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Technologies, Volume 11, Issue 1 (February 2023) – 32 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): As Japan’s population increasingly ages, the number of bedridden patients who need long-term care is also rising. However, it is difficult for these patients to travel to distant places. Therefore, in order to enhance their quality of life (QOL), we developed a remote-controlled drone system that only uses the movement of their eyes. This paper presents clinical experimental results that verify the effectiveness of this drone system for bedridden patients. The participants of this study included bedridden patients and patients with relatively high levels of independence in their activities of daily living (ADL). The experimental results show the efficacy of operating the drone in a distant place with only the eyes, seeing the scenery of the distant place with a camera installed on the drone, and communicating with the local people. View this paper
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33 pages, 11421 KiB  
Article
Identifying Historic Buildings over Time through Image Matching
by Kyriaki A. Tychola, Stamatis Chatzistamatis, Eleni Vrochidou, George E. Tsekouras and George A. Papakostas
Technologies 2023, 11(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies11010032 - 17 Feb 2023
Viewed by 2145
Abstract
The buildings in a city are of great importance. Certain historic buildings are landmarks and indicate the city’s architecture and culture. The buildings over time undergo changes because of various factors, such as structural changes, natural disaster damages, and aesthetic interventions. The form [...] Read more.
The buildings in a city are of great importance. Certain historic buildings are landmarks and indicate the city’s architecture and culture. The buildings over time undergo changes because of various factors, such as structural changes, natural disaster damages, and aesthetic interventions. The form of buildings in each period is perceived and understood by people of each generation, through photography. Nevertheless, each photograph has its own characteristics depending on the camera (analog or digital) used for capturing it. Any photo, even depicting the same object, is impossible to capture in the same way in terms of illumination, viewing angle, and scale. Hence, to study two or more photographs depicting the same object, first they should be identified and then properly matched. Nowadays, computer vision contributes to this process by providing useful tools. In particular, for this purpose, several feature detection and description algorithms of homologous points have been developed. In this study, the identification of historic buildings over time through feature correspondence techniques and methods is investigated. Especially, photographs from landmarks of Drama city, in Greece, on different dates and conditions (weather, light, rotation, scale, etc.), were gathered and experiments on 2D pairs of images, implementing traditional feature detectors and descriptors algorithms, such as SIFT, ORB, and BRISK, were carried out. This study aims to evaluate the feature matching procedure focusing on both the algorithms’ performance (accuracy, efficiency, and robustness) and the identification of the buildings. SIFT and BRISK are the most accurate algorithms while ORB and BRISK are the most efficient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image and Signal Processing)
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34 pages, 5160 KiB  
Review
Risk Assessment of Heterogeneous IoMT Devices: A Review
by Pritika, Bharanidharan Shanmugam and Sami Azam
Technologies 2023, 11(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies11010031 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3514
Abstract
The adaptation of the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) has provided efficient and timely services and has transformed the healthcare industry to a great extent. Monitoring patients remotely and managing hospital records and data have become effortless with the advent of IoMT. However, [...] Read more.
The adaptation of the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) has provided efficient and timely services and has transformed the healthcare industry to a great extent. Monitoring patients remotely and managing hospital records and data have become effortless with the advent of IoMT. However, security and privacy have become a significant concern with the growing number of threats in the cyber world, primarily for personal and sensitive user data. In terms of IoMT devices, risks appearing from them cannot easily fit into an existing risk assessment framework, and while research has been done on this topic, little attention has been paid to the methodologies used for the risk assessment of heterogeneous IoMT devices. This paper elucidates IoT, its applications with reference to in-demand sectors, and risks in terms of their types. By the same token, IoMT and its application area and architecture are explained. We have also discussed the common attacks on IoMT. Existing papers on IoT, IoMT, risk assessment, and frameworks are reviewed. Finally, the paper analyzes the available risk assessment frameworks such as NIST, ISO 27001, TARA, and the IEEE213-2019 (P2413) standard and highlights the need for new approaches to address the heterogeneity of the risks. In our study, we have decided to follow the functions of the NIST and ISO 270001 frameworks. The complete framework is anticipated to deliver a risk-free approach for the risk assessment of heterogeneous IoMT devices benefiting its users. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Technologies—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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7 pages, 3313 KiB  
Communication
Moisture Condensation on Epitaxial Graphene upon Cooling
by Muhammad Farooq Saleem, Niaz Ali Khan, Muhammad Javid, Ghulam Abbas Ashraf, Yasir A. Haleem, Muhammad Faisal Iqbal, Muhammad Bilal, Peijie Wang and Lei Ma
Technologies 2023, 11(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies11010030 - 13 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1720
Abstract
Condensation of moisture on the epitaxial graphene on 6H-SiC was observed below room temperature despite continuous nitrogen flow on the graphene surface. Raman peaks associated with ice were observed. A combination of peaks in the frequency range of 500–750 cm−1, along [...] Read more.
Condensation of moisture on the epitaxial graphene on 6H-SiC was observed below room temperature despite continuous nitrogen flow on the graphene surface. Raman peaks associated with ice were observed. A combination of peaks in the frequency range of 500–750 cm−1, along with a broad peak centered at ~1327 cm−1, were also observed and were assigned to airborne contaminants. The latter is more important since its position is in the frequency range where the defect-associated D band of graphene appears. This band can be easily misunderstood to be the D band of graphene, particularly when the Raman spectrum is taken below room temperature. This peak was even observed after the sample was brought back to room temperature due to water stains. This work highlights the importance of careful Raman investigation of graphene below room temperature and its proper insulation against moisture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Processing Technologies of Innovative Materials)
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11 pages, 278 KiB  
Article
Validity of Wearable Monitors and Smartphone Applications for Measuring Steps in Semi-Structured and Free-Living Settings
by Manolis Adamakis
Technologies 2023, 11(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies11010029 - 13 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1628
Abstract
Wearable technologies have become powerful tools for health and fitness and are indispensable everyday tools for many individuals; however, significant limitations exist related to the validity of the metrics these monitors purport to measure. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to [...] Read more.
Wearable technologies have become powerful tools for health and fitness and are indispensable everyday tools for many individuals; however, significant limitations exist related to the validity of the metrics these monitors purport to measure. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to validate the step count of three wearable monitors (i.e., Yamax 3D Power-Walker, Garmin Vivofit 3 and Medisana Vifit), as well as two Android apps (i.e., Accupedo Pedometer and Pedometer 2.0), in a sample of healthy adults. These monitors and apps were evaluated in a lab-based semi-structured study and a 3-day field study under habitual free-living conditions. A convenience sample of 24 healthy adults (14 males and 10 females; 32.6 ± 2.5 years) participated in both studies. Direct step observation and Actigraph served as the criterion methods and validity was evaluated by comparing each monitor and app with the criterion measure using mean absolute percentage errors (MAPE), Bland–Altman plots, and Intraclass Correlation Coefficients. The results revealed high validity for the three wearable monitors during the semi-structured study, with MAPE values approximately 5% for Yamax and Vifit and well below 5% for Vivofit, while the two apps showed high MAPE values over 20%. In the free-living study all monitors and apps had high MAPE, over 10%. The lowest error was observed for Yamax, Vifit and Pedometer app, while Accupedo app had the highest error, overestimating steps by 32%. The present findings cannot support the value of wearable monitors and apps as acceptable measures of PA and step count in free-living contexts. Wearable monitors and apps that might be valid in one context, might not be valid in different contexts and vice versa, and researchers should be aware of this limitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Technologies III)
27 pages, 8992 KiB  
Article
A Thematic Travel Recommendation System Using an Augmented Big Data Analytical Model
by Suriya Priya R. Asaithambi, Ramanathan Venkatraman and Sitalakshmi Venkatraman
Technologies 2023, 11(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies11010028 - 07 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4928
Abstract
Tour planning has become both challenging and time-consuming due to the huge amount of information available online and the variety of options to choose from. This is more so as each traveler has unique set of interests and location preferences in addition to [...] Read more.
Tour planning has become both challenging and time-consuming due to the huge amount of information available online and the variety of options to choose from. This is more so as each traveler has unique set of interests and location preferences in addition to other tour-based constraints such as vaccination status and pandemic travel restrictions. Several travel planning companies and agencies have emerged with more sophisticated online services to capitalize on global tourism effectively by using technology for making suitable recommendations to travel seekers. However, such systems predominantly adopt a destination-based recommendation approach and often come as bundled packages with limited customization options for incorporating each traveler’s preferences. To address these limitations, “thematic travel planning” has emerged as a recent alternative with researchers adopting text-based data mining for achieving value-added online tourism services. Understanding the need for a more holistic theme approach in this domain, our aim is to propose an augmented model to integrate analytics of a variety of big data (both static and dynamic). Our unique inclusive model covers text mining and data mining of destination images, reviews on tourist activities, weather forecasts, and recent events via social media for generating more user-centric and location-based thematic recommendations efficiently. In this paper, we describe an implementation of our proposed inclusive hybrid recommendation model that uses data of multimodal ranking of user preferences. Furthermore, in this study, we present an experimental evaluation of our model’s effectiveness. We present the details of our improvised model that employs various statistical and machine learning techniques on existing data available online, such as travel forums and social media reviews in order to arrive at the most relevant and suitable travel recommendations. Our hybrid recommender built using various Spark models such as naïve Bayes classifier, trigonometric functions, deep learning convolutional neural network (CNN), time series, and NLP with sentiment scores using AFINN (sentiment analysis developed by Finn Årup Nielsen) shows promising results in the directions of benefit for an individual model’s complementary advantages. Overall, our proposed hybrid recommendation algorithm serves as an active learner of user preferences and ranking by collecting explicit information via the system and uses such rich information to make personalized augmented recommendations according to the unique preferences of travelers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Information and Communication Technologies)
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15 pages, 1059 KiB  
Article
FogTrust: Fog-Integrated Multi-Leveled Trust Management Mechanism for Internet of Things
by Abdul Rehman, Kamran Ahmad Awan, Ikram Ud Din, Ahmad Almogren and Mohammed Alabdulkareem
Technologies 2023, 11(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies11010027 - 07 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1888
Abstract
The Internet of Things (IoT) is widely used to reduce human dependence. It is a network of interconnected smart devices with internet connectivity that can send and receive data. However, the rapid growth of IoT devices has raised security and privacy concerns, with [...] Read more.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is widely used to reduce human dependence. It is a network of interconnected smart devices with internet connectivity that can send and receive data. However, the rapid growth of IoT devices has raised security and privacy concerns, with the identification and removal of compromised and malicious nodes being a major challenge. To overcome this, a lightweight trust management mechanism called FogTrust is proposed. It has a multi-layer architecture that includes edge nodes, a trusted agent, and a fog layer. The trust agent acts as an intermediary authority, communicating with both IoT nodes and the fog layer for computation. This reduces the burden on nodes and ensures a trustworthy environment. The trust agent calculates the trust degree and transmits it to the fog layer, which uses encryption to maintain integrity. The encrypted value is shared with the trust agent for aggregation to improve the trust degree’s accuracy. The performance of the FogTrust approach was evaluated against various potential attacks, including On-off, Good-mouthing, and Bad-mouthing. The simulation results demonstrate that it effectively assigns low trust degrees to malicious nodes in different scenarios, even with varying percentages of malicious nodes in the network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Technologies—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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11 pages, 6236 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Conductive Properties of ZnO Thin Films Using Liquid Probes and Creation of a Setup Using Liquid Probes EGaIn for Studing the Conductive Properties of Thin Films
by Nikita Permiakov, Evgeniya Maraeva, Anton Bobkov, Ritsoh Mbwahnche and Vyacheslav Moshnikov
Technologies 2023, 11(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies11010026 - 06 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1505
Abstract
The use of liquid probes based on indium–gallium eutectic (EGaIn) with the possibility of positioning is an important problem for the study of thin films. This work is centered on the creation of a setup for measuring the current–voltage characteristics with the use [...] Read more.
The use of liquid probes based on indium–gallium eutectic (EGaIn) with the possibility of positioning is an important problem for the study of thin films. This work is centered on the creation of a setup for measuring the current–voltage characteristics with the use of a liquid eutectic electrode. A technique for obtaining a cone-shaped liquid EGaIn electrode, a 3D assembly model and an algorithm for the operation of a probe setup for obtaining the current–voltage characteristics using liquid contacts are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Innovations in Materials Processing)
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25 pages, 4600 KiB  
Article
A Comprehensive Methodology for the Development of an Open Source Experimental Platform for Control Courses
by Marcos Aviles, Juvenal Rodríguez-Reséndiz, Juan Pérez-Ospina and Oscar Lara-Mendoza
Technologies 2023, 11(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies11010025 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1644
Abstract
This article presents the methodology for developing a control laboratory project that provides practical experience based on the ABET criteria. The project is structured around a portable and cheap ball and beam whose integrated system is made using printed circuit boards as the [...] Read more.
This article presents the methodology for developing a control laboratory project that provides practical experience based on the ABET criteria. The project is structured around a portable and cheap ball and beam whose integrated system is made using printed circuit boards as the first task. For the expression of the plant, students are guided to execute the essential stages of the control system design, from system modeling, through the design of the basic or advanced control strategy in the MATLAB and Arduino environment, to the implementation and validation of the closed loop. The proposed methods are clear and direct, greatly fostering the understanding of feedback control techniques and enabling students to gain extensive knowledge in practical implementations of control systems. The methodology is easy to interpret and modify in order to adopt it to any computer, allowing for the implementation of new practical tasks in control courses. Additionally, application examples and student-focused comments are included. This paper describes, in detail, the implementation and development of six laboratory practices for control courses, which have been developed based on ESP32 and other existing equipment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Systems (SmaSys2022))
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24 pages, 2335 KiB  
Article
An Advanced Decision Tree-Based Deep Neural Network in Nonlinear Data Classification
by Mohammad Arifuzzaman, Md. Rakibul Hasan, Tasnia Jahan Toma, Samia Binta Hassan and Anup Kumar Paul
Technologies 2023, 11(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies11010024 - 01 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3901
Abstract
Deep neural networks (DNNs), the integration of neural networks (NNs) and deep learning (DL), have proven highly efficient in executing numerous complex tasks, such as data and image classification. Because the multilayer in a nonlinearly separable data structure is not transparent, it is [...] Read more.
Deep neural networks (DNNs), the integration of neural networks (NNs) and deep learning (DL), have proven highly efficient in executing numerous complex tasks, such as data and image classification. Because the multilayer in a nonlinearly separable data structure is not transparent, it is critical to develop a specific data classification model from a new and unexpected dataset. In this paper, we propose a novel approach using the concepts of DNN and decision tree (DT) for classifying nonlinear data. We first developed a decision tree-based neural network (DTBNN) model. Next, we extend our model to a decision tree-based deep neural network (DTBDNN), in which the multiple hidden layers in DNN are utilized. Using DNN, the DTBDNN model achieved higher accuracy compared to the related and relevant approaches. Our proposal achieves the optimal trainable weights and bias to build an efficient model for nonlinear data classification by combining the benefits of DT and NN. By conducting in-depth performance evaluations, we demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposal by achieving good accuracy over different datasets. Full article
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13 pages, 2857 KiB  
Article
Development of Static and Dynamic Colorimetric Analysis Techniques Using Image Sensors and Novel Image Processing Software for Chemical, Biological and Medical Applications
by Woo Sik Yoo, Jung Gon Kim, Kitaek Kang and Yeongsik Yoo
Technologies 2023, 11(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies11010023 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1882
Abstract
Colorimetric sensing techniques for point(s), linear and areal array(s) were developed using image sensors and novel image processing software for chemical, biological and medical applications. Monitoring and recording of colorimetric information on one or more specimens can be carried out by specially designed [...] Read more.
Colorimetric sensing techniques for point(s), linear and areal array(s) were developed using image sensors and novel image processing software for chemical, biological and medical applications. Monitoring and recording of colorimetric information on one or more specimens can be carried out by specially designed image processing software. The colorimetric information on real-time monitoring and recorded images or video clips can be analyzed for point(s), line(s) and area(s) of interest for manual and automatic data collection. Ex situ and in situ colorimetric data can be used as signals for process control, process optimization, safety and security alarms, and inputs for machine learning, including artificial intelligence. As an analytical example, video clips of chromatographic experiments using different colored inks on filter papers dipped in water and randomly blinking light-emitting-diode-based decorative lights were used. The colorimetric information on points, lines and areas, with different sizes from the video clips, were extracted and analyzed as a function of time. The video analysis results were both visualized as time-lapse images and RGB (red, green, blue) color/intensity graphs as a function of time. As a demonstration of the developed colorimetric analysis technique, the colorimetric information was expressed as static and time-series combinations of RGB intensity, HSV (hue, saturation and value) and CIE L*a*b* values. Both static and dynamic colorimetric analysis of photographs and/or video files from image sensors were successfully demonstrated using a novel image processing software. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image and Signal Processing)
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16 pages, 3520 KiB  
Article
Load Frequency Control Assessment of a PSO-PID Controller for a Standalone Multi-Source Power System
by Boopathi Dhanasekaran, Jagatheesan Kaliannan, Anand Baskaran, Nilanjan Dey and João Manuel R. S. Tavares
Technologies 2023, 11(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies11010022 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2450
Abstract
The performance of load frequency control (LFC) for isolated multiple sources of electric power-generating units with a proportional integral derivative (PID) controller is presented. A thermal, hydro, and gas power-generating unit are integrated into the studied system. The PID controller is proposed as [...] Read more.
The performance of load frequency control (LFC) for isolated multiple sources of electric power-generating units with a proportional integral derivative (PID) controller is presented. A thermal, hydro, and gas power-generating unit are integrated into the studied system. The PID controller is proposed as a subordinate controller to stabilize system performance when there is a sudden demand on the power system. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is used to obtain optimal gain values of the proposed PID controller. Various cost functions, mainly integral time absolute error (ITAE), integral absolute error (IAE), integral squared error (ISE), and integral time squared error (ITSE) were used to optimize controller gain parameters. Furthermore, the enhancement of the PSO technique is proven by the performance comparison of conventional, differential evolution (DE) algorithm- and genetic algorithm (GA)-based PID controllers for the same system. The results show the PSO-PID controller delivers a faster settled response and the percentage improvement of the proposed technique over the conventional method is 79%, over GA is 55%, and over DE is 24% in an emergency in a power system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Assistive Technologies)
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16 pages, 5064 KiB  
Article
Floating Interleaved Boost Converter with Zero-Ripple Input Current Using Variable Inductor
by Hector Hidalgo, Nimrod Vázquez, Rodolfo Orosco, Hector Huerta-Ávila, Sergio Pinto and Leonel Estrada
Technologies 2023, 11(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies11010021 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1787
Abstract
A zero-ripple input current is known to improve the lifetime of battery sets and fuel cells and to assure maximum power point tracking in PV panels. To perform current ripple elimination in a floating interleaved boost converter (FIBC), one of the typical linear [...] Read more.
A zero-ripple input current is known to improve the lifetime of battery sets and fuel cells and to assure maximum power point tracking in PV panels. To perform current ripple elimination in a floating interleaved boost converter (FIBC), one of the typical linear inductors is substituted by a variable inductor, and phases of the converter have complementary duty cycles. This variable inductor is controlled using a switched current-source converter, which adjusts the input current ripple. An equivalent model for the variable inductor is presented, including uncertainties in the component description. To achieve current stabilization, a variable inductor controller was designed using the sliding modes approach via fixed frequency. An experimental prototype is implemented and tested with an output voltage controller to compare with the conventional FIBC. The results demonstrate that the input current ripple of the proposed converter is eliminated without significantly decreasing the efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Technology)
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20 pages, 7629 KiB  
Article
Application and Analysis of Modified Metal-Oxide Memristor Models in Electronic Devices
by Valeri Mladenov
Technologies 2023, 11(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies11010020 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3030
Abstract
The design of memristor-based electronic circuits and devices gives researchers opportunities for the engineering of CMOS-memristor-based electronic integrated chips with ultra-high density and various applications. Metal-oxide memristors have good compatibility with the present CMOS integrated circuits technologies. The analysis of new electronic circuits [...] Read more.
The design of memristor-based electronic circuits and devices gives researchers opportunities for the engineering of CMOS-memristor-based electronic integrated chips with ultra-high density and various applications. Metal-oxide memristors have good compatibility with the present CMOS integrated circuits technologies. The analysis of new electronic circuits requires suitable software and fast-functioning models. The main purpose of this paper is to propose the application of several modified, simplified, and improved metal-oxide memristor models in electronic devices and provide a comparison of their behavior, basic characteristics, and properties. According to this, LTSPICE is utilized in this paper because it is a free software product with good convergence. Several memristor-based electronic circuits, such as non-volatile passive and hybrid memory crossbars, a neural network, and different reconfigurable devices–filters, an amplifier, and a generator are analyzed in the LTSPICE environment, applying several standards and modified metal-oxide memristor models. After a comparison of the operation of the considered schemes, the main advantages of the modified metal-oxide memristor models, according to their standard analogs, are expressed, including fast operation, good accuracy, respectable convergence, switching properties, and successful applicability in complex electronic circuits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MOCAST 2022)
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5 pages, 165 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of Technologies in 2022
by Technologies Editorial Office
Technologies 2023, 11(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies11010019 - 28 Jan 2023
Viewed by 860
Abstract
High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...] Full article
10 pages, 663 KiB  
Communication
Assessment of Cognitive Fatigue from Gait Cycle Analysis
by Hamza Reza Pavel, Enamul Karim, Ashish Jaiswal, Sneh Acharya, Gaurav Nale, Michail Theofanidis and Fillia Makedon
Technologies 2023, 11(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies11010018 - 26 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1945
Abstract
Cognitive Fatigue (CF) is the decline in cognitive abilities due to prolonged exposure to mentally demanding tasks. In this paper, we used gait cycle analysis, a biometric method related to human locomotion to identify cognitive fatigue in individuals. The proposed system in this [...] Read more.
Cognitive Fatigue (CF) is the decline in cognitive abilities due to prolonged exposure to mentally demanding tasks. In this paper, we used gait cycle analysis, a biometric method related to human locomotion to identify cognitive fatigue in individuals. The proposed system in this paper takes two asynchronous videos of the gait of individuals to classify if they are cognitively fatigued or not. We leverage the pose estimation library OpenPose, to extract the body keypoints from the frames in the videos. To capture the spatial and temporal information of the gait cycle, a CNN-based model is used in the system to extract the embedded features which are then used to classify the cognitive fatigue level of individuals. To train and test the model, a gait dataset is built from 21 participants by collecting walking data before and after inducing cognitive fatigue using clinically used games. The proposed model can classify cognitive fatigue from the gait data of an individual with an accuracy of 81%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Selected Papers from the PETRA Conference Series)
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17 pages, 2632 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in Si-Compatible Nanostructured Photodetectors
by Rahaf Douhan, Kirill Lozovoy, Andrey Kokhanenko, Hazem Deeb, Vladimir Dirko and Kristina Khomyakova
Technologies 2023, 11(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies11010017 - 24 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3043
Abstract
In this review the latest advances in the field of nanostructured photodetectors are considered, stating the types and materials, and highlighting the features of operation. Special attention is paid to the group-IV material photodetectors, including Ge, Si, Sn, and their solid solutions. Among [...] Read more.
In this review the latest advances in the field of nanostructured photodetectors are considered, stating the types and materials, and highlighting the features of operation. Special attention is paid to the group-IV material photodetectors, including Ge, Si, Sn, and their solid solutions. Among the various designs, photodetectors with quantum wells, quantum dots, and quantum wires are highlighted. Such nanostructures have a number of unique properties, that made them striking to scientists’ attention and device applications. Since silicon is the dominating semiconductor material in the electronic industry over the past decades, and as germanium and tin nanostructures are very compatible with silicon, the combination of these factors makes them the promising candidate to use in future technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Quantum Technologies)
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22 pages, 6939 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Characteristics and Working Modes of Permanent Magnet Electrodynamic Suspension Vehicle System Based on Six Wheels of Annular Halbach Structure
by Peng Lin, Zigang Deng, Zhihao Ke, Wuyang Lei, Xuanbo Wang and Kehong Ren
Technologies 2023, 11(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies11010016 - 21 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1887
Abstract
A novel type of suspension system for maglev vehicles using six permanent magnet electrodynamic wheels (EDW) and conductor plate has been designed. It has the advantages of high speed, environmental protection, and a low turning radius. Differing from existing maglev vehicles, this paper [...] Read more.
A novel type of suspension system for maglev vehicles using six permanent magnet electrodynamic wheels (EDW) and conductor plate has been designed. It has the advantages of high speed, environmental protection, and a low turning radius. Differing from existing maglev vehicles, this paper proposes a new maglev vehicle utilizing six EDWs to respectively provide driving force and levitation force. This structure can keep the levitation force at a large constant value and obtain enough driving force at low rotational speeds by adjusting the motor speed. First, the structure of the electrodynamic wheel is given. The accuracy and validity of the FEM results are verified by the experiments. Moreover, based on the finite element method (FEM), the optimal structure of the EDWs is obtained with the objective of maximum levitation force. Then, the simplified electromagnetic force model is obtained by using MATLAB Toolbox. Third, using a co-simulation of Simulink and Adams to design and build a 1:50 maglev vehicle model, this article studies the dynamic response characteristics of the maglev vehicle model from the perspective of dynamics and proposes a feedback control strategy by adjusting the rotational speed to control the maglev vehicle. This paper also proposes a method to realize the car’s pivot steering to reduce the car’s turning radius and help the drivers pass narrow road sections. This article verifies the feasibility of the maglev vehicle with six EDWs and is expected to provide a certain reference for the development of permanent magnet electrodynamic suspension vehicles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Assistive Technologies)
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19 pages, 4927 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of a Remote-Controlled Drone System for Bedridden Patients Using Their Eyes Based on Clinical Experiment
by Yoshihiro Kai, Yuuki Seki, Riku Suzuki, Atsunori Kogawa, Ryuichi Tanioka, Kyoko Osaka, Yueren Zhao and Tetsuya Tanioka
Technologies 2023, 11(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies11010015 - 17 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2393
Abstract
With the aging of the population in Japan, the number of bedridden patients who need long-term care is increasing. The Japanese government has been promoting the creation of an environment that enables everyone, including bedridden patients, to enjoy travel, based on the principle [...] Read more.
With the aging of the population in Japan, the number of bedridden patients who need long-term care is increasing. The Japanese government has been promoting the creation of an environment that enables everyone, including bedridden patients, to enjoy travel, based on the principle of normalization. However, it is difficult for bedridden patients to enjoy the scenery of distant places and to talk with the local people because they need support from helpers to travel to distant places using travel agencies. Therefore, to enhance their quality of life (QOL), we developed a remote-controlled drone system, which involves using only the eyes. We believe that bedridden patients are able to operate the system’s drone in a distant place, to easily view the scenery of the distant place with a camera installed on the drone, and to talk with the local people. However, we have never evaluated whether actual bedridden patients can operate the drone in a distant place, to see the scenery, and to talk with the local people. In this paper, we presented clinical experimental results to verify the effectiveness of this drone system. Findings showed that, not only subjects with relatively high levels of independence in activities of daily living, but also bedridden subjects, could operate the drone at a distant place with only their eyes and communicate with others. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Assistive Technologies)
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14 pages, 3940 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of Quadband mm-Wave Microstrip Antenna Using Genetic Algorithm for Wireless Application
by Arebu Dejen, Jeevani Jayasinghe, Murad Ridwan and Jaume Anguera
Technologies 2023, 11(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies11010014 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1722
Abstract
Antennas with multifunctional capabilities integrated into a single device that demonstrates a high performance are in demand, and microstrip antennas with quadband coverage are very useful for a wide range of mm-wave applications. Antennas and propagation at mm-wave frequencies, on the other hand, [...] Read more.
Antennas with multifunctional capabilities integrated into a single device that demonstrates a high performance are in demand, and microstrip antennas with quadband coverage are very useful for a wide range of mm-wave applications. Antennas and propagation at mm-wave frequencies, on the other hand, poses several challenges which can be overcome by applying performance enhancement techniques to meet design objectives. This article presents the use of a binary-coded genetic algorithm for developing an improved quadband mm-wave microstrip patch antenna. The patch shape was optimized by dividing a conducting surface into 6 × 6 tiny rectangular blocks. The algorithm generated the solution space by introducing conducting and nonconducting features for each radiating cell on the patch surface and then greedily searched for the best-fitted individual based on the cost function. With the combination of High-Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS) and MATLAB, candidate antennas were iteratively modeled by applying the suggested algorithm. The optimized antenna resonated at four frequencies centered at 28.3 GHz, 38.1 GHz, 46.6 GHz, and 60.0 GHz. The antenna realized a peak broadside directivity of 7.8 dB, 8.8 dB, 7.3 dB, and 7.1 dB, respectively, with a total operating bandwidth of 11.5 GHz. The research findings were compared with related works presented in the literature and found that the optimized antenna outperformed them in terms of bandwidth, directivity, and efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perpetual Sensor Nodes for Sustainable Wireless Network Applications)
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14 pages, 5154 KiB  
Article
Improvement in Wear Resistance of Grade 37 Titanium by Microwave Plasma Oxy-Carburizing
by Paolo Veronesi, Alessio Balestri and Elena Colombini
Technologies 2023, 11(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies11010013 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1380
Abstract
Grade 37 titanium is widely used in racing applications thanks to its oxidation resistance up to 650 °C, but it suffers from poor wear and fretting resistance, especially at high temperature. In this paper, different surface modification techniques, namely, carburizing, coating by PVD-ZrO [...] Read more.
Grade 37 titanium is widely used in racing applications thanks to its oxidation resistance up to 650 °C, but it suffers from poor wear and fretting resistance, especially at high temperature. In this paper, different surface modification techniques, namely, carburizing, coating by PVD-ZrO2 and a novel microwave plasma oxy-carburizing treatment, are investigated in terms of hardness, wear resistance and scratch hardness, compared to the untreated substrate. Numerical simulation allowed optimization of the design of the microwave plasma source, which operated at 2.45 GHz at atmospheric pressure. The proposed microwave plasma oxy-carburizing treatment is localized and can serve to improve the tribological properties of selected regions of the sample; compared to untreated Grade 37 titanium, the oxy-carburized layer presents a decrease in the wear rate at 450 °C against alumina of 54% and an increase in scratch hardness of more than three times. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Microwave Technologies and Its Applications)
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25 pages, 2599 KiB  
Article
Estimation of Energy Consumption and Flight Time Margin for a UAV Mission Based on Fuzzy Systems
by Luis H. Manjarrez, Julio C. Ramos-Fernández, Eduardo S. Espinoza and Rogelio Lozano
Technologies 2023, 11(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies11010012 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2089
Abstract
An essential aspect to achieving safety with a UAV is that it operates within the limits of its capabilities, the available flight time being a key aspect when planning and executing a mission. The flight time will depend on the relationship between the [...] Read more.
An essential aspect to achieving safety with a UAV is that it operates within the limits of its capabilities, the available flight time being a key aspect when planning and executing a mission. The flight time will depend on the relationship between the available energy and the energy required by the UAV to complete the mission. This paper addresses the problem of estimating the energy required to perform a mission, for which a fuzzy Takagi–Sugeno system was implemented, whose premises were developed using fuzzy C-means to estimate the power required in the different stages of the mission. The parameters used in the fuzzy C-means algorithm were optimized using particle swarm optimization. On the other hand, an equivalent circuit model of a battery was used, for which fuzzy modeling was employed to determine the relationship between the open-circuit voltage and the state of charge of the battery, which in conjunction with an extended Kalman filter allows determining the battery charge. In addition, we developed a methodology to determine the minimum allowable battery charge level. From this, it is possible to determine the available flight time at the end of a mission defined as the flight time margin. In order to evaluate the developed methodology, a physical experiment was performed using an hexarotor UAV obtaining a maximum prediction error equivalent to the energy required to operate for 7 s, which corresponds to 2% of the total mission time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Technologies—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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22 pages, 6361 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Surface Layer Condition of SiAlON Ceramic Inserts and Its Influence on Tool Durability When Turning Nickel-Based Superalloy
by Sergey N. Grigoriev, Marina A. Volosova and Anna A. Okunkova
Technologies 2023, 11(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies11010011 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1987
Abstract
SiAlON is one of the problematic and least previously studied but prospective cutting ceramics suitable for most responsible machining tasks, such as cutting sophisticated shapes of aircraft gas turbine engine parts made of chrome–nickel alloys (Inconel 718 type) with increased mechanical and thermal [...] Read more.
SiAlON is one of the problematic and least previously studied but prospective cutting ceramics suitable for most responsible machining tasks, such as cutting sophisticated shapes of aircraft gas turbine engine parts made of chrome–nickel alloys (Inconel 718 type) with increased mechanical and thermal loads (semi-finishing). Industrially produced SiAlON cutting inserts are replete with numerous defects (stress concentrators). When external loads are applied, the wear pattern is difficult to predict. The destruction of the cutting edge, such as the tearing out of entire conglomerates, can occur at any time. The complex approach of additional diamond grinding, lapping, and polishing combined with an advanced double-layer (CrAlSi)N/DLC coating was proposed here for the first time to minimize it. The criterion of failure was chosen to be 0.4 mm. The developed tri-nitride coating sub-layer plays a role of improving the main DLC coating adhesion. The microhardness of the DLC coating was 28 ± 2 GPa, and the average coefficient of friction during high-temperature heating (up to 800 °C) was ~0.4. The average durability of the insert after additional diamond grinding, lapping, polishing, and coating was 12.5 min. That is superior to industrial cutting inserts and those subjected to (CrAlSi)N/DLC coating by 1.8 and 1.25 times, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Processing Technologies of Innovative Materials)
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17 pages, 3857 KiB  
Article
An Efficient Hybrid CNN Classification Model for Tomato Crop Disease
by Maria Vasiliki Sanida, Theodora Sanida, Argyrios Sideris and Minas Dasygenis
Technologies 2023, 11(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies11010010 - 04 Jan 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3354
Abstract
Tomato plants are vulnerable to a broad number of diseases, each of which has the potential to cause significant damage. Diseases that affect crops substantially negatively impact the quantity and quality of agricultural products. Regarding quality crop maintenance, the importance of a timely [...] Read more.
Tomato plants are vulnerable to a broad number of diseases, each of which has the potential to cause significant damage. Diseases that affect crops substantially negatively impact the quantity and quality of agricultural products. Regarding quality crop maintenance, the importance of a timely and accurate diagnosis cannot be overstated. Deep learning (DL) strategies are now a critical research field for crop disease diagnoses. One independent system that can diagnose plant illnesses based on their outward manifestations is an example of an intelligent agriculture solution that could address these problems. This work proposes a robust hybrid convolutional neural network (CNN) diagnostic tool for various disorders that may affect tomato leaf tissue. A CNN and an inception module are the two components that make up this hybrid technique. The dataset employed for this study consists of nine distinct categories of tomato diseases and one healthy category sourced from PlantVillage. The findings are promising on the test set, with 99.17% accuracy, 99.23% recall, 99.13% precision, 99.56% AUC, and 99.17% F1-score, respectively. The proposed methodology offers a solution that boasts high performance for the diagnostics of tomato crops in the actual agricultural setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Assistive Technologies)
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21 pages, 1022 KiB  
Article
Complexity of Smart Home Setups: A Qualitative User Study on Smart Home Assistance and Implications on Technical Requirements
by Eileen Becks, Peter Zdankin, Viktor Matkovic and Torben Weis
Technologies 2023, 11(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies11010009 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2235
Abstract
Setup and management of smart home systems is a complex task, and thus challenging for technically inexperienced users. We conducted a qualitative user study to evaluate whether an assistance system could empower users to make better and informed decisions regarding the selection of [...] Read more.
Setup and management of smart home systems is a complex task, and thus challenging for technically inexperienced users. We conducted a qualitative user study to evaluate whether an assistance system could empower users to make better and informed decisions regarding the selection of devices, their interoperability, the resulting set of features and their price. A group of 20 participants used our assistance app on a smartphone to configure a smart home while optimizing for features, interoperability, and the price-performance ratio. The results of our user study show that our assistance app can ease the problem of selecting useful devices and at the same time users become aware of new features resulting from the interoperation of selected devices. Furthermore, the assistance app can counteract the inherent interoperability problem between devices of different vendors or platforms. Finally, users are not only interested in individual device prices. They want to learn the cost of a certain feature set, including the cost of all devices necessary to realize this feature. Interestingly, none of the current smart home systems on the market offer a comparable assistance mechanism. Third-party solutions are not available either, because an assistance app requires meta data about features, interoperability, and usage of devices. This meta data is currently not available via APIs in state-of-the-art smart home systems and marketplaces. Therefore, we present a smart home architecture resulting from our research that can, among other benefits, provide the necessary meta data. Our research indicates that commercial smart home systems should invest more effort in user assistance to gain widespread adoption among technically inexperienced users. This in turn requires substantial changes to the meta data management in smart homes, because otherwise these assistance systems cannot be realized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human-Centered Cyber-Physical Systems)
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24 pages, 4236 KiB  
Article
Embedded System Performance Analysis for Implementing a Portable Drowsiness Detection System for Drivers
by Minjeong Kim and Jimin Koo
Technologies 2023, 11(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies11010008 - 30 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1921
Abstract
Drowsiness on the road is a widespread problem with fatal consequences; thus, a multitude of systems and techniques have been proposed. Among existing methods, Ghoddoosian et al. utilized temporal blinking patterns to detect early signs of drowsiness, but their algorithm was tested only [...] Read more.
Drowsiness on the road is a widespread problem with fatal consequences; thus, a multitude of systems and techniques have been proposed. Among existing methods, Ghoddoosian et al. utilized temporal blinking patterns to detect early signs of drowsiness, but their algorithm was tested only on a powerful desktop computer, which is not practical to apply in a moving vehicle setting. In this paper, we propose an efficient platform to run Ghoddoosian’s algorithm, detail the performance tests we ran to determine this platform, and explain our threshold optimization logic. After considering the Jetson Nano and Beelink (Mini PC), we concluded that the Mini PC is most efficient and practical to run our embedded system in a vehicle. To determine this, we ran communication speed tests and evaluated total processing times for inference operations. Based on our experiments, the average total processing time to run the drowsiness detection model was 94.27 ms for the Jetson Nano and 22.73 ms for the Beelink (Mini PC). Considering the portability and power efficiency of each device, along with the processing time results, the Beelink (Mini PC) was determined to be most suitable. Additionally, we propose a threshold optimization algorithm, which determines whether the driver is drowsy, or alert based on the trade-off between the sensitivity and specificity of the drowsiness detection model. Our study will serve as a crucial next step for drowsiness detection research and its application in vehicles. Through our experiments, we have determined a favorable platform that can run drowsiness detection algorithms in real-time and can be used as a foundation to further advance drowsiness detection research. In doing so, we have bridged the gap between an existing embedded system and its actual implementation in vehicles to bring drowsiness technology a step closer to prevalent real-life implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image and Signal Processing)
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36 pages, 9155 KiB  
Article
Increasing System Reliability by Applying Conceptual Modeling and Data Analysis—A Case Study: An Automated Parking System
by Haytham B. Ali, Gerrit Muller, Fahim A. Salim, Kristin Falk and Serkan Güldal
Technologies 2023, 11(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies11010007 - 28 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2092
Abstract
In complex sociotechnical research, companies aim to utilize data and digitalization to increase a system’s reliability and to minimize a system’s failures. This study exemplifies the use of conceptual modeling and data analysis to increase a system’s reliability by studying a case study [...] Read more.
In complex sociotechnical research, companies aim to utilize data and digitalization to increase a system’s reliability and to minimize a system’s failures. This study exemplifies the use of conceptual modeling and data analysis to increase a system’s reliability by studying a case study for a medium-sized company. The company delivers an Automated Parking System (APS). We identified, collected, and analyzed internal and external data within this context. Internal data consist of failure data from maintenance, whereas external data include environmental data, mainly weather data. Data analyses transformed the collected data into information, where conceptual modeling facilitates the understanding of information by transforming it further into knowledge. We find that the combination of conceptual modeling and data analysis aids in exploring and understanding a system’s reliability. This understanding enables a company to enhance its product-development process. Conceptual modeling and data analyses guide and support each other in an iterative and recursive manner, and they both complement each other. Conceptual modeling also facilitates communication and understanding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human-Centered Cyber-Physical Systems)
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21 pages, 7053 KiB  
Article
Electrical Discharge Machining of Alumina Using Cu-Ag and Cu Mono- and Multi-Layer Coatings and ZnO Powder-Mixed Water Medium
by Anna A. Okunkova, Marina A. Volosova, Khaled Hamdy and Khasan I. Gkhashim
Technologies 2023, 11(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies11010006 - 27 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1886
Abstract
The paper aims to extend the current knowledge on electrical discharge machining of insulating materials, such as cutting ceramics used to produce cutting inserts to machine nickel-based alloys in the aviation and aerospace industries. Aluminum-based ceramics such as Al2O3, [...] Read more.
The paper aims to extend the current knowledge on electrical discharge machining of insulating materials, such as cutting ceramics used to produce cutting inserts to machine nickel-based alloys in the aviation and aerospace industries. Aluminum-based ceramics such as Al2O3, AlN, and SiAlON are in the most demand in the industry but present a scientific and technical problem in obtaining sophisticated shapes. One of the existing solutions is electrical discharge machining using assisting techniques. Using assisting Cu-Ag and Cu mono- and multi-layer coatings of 40–120 µm and ZnO powder-mixed deionized water-based medium was proposed for the first time. The developed coatings were subjected to tempering and testing. It was noticed that Ag-adhesive reduced the performance when tempering had a slight effect. The unveiled relationship between the material removal rate, powder concentration, and pulse frequency showed that performance was significantly improved by adding assisting powder up to 0.0032–0.0053 mm3/s for a concentration of 14 g/L and pulse frequency of 2–7 kHz. Further increase in concentration leads to the opposite trend. The most remarkable results corresponded to the pulse duration of 1 µs. The obtained data enlarged the knowledge of texturing insulating cutting ceramics using various powder-mixed deionized water-based mediums. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Processing Technologies of Innovative Materials)
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15 pages, 3285 KiB  
Article
NikshayChain: A Blockchain-Based Proposal for Tuberculosis Data Management in India
by Madhuri Hiwale, Vijayakumar Varadarajan, Rahee Walambe and Ketan Kotecha
Technologies 2023, 11(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies11010005 - 26 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2941
Abstract
A recent development in the Internet of Things (IoT) has accelerated the application of IoT-based solutions in healthcare. Next-Gen networks and IoT, supported by the development of technologies such as Artificial Intelligence (AI) and blockchain, have propelled the growth of e-health applications. However, [...] Read more.
A recent development in the Internet of Things (IoT) has accelerated the application of IoT-based solutions in healthcare. Next-Gen networks and IoT, supported by the development of technologies such as Artificial Intelligence (AI) and blockchain, have propelled the growth of e-health applications. However, there are some unique challenges in the widespread acceptance of IoT in healthcare. Safe storage, transfer, authorized access control, and the privacy and security aspects of patient data management are crucial barriers to the widespread adoption of IoT in healthcare. This makes it necessary to identify current issues in the various health data management systems to develop novel healthcare solutions. As a case study, this work considers a scheme launched by the Government of India for tuberculosis care called Nikshay Poshan Yojana (NPY). It is a web-based Direct Benefit Transfer scheme to provide a nutritional incentive of INR 500/- per month to all tuberculosis patients. The main objective of this work is to identify the current implementation challenges of the NPY scheme from patient and healthcare stakeholder perspectives and proposes a blockchain-based architecture called NikshayChain for sharing patient medical reports and bank details among several healthcare stakeholders within or across Indian cities. The proposed architecture accelerates healthcare stakeholder productivity by reducing workload and overall costs while ensuring effective data management. This architecture can significantly improve medical care, incentive transfer, and data verification, propelling the use of e-health applications. Full article
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23 pages, 5762 KiB  
Article
A Conceptual Framework for Data Sensemaking in Product Development—A Case Study
by Tommy Langen, Haytham B. Ali and Kristin Falk
Technologies 2023, 11(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies11010004 - 22 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2255
Abstract
The industry acknowledges the value of using data and digitalization approaches to improve their systems. However, companies struggle to use data effectively in product development. This paper presents a conceptual framework for Data Sensemaking in Product Development, exemplified through a case study of [...] Read more.
The industry acknowledges the value of using data and digitalization approaches to improve their systems. However, companies struggle to use data effectively in product development. This paper presents a conceptual framework for Data Sensemaking in Product Development, exemplified through a case study of an Automated Parking System. The work is grounded in systems engineering, human centered-design, and data science theory. The resulting framework applies to practitioners and researchers in the early phase of product development. The framework combines conceptual models and data analytics, facilitating the range from human judgment and decision-making to verifications. The case study and feedback from several industrial actors suggest that the framework is valuable, usable, and feasible for more effective use of data in product development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human-Centered Cyber-Physical Systems)
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18 pages, 10341 KiB  
Article
Design and Analysis of Guidance Function of Permanent Magnet Electrodynamic Suspension
by Yuqing Xiang, Zigang Deng, Hongfu Shi, Kaiwen Li, Ting Cao, Bin Deng, Le Liang and Jun Zheng
Technologies 2023, 11(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies11010003 - 21 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1636
Abstract
Inspired by the guidance principle in the electromagnetic levitation system, a new permanent magnet electrodynamic suspension (PM EDS) structure with ferromagnetic guidance track is proposed and analyzed in this paper. Considering the lack of effective guidance ability for the PM EDS system, we [...] Read more.
Inspired by the guidance principle in the electromagnetic levitation system, a new permanent magnet electrodynamic suspension (PM EDS) structure with ferromagnetic guidance track is proposed and analyzed in this paper. Considering the lack of effective guidance ability for the PM EDS system, we adopted the ferromagnetic guidance track as being mounted under the conductor plate. The guidance principle is studied and the implementation of the guidance function is also introduced, and the finite element method (FEM) is employed and its accuracy is confirmed via the PM EDS high-speed rotating experimental platform fabricated in our laboratory. The influence of longitudinal speed on the guidance force is taken into account, which shows that the guidance performance is enhanced more obviously at low speeds. Moreover, the influence of the guidance track parameters on the guidance performance is also analyzed, including the geometric parameters, section shape, installation position and material. The equivalent small-scale PM EDS system experimental prototype is carried out to validate the effectiveness of the ferromagnetic guidance. The proposed ferromagnetic guidance structure is demonstrated to improve the guidance performance of the PM EDS system effectively, which will offer a technical reference for the practical engineering application of the PM EDS system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Assistive Technologies)
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