sastre, Vicenç Hernández-González, Alejandro Legaz-Arrese, Francisco Corbi and Joaquin Reverter-Masia
Healthcare 2023, 11(16), 2342; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11162342 - 19 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 999
Abstract
Cardiac troponin (cTn) is a recognized marker used to assess damage to the heart muscle. Actual research has indicated that the levels of cTn increase after doing exercise in individuals who are in good health, and this is believed to be a result [...] Read more.
Cardiac troponin (cTn) is a recognized marker used to assess damage to the heart muscle. Actual research has indicated that the levels of cTn increase after doing exercise in individuals who are in good health, and this is believed to be a result of a normal cellular process rather than a pathological one. The main goal of this study was to investigate the evidence of a postexercise release of cTn in child and adolescent athletes (6–17.9 years old) of different ages, sex, and sports disciplines. The Web of Science, MEDLINE, and Scopus databases were used to conduct the research up to March 2023. Three hundred and twenty-eight records were identified from the databases, however, only twenty-three studies were included in the review after being screened and quality-assessed by two independent authors. The gender, age of the participants, maturational status, and training level of the participants, the timing of sample collection, the exercise modality, and the number of participants with values above the cut-off reference were the data analyzed. Males, older young people, and individual sports seemed to have higher levels of serum cTn after practice exercise. Different methodologies, analyzers, and cut-off reference values make it difficult to compare the data among studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Sports Physiology in Young)
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20 pages, 1997 KiB  
Review
Effectiveness of Robot Interventions for Cognitive and Psychological Outcomes among Older Adults with Cognitive Impairment: A Meta-Analysis
by Dabok Noh and Mi-So Shim
Healthcare 2023, 11(16), 2341; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11162341 - 19 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 912
Abstract
This review was performed to evaluate the effects of robot interventions on cognitive and psychological outcomes among older adults with cognitive impairment. Three databases (PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) were searched for studies published in English between January 2015 [...] Read more.
This review was performed to evaluate the effects of robot interventions on cognitive and psychological outcomes among older adults with cognitive impairment. Three databases (PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) were searched for studies published in English between January 2015 and August 2021. We included studies that involved older adults with cognitive impairment, interventions using robots, outcome measures related to cognitive and psychological status, and randomized controlled trials. Ten studies included in the systematic review, and nine studies derived from these ten articles were included in the meta-analyses. The meta-analyses revealed that robot interventions significantly decreased anxiety and agitation but exerted no significant effects on cognitive function, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and quality of life. The subgroup analyses according to robot types revealed that pet-type robot interventions reduced anxiety and agitation. In addition, subgroup analysis according to the intervention format of robot interventions found that individual intervention was effective for improving agitation, but a group-based intervention was effective for improving depression. We suggest using robot interventions to improve psychological outcomes such as anxiety and agitation; however, further research is needed to determine whether robot interventions affect symptoms such as cognitive function, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and quality of life. Full article
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14 pages, 511 KiB  
Review
Cost-Effectiveness of Glucosamine in Osteoarthritis Treatment: A Systematic Review
by Nam Xuan Vo, Ngan Nguyen Hoang Le, Trinh Dang Phuong Chu, Huong Lai Pham, Khang Xuan An Dinh, Uyen Thi Thuc Che, Thanh Thi Thanh Ngo and Tien Thuy Bui
Healthcare 2023, 11(16), 2340; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11162340 - 18 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1274
Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic condition that most frequently affects older adults. It is currently the most common disability. The cost of treating an aging population places pressure on the healthcare budget. As a result, it is imperative to evaluate medicines’ cost-effectiveness and, [...] Read more.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic condition that most frequently affects older adults. It is currently the most common disability. The cost of treating an aging population places pressure on the healthcare budget. As a result, it is imperative to evaluate medicines’ cost-effectiveness and, accordingly, their influence on health resource allocation. Our study aims to summarize the cost and outcome of utilizing glucosamine in OA treatment. Databases like Medline, Cochrane, and Scopus were searched as part of the identification process up until April 2023. Our primary inclusion criteria centered on the economic evaluation of glucosamine in OA treatments, providing an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). The Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES) instrument was applied to grade the quality of the studies. Seven qualified studies that discussed the cost-effectiveness of glucosamine with or without other formulations were selected. All of them demonstrated that glucosamine was cost-effective. There was an increase in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) when incorporating glucosamine in conventional care. Moreover, patented crystalline glucosamine sulfate (pCGS) was more cost-effective than the other formulations of glucosamine (OFG). Overall, utilizing pCGS was more beneficial than using OFG in terms both of cost and quality of life. Full article
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13 pages, 1285 KiB  
Article
Assessing Mental Health Outcomes in Quarantine Centres: A Cross-Sectional Study during COVID-19 in Malaysia
by Nadia Mohamad, Rohaida Ismail, Mohd Faiz Ibrahim, Imanul Hassan Abdul Shukor, Mohd Zulfinainie Mohamad, Muhammad Farhan Mahmud and Siti Sara Yaacob
Healthcare 2023, 11(16), 2339; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11162339 - 18 Aug 2023
Viewed by 859
Abstract
During the COVID-19 pandemic, persons under surveillance (PUS) were isolated in quarantine centres instead of at home. However, there is limited knowledge regarding the mental health issues experienced by these persons. This study aimed to assess mental health outcomes and associated factors among PUS and [...] Read more.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, persons under surveillance (PUS) were isolated in quarantine centres instead of at home. However, there is limited knowledge regarding the mental health issues experienced by these persons. This study aimed to assess mental health outcomes and associated factors among PUS and frontline workers at quarantine centres. This study conducted an analysis of secondary data from a cross-sectional survey carried out by the Mental Health and Psychosocial Support Services (MHPSS). The MHPSS employed the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) to evaluate mental health outcomes across 49 quarantine centres in Malaysia. The study included a total of 4577 respondents. The prevalence of stress, anxiety, and depression was found to be 0.9%, 11.4%, and 10.2%, respectively. Frontline workers and being part of the younger age group were found to be associated with depression, anxiety, and stress. Other factors associated with mental health issues were being female, staying at an institution-type centre, and a longer duration of the stay or work at the centre. In conclusion, assessing the mental health status and its associated factors among quarantine centre occupants is crucial for developing future strategies to safeguard their mental well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection The Impact of COVID-19 on Healthcare Services)
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13 pages, 1021 KiB  
Systematic Review
Deep Carious Lesions Management with Stepwise, Selective, or Non-Selective Removal in Permanent Dentition: A Systematic Review of Randomized Clinical Trials
by Nicola Figundio, Pedro Lopes, Tamara Kerber Tedesco, Juliana Campos Hasse Fernandes, Gustavo Vicentis Oliveira Fernandes and Anna Carolina Volpi Mello-Moura
Healthcare 2023, 11(16), 2338; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11162338 - 18 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1488
Abstract
Objective: The goal of this systematic study was to investigate the effectiveness of selective, stepwise, and non-selective removal techniques for caries removal in permanent teeth with deep carious lesions. The primary focus was the results found comparing techniques for caries removal to check [...] Read more.
Objective: The goal of this systematic study was to investigate the effectiveness of selective, stepwise, and non-selective removal techniques for caries removal in permanent teeth with deep carious lesions. The primary focus was the results found comparing techniques for caries removal to check whether there was pulp exposition; the secondary was the materials used for pulp protection and clinical findings reported within the included studies. Methods: The search was performed in two databases (PubMed/MEDLINE and Web Of Science). The studies included in this systematic review were selected based on eligibility criteria. The inclusion criteria were: (1) randomized controlled trials (RCTs), (2) that compared the total removal of carious tissue with selective removal in permanent teeth with deep carious lesions, (3) with a follow-up period of at least 6 months, and (4) publications in English. Regarding the exclusion criteria, the following were not considered: (1) articles published in other languages, (2) articles that did not compare the different types of total/selective decay removal, and (3) articles published before January 2008. The risk of bias and the quality of the included studies were independently assessed by two reviewers using the RoB 2 tool. Results: 5 out of 105 potentially eligible studies were included. Regarding the teeth included in the study, three articles performed management only on permanent molars, while other studies also performed management on incisors/canines/premolars/molars. Management protocols were divided into nonselective caries removal and partial caries removal (selective/stepwise). The theory of non-selective caries removal was considered an excessive, unnecessarily invasive option and a form of outdated management, and selective removal was preferred. Conclusion: The selective removal technique presented a higher success rate and fewer incidences of pulpal exposure than total removal, after up to 18 months of follow up. Moreover, only one session seemed to be a better management choice compared to two sessions because the cavity re-opening procedure is more prone to pulp exposure and highly depends on patient commitment. Otherwise, at 5 years of follow up, there was no difference between selective removal and total removal in management longevity. In addition, there were also no differences between the success of the materials used for definitive restorations in teeth subjected to any of the techniques evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Health Prevention, Treatment and Quality of Life)
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19 pages, 957 KiB  
Article
Suicide Risk Analysis and Psycho-Emotional Risk Factors Using an Artificial Neural Network System
by Francisco Manuel Morales-Rodríguez, Juan Pedro Martínez-Ramón, José Miguel Giménez-Lozano and Ana María Morales Rodríguez
Healthcare 2023, 11(16), 2337; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11162337 - 18 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1057
Abstract
Suicidal behavior among young people has become an increasingly relevant topic after the COVID-19 pandemic and constitutes a public health problem. This study aimed to examine the variables associated with suicide risk and determine their predictive capacity. The specific objectives were: (1) to [...] Read more.
Suicidal behavior among young people has become an increasingly relevant topic after the COVID-19 pandemic and constitutes a public health problem. This study aimed to examine the variables associated with suicide risk and determine their predictive capacity. The specific objectives were: (1) to analyze the relationship between suicide risk and model variables and (2) to design an artificial neural network (ANN) with predictive capacity for suicide risk. The sample comprised 337 youths aged 18–33 years. An ex post facto design was used. The results showed that emotional attention, followed by problem solving and perfectionism, were variables that contributed the most to the ANN’s predictive capacity. The ANN achieved a hit rate of 85.7%, which is much higher than chance, and with only 14.3% of incorrect cases. This study extracted relevant information on suicide risk and the related risk and protective factors via artificial intelligence. These data will be useful for diagnosis as well as for psycho-educational guidance and prevention. This study was one of the first to apply this innovative methodology based on an ANN design to study these variables. Full article
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19 pages, 881 KiB  
Article
Drivers of Patients’ Behavioral Intention toward Public and Private Clinics’ Services
by Zohra Ghali, Karim Garrouch and Abdulrahman Aljasser
Healthcare 2023, 11(16), 2336; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11162336 - 18 Aug 2023
Viewed by 735
Abstract
In an era of growing competition in the healthcare market, adopting a patient-centered approach is mandatory for the survival and growth of any public or private hospital. This requires a better understanding of patients’ behavior and an increased focus on satisfying their needs [...] Read more.
In an era of growing competition in the healthcare market, adopting a patient-centered approach is mandatory for the survival and growth of any public or private hospital. This requires a better understanding of patients’ behavior and an increased focus on satisfying their needs and expectations. This paper was developed in this context and aims to study the main drivers of patients’ behavioral intentions. A conceptual model was proposed, highlighting the linkages between service quality, doctors’ reputation, patients’ trust, service value, and patients’ behavioral intentions. To examine the different research hypotheses, a quantitative study including 242 patients was conducted in Saudi Arabia using the convenience sampling method. The smart PLS approach was used to test the measurement and structural models. The findings indicated that trust and service value positively affected patients’ behavioral intentions. Trust in the healthcare provider was positively affected by two dimensions of service quality: healthcare provider concern and physician concern. Trust in doctors was found to be positively related to the reputation of the doctor. Service value was positively influenced by the convenience of the healthcare process, healthcare provider concerns, and doctors’ reputations. This study is original because it is among the few studies that investigate patients’ behavioral intentions toward healthcare services in a developing country (Saudi Arabia). Furthermore, it is among the rare studies to examine the role of doctors’ reputations in service values. The findings would offer meaningful implications for practitioners in the healthcare market for maintaining relationships with their patients. Full article
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