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Plants, Volume 11, Issue 3 (February-1 2022) – 232 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Microclimatic parameters are often neglected when implementing conservation policies related to forest management. However, the microclimate may determine whether some species persist or not when the surrounding environmental conditions have been drastically changed, such as after logging. The model lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (considered as an umbrella species for lichen conservation) was transplanted in logged and unlogged stands on Turkey oak boles within a Mediterranean forest for two years. Distance from the ground, aspect and age of the thalli were considered. Samples exposed on isolated trees in the logged stand showed a low probability of growth (especially in drier conditions at south). Overall, higher growth rates were observed in young thalli. View this paper
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Article
Water Deficit Stress Tolerance Potential of Newly Developed Wheat Genotypes for Better Yield Based on Agronomic Traits and Stress Tolerance Indices: Physio-Biochemical Responses, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidative Defense Mechanism
Plants 2022, 11(3), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030466 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 459
Abstract
Changing environmental conditions, fresh water shortages for irrigation and the rapid increase in world population have created the problems of food insecurity and malnutrition. Different strategies, including the development of water stress-tolerant, high-yielding genotypes through breeding are used to fulfil the world food [...] Read more.
Changing environmental conditions, fresh water shortages for irrigation and the rapid increase in world population have created the problems of food insecurity and malnutrition. Different strategies, including the development of water stress-tolerant, high-yielding genotypes through breeding are used to fulfil the world food demand. The present study was conducted for the selection of high-yielding, drought-tolerant wheat genotypes, considering different morpho-physio-biochemical, agronomic and yield attributes in relation to the stress tolerance indices (STI). The experiment was carried out in field in a split-plot arrangement. Water deficit stress was maintained based on the number of irrigations. All genotypes showed a differential decreasing trend in different agronomic traits. However, the increasing or decreasing trend in leaf photosynthetic pigments, non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants under limited water supply also found to be genotype-specific. Genotypes MP1, MP3, MP5, MP8 and MP10 performed better regarding the yield performance under water deficit stress, which was associated with their better maintenance of water relations, photosynthetic pigments and antioxidative defense mechanisms. In conclusion, the physio-biochemical mechanisms should also be considered as the part of breeding programs for the selection of stress-tolerant genotypes, along with agronomic traits, in wheat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drought and Desiccation Tolerance in Plants)
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Article
Suppression of Cortical Microtubule Reorientation and Stimulation of Cell Elongation in Arabidopsis Hypocotyls under Microgravity Conditions in Space
Plants 2022, 11(3), 465; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030465 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 542
Abstract
How microgravity in space influences plant cell growth is an important issue for plant cell biology as well as space biology. We investigated the role of cortical microtubules in the stimulation of elongation growth in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) hypocotyls under microgravity [...] Read more.
How microgravity in space influences plant cell growth is an important issue for plant cell biology as well as space biology. We investigated the role of cortical microtubules in the stimulation of elongation growth in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) hypocotyls under microgravity conditions with the Resist Tubule space experiment. The epidermal cells in the lower half of the hypocotyls of wild-type Columbia were longer in microgravity than at on-orbit 1 g, which precipitated an increase in the entire hypocotyl length. In the apical region, cortical microtubules adjacent to the outer tangential wall were predominantly transverse to the long axis of the cell, whereas longitudinal microtubules were predominant in the basal region. In the 9th to 12th epidermal cells (1 to 3 mm) from the tip, where the modification of microtubule orientation from transverse to longitudinal directions (reorientation) occurred, cells with transverse microtubules increased, whereas those with longitudinal microtubules decreased in microgravity, and the average angle with respect to the transverse cell axis decreased, indicating that the reorientation was suppressed in microgravity. The expression of tubulin genes was suppressed in microgravity. These results suggest that under microgravity conditions, the expression of genes related to microtubule formation was downregulated, which may cause the suppression of microtubule reorientation from transverse to longitudinal directions, thereby stimulating cell elongation in Arabidopsis hypocotyls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Responses to Gravity, Microgravity, and Space Environment)
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Article
In Vitro Technologies for American Chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marshall) Borkh) Conservation
Plants 2022, 11(3), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030464 - 08 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 527
Abstract
American chestnut (Castanea dentata), a native species of eastern North America, is an economically important deciduous hardwood tree that has been designated as endangered in Canada. The population of American chestnut trees has dwindled significantly across Southern Ontario due to chestnut [...] Read more.
American chestnut (Castanea dentata), a native species of eastern North America, is an economically important deciduous hardwood tree that has been designated as endangered in Canada. The population of American chestnut trees has dwindled significantly across Southern Ontario due to chestnut blight and many of the surviving trees continue to show blight disease symptoms. American chestnut requires efficient strategies for propagation and preservation for species recovery. The objective of this study was to develop a long-term plant conservation program using micropropagation and cryopreservation protocols. An in vitro technology using a liquid-based temporary immersion system (TIS) was developed for micropropagation of American chestnut. The highest rate of shoot multiplication was observed in cultures grown in the DKW (Driver and Kuniyuki 1984) basal medium supplemented with 2.2 µM 6-benzylaminopurine and 1.0 µM gibberellic acid. More than 95% of proliferated microshoots, about 40–50 mm in size, developed roots after 30 days of culture within bioreactor vessels containing DKW basal medium supplemented with 15 µM 3-Indolebutyric acid. Rooted plantlets transplanted to the greenhouse had a survival efficiency of 82% after one month of growth. The cryopreservation protocol for germplasm preservation was developed through droplet vitrification of shoots. Optimal regeneration of shoot tips occurred from explants precultured on stepwise concentrations of sucrose and subsequent dehydration in PVS3 for 30 min. Cryopreserved shoot tips were regenerated to whole plants using pre-optimized conditions of micropropagation. This study confirms the potential of TIS for micropropagation in ex situ conservation and reintroduction of endangered American chestnuts and possibly other woody plant species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue In Vitro Conservation of Endangered and Value-Added Plant Species)
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Article
Toxicity, Deterrent and Repellent Activities of Four Essential Oils on Aphis punicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
Plants 2022, 11(3), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030463 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 512
Abstract
Chemical insecticides have many harmful effects, including as foodborne residues and environmental contaminants, as well as side effects on natural enemies and serious risks for human health. The use of plant-derived essential oils (EOs) as effective bio-agents has become an essential component of [...] Read more.
Chemical insecticides have many harmful effects, including as foodborne residues and environmental contaminants, as well as side effects on natural enemies and serious risks for human health. The use of plant-derived essential oils (EOs) as effective bio-agents has become an essential component of integrated pest management. In this study, the contact toxicity, deterrent, and repellent activities were evaluated for essential oils obtained from Mentha piperita, Mentha longifolia, Salvia officinalis, and Salvia rosmarinus, grown at high altitudes in the Taif region, KSA, on Aphis punicae. Furthermore, the toxicity of these EOs against the predator Coccinella undecimpunctata was estimated. A total of 17, 14, 16, and 26 compounds were identified in the EOs of M. piperita, M. longifolia, S. officinalis, and S. rosmarinus, respectively. They showed a variation in the major compounds: M. piperita (Carvone, 61.16%), M. longifolia (Pulegone, 48.6%), S. officinalis (Eucalyptol, 33.52%), and S. rosmarinus (α-pinene, 36.65%). A contact toxicity test on A. punicae imago and C. undecimpunctata larvae showed that LC50 were approximately four-fold greater for all tested EOs towards aphids compared to towards the predator, while the two species of Salvia sp. were more effective than the other two species of Mentha sp. The LC50 values on A. punicae ranged from 1.57 to 2.97 µg/mL, while on C. undecimpunctata larvae, they ranged from 5.96 to 10.33 µg/mL. Furthermore, the EOs of two species of Salvia sp. showed excellent repellence and deterrence against A. punicae. In conclusion, the tested EOs, especially those from Salvia sp., have been shown to be promising natural aphicides, repellent, and deterrent against A. punicae, and they are safe for important insect predators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Extracts as Biological Protective Agents)
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Article
Vicia–Micronucleus Test Application for Saline Irrigation Water Risk Assessment
Plants 2022, 11(3), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030462 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 463
Abstract
In view of climate change, increasing soil salinity is expected worldwide. It is therefore important to improve prediction ability of plant salinity effects. For this purpose, brackish/saline irrigation water from two areas in central and coastal Tunisia was sampled. The water samples were [...] Read more.
In view of climate change, increasing soil salinity is expected worldwide. It is therefore important to improve prediction ability of plant salinity effects. For this purpose, brackish/saline irrigation water from two areas in central and coastal Tunisia was sampled. The water samples were classified as C3 (EC: 2.01–2.24 dS m−1) and C4 (EC: 3.46–7.00 dS m−1), indicating that the water was questionable and not suitable for irrigation, respectively. The water samples were tested for their genotoxic potential and growth effects on Vicia faba seedlings. Results showed a decrease in mitotic index (MI) and, consequently, growth parameters concomitant to the appearance of micronucleus (MCN) and chromosome aberrations when the water salinity increased. Salt ion concentration had striking influence on genome stability and growth parameters. Pearson correlation underlined the negative connection between most ions in the water inappropriate for irrigation (C4) and MI as well as growth parameters. MI was strongly influenced by Mg2+, Na+, Cl, and to a less degree Ca2+, K+, and SO42−. Growth parameters were moderately to weakly affected by K+ and Ca2+, respectively. Re-garding MCN, a very strong positive correlation was found for MCN and K+. Despite its short-term application, the Vicia-MCN Test showed a real ability to predict toxicity induced by salt ions confirming that is has a relevant role in hazard identification and risk assessment of salinity effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Salinity Stress in Plants and Molecular Responses 2.0)
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Article
Accumulation of Salicylic Acid and Related Metabolites in Selaginella moellendorffii
Plants 2022, 11(3), 461; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030461 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 348
Abstract
Salicylic acid (SA) is a phytohormone that plays manifold roles in plant growth, defense, and other aspects of plant physiology. The concentration of free SA in plants is fine-tuned by a variety of structural modifications. SA is produced by all land plants, yet [...] Read more.
Salicylic acid (SA) is a phytohormone that plays manifold roles in plant growth, defense, and other aspects of plant physiology. The concentration of free SA in plants is fine-tuned by a variety of structural modifications. SA is produced by all land plants, yet it is not known whether its metabolism is conserved in all lineages. Selaginella moellendorffii is a lycophyte and thus a representative of an ancient clade of vascular plants. Here, we evaluated the accumulation of SA and related metabolites in aerial parts of S. moellendorffii. We found that SA is primarily stored as the 2-O-β-glucoside. Hydroxylated derivatives of SA are also produced by S. moellendorffii and stored as β-glycosides. A candidate signal for SA aspartate was also detected. Phenylpropanoic acids also occur in S. moellendorffii tissue. Only o-coumaric acid is stored as the β-glycoside, while caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids accumulate as alkali-labile conjugates. An in silico search for enzymes involved in conjugation and catabolism of SA in the S. moellendorffii genome indicated that experimental characterization is necessary to clarify the physiological functions of the putative orthologs. This study sheds light on SA metabolism in an ancestral plant species and suggests directions towards elucidating the underlying mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Phenolics: Occurrence, Biosynthesis, and Biological Roles)
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Review
Cereal Germination under Low Oxygen: Molecular Processes
Plants 2022, 11(3), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030460 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 624
Abstract
Cereal crops can differ greatly in tolerance to oxygen shortage under germination and seedling establishment. Rice is able to germinate and elongate the coleoptile under submergence and anoxia. This capacity has been attributed to the successful use of starchy reserves through a molecular [...] Read more.
Cereal crops can differ greatly in tolerance to oxygen shortage under germination and seedling establishment. Rice is able to germinate and elongate the coleoptile under submergence and anoxia. This capacity has been attributed to the successful use of starchy reserves through a molecular pathway activated by sugar starvation and low oxygen. This pathway culminates with the expression of α-amylases to provide sugars that fuel the sink organs. On the contrary, barley and wheat are unable to germinate under anoxia. The sensitivity of barley and wheat is likely due to the incapacity to use starch during germination. This review highlights what is currently known about the molecular mechanisms associated with cereal germination and seedling establishment under oxygen shortage with a special focus on barley and rice. Insights into the molecular mechanisms that support rice germination under low oxygen and into those that are associated with barley sensitivity may be of help for genetic improvement programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Physiology and Environmental Stresses)
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Article
Trade-Off between Facilitation and Interference of Allelopathic Compounds in Vegetation Recovery: The Case of Rosmarinus officinalis in Degraded Gypsum Habitats
Plants 2022, 11(3), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030459 - 07 Feb 2022
Viewed by 471
Abstract
Rosmarinus officinalis advantageously competes with other species in restored gypsum outcrops, and further research is needed to understand the causes. Specifically, we focus on the potential allelopathic effects derived from its terpenes on the emergence of gypsum species. To this end, we [...] Read more.
Rosmarinus officinalis advantageously competes with other species in restored gypsum outcrops, and further research is needed to understand the causes. Specifically, we focus on the potential allelopathic effects derived from its terpenes on the emergence of gypsum species. To this end, we established 120 circular subplots in a previously restored gypsum outcrop, and randomly applied four different treatments based on the presence/absence of rosemary plants and their leaves on the soil. Afterwards, we conducted an experimental sowing of native gypsophiles. All subplots were monitored to estimate seedling emergence, and soil and leaf samples were analysed for terpenes. The results show that the treatments had significant effects on the overall emergence of seedlings, and terpenes were found in rosemary leaves and soils, with no significant differences in terpene composition. In particular, we identified a clear negative effect in the treatment where rosemary plants were eliminated but its leaves were left along with allelopathy (2.57 ± 0.54 individuals/subplot). Unexpectedly, the presence of rosemary plants seems to facilitate the emergence of gypsum species (9.93 ± 1.61 individuals/subplot), counteracting the effects of the allelopathic substances in the soil. Consequently, we do not suggest removing rosemary plants in early stages to encourage the emergence of gypsum species in restored areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant–Plant Allelopathic Interactions)
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Article
“I Climbed a Fig Tree, on an Apple Bashing Spree, Only Pears Fell Free”: Economic, Symbolic and Intrinsic Values of Plants Occurring in Slovenian Folk Songs Collected by K. Štrekelj (1895–1912)
Plants 2022, 11(3), 458; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030458 - 07 Feb 2022
Viewed by 759
Abstract
In this study we examine the occurrence of plants and their symbolic, economic, and intrinsic values in Slovenian folk songs. We have analyzed songs published by the ethnologist Karel Štrekelj between 1895 and 1912. Of the 8686 songs studied, plants occur in 1246 [...] Read more.
In this study we examine the occurrence of plants and their symbolic, economic, and intrinsic values in Slovenian folk songs. We have analyzed songs published by the ethnologist Karel Štrekelj between 1895 and 1912. Of the 8686 songs studied, plants occur in 1246 (14%) of them. A total of 93 plant taxa were found, belonging to 48 plant families. Grapevine is the most frequently mentioned species, followed by rosemary, wheat, carnation, and lily. About half of the taxa belong to cultivated plants (52%), followed by wild plants (42%). Exotic plants (i.e., not growing in the area) are mentioned only occasionally (6%). Half of all citations (49.3%) refer to the symbolic values, such as religion, love, death, economic status, or human qualities. More than a third of the citations (36.7%) are associated with plant’s usefulness, especially consumption, while only a small percentage of citations (14.0%), relate to environmental representation. Several verses show how our appreciation of some plants, especially those used as food, has changed over the centuries. Folk songs have turned out to be interesting sources of information, and although they cannot be fully trusted as historical documents, they can still be used as sources for understanding the relationship between people and plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Historical Ethnobotany: Interpreting the Old Records)
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Article
Isolation of the Novel Strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens F9 and Identification of Lipopeptide Extract Components Responsible for Activity against Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri
Plants 2022, 11(3), 457; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030457 - 07 Feb 2022
Viewed by 637
Abstract
Citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), is a quarantine disease that seriously affects citrus production worldwide. The use of microorganisms and their products for biological control has been proven to be effective in controlling Xanthomonas disease. In this [...] Read more.
Citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), is a quarantine disease that seriously affects citrus production worldwide. The use of microorganisms and their products for biological control has been proven to be effective in controlling Xanthomonas disease. In this study, a novel Xcc antagonistic strain was isolated and identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens F9 by morphological and molecular analysis. The lipopeptide extract of B. amyloliquefaciens F9 (F9LE) effectively inhibited the growth of Xcc in an agar diffusion assay and restrained the occurrence of canker lesions in a pathogenicity test under greenhouse conditions. Consistent with these findings, F9LE treatment significantly inhibited the production of extracellular enzymes in Xcc cells and induced cell wall damage, with leakage of bacterial contents revealed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses. In addition, F9LE also showed strong antagonistic activity against a wide spectrum of plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Furthermore, using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis, the main antimicrobial compounds of strain F9 were identified as three kinds of lipopeptides, including homologues of surfactin, fengycin, and iturin. Taken together, our results show that B. amyloliquefaciens F9 and its lipopeptide components have the potential to be used as biocontrol agents against Xcc, and other plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Full article
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Article
Combining Hyperspectral Reflectance Indices and Multivariate Analysis to Estimate Different Units of Chlorophyll Content of Spring Wheat under Salinity Conditions
Plants 2022, 11(3), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030456 - 07 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 504
Abstract
Although plant chlorophyll (Chl) is one of the important elements in monitoring plant stress and reflects the photosynthetic capacity of plants, their measurement in the lab is generally time- and cost-inefficient and based on a small part of the leaf. This study examines [...] Read more.
Although plant chlorophyll (Chl) is one of the important elements in monitoring plant stress and reflects the photosynthetic capacity of plants, their measurement in the lab is generally time- and cost-inefficient and based on a small part of the leaf. This study examines the ability of canopy spectral reflectance data for the accurate estimation of the Chl content of two wheat genotypes grown under three salinity levels. The Chl content was quantified as content per area (Chl area, μg cm−2), concentration per plant (Chl plant, mg plant−1), and SPAD value (Chl SPAD). The performance of spectral reflectance indices (SRIs) with different algorithm forms, partial least square regression (PLSR), and stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR) in estimating the three units of Chl content was compared. Results show that most indices within each SRI form performed better with Chl area and Chl plant and performed poorly with Chl SPAD. The PLSR models, based on the four forms of SRIs individually or combined, still performed poorly in estimating Chl SPAD, while they exhibited a strong relationship with Chl plant followed by Chl area in both the calibration (Cal.) and validation (Val.) datasets. The SMLR models extracted three to four indices from each SRI form as the most effective indices and explained 73–79%, 80–84%, and 39–43% of the total variability in Chl area, Chl plant, and Chl SPAD, respectively. The performance of the various predictive models of SMLR for predicting Chl content depended on salinity level, genotype, season, and the units of Chl content. In summary, this study indicates that the Chl content measured in the lab and expressed on content (μg cm−2) or concentration (mg plant−1) can be accurately estimated at canopy level using spectral reflectance data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Salinity Stress in Plants and Molecular Responses 2.0)
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Article
UPLC-PDA-MS/MS Profiling and Healing Activity of Polyphenol-Rich Fraction of Alhagi maurorum against Oral Ulcer in Rats
Plants 2022, 11(3), 455; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030455 - 07 Feb 2022
Viewed by 514
Abstract
Camelthorn, Alhagi maurorum Boiss, family Fabaceae has long been used in African folk medicine owing to its richness in pharmacologically active metabolites. The crude extract (CEAM), ethyl acetate fraction (EFAM) and n-butanol (BFAM) fraction of A. maurorum aerial parts were investigated for [...] Read more.
Camelthorn, Alhagi maurorum Boiss, family Fabaceae has long been used in African folk medicine owing to its richness in pharmacologically active metabolites. The crude extract (CEAM), ethyl acetate fraction (EFAM) and n-butanol (BFAM) fraction of A. maurorum aerial parts were investigated for their total polyphenols and oral antiulcer activity using in-vitro and in-vivo models. The major phenolic compound was isolated from the polyphenol-rich EFAM fraction and identified by conventional and spectroscopic methods of analysis as isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside. Furthermore, standardization of EAFM using UPLC-PDA-UV quantified isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside as 262.91 0.57 g/mg of the fraction. Analysis of EFAM using UPLC-PDA-MS/MS revealed tentative identification of 25 polyphenolic compounds. EFAM exhibited the most potent free radical scavenging activity against DPPH, with an IC50 (27.73 ± 1.85 µg/mL) and an FRAP value of (176.60 ± 5.21 μM Trolox equivalent (TE)/mg fraction) in comparison with CEAM and BFAM. Acetic acid-induced oral ulcers in a rat model were used to evaluate the healing properties of A. maurorum aerial parts. EFAM significantly decreased tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) by 36.4% and 50.8%, respectively, in the ulcer tissues while, CEAM and BFAM exhibited lower activity at the same dose. In addition, EFAM led to a significant (p < 0.0001) rise in the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a cell proliferation marker. A. maurorum exhibited a potent healing effect in acetic acid-induced oral ulcers in rats by mitigating the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and improving PCNA expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols in Plants)
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Communication
Functional Antagonism of WRI1 and TCP20 Modulates GH3.3 Expression to Maintain Auxin Homeostasis in Roots
Plants 2022, 11(3), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030454 - 07 Feb 2022
Viewed by 768
Abstract
Auxin is a well-studied phytohormone, vital for diverse plant developmental processes. The GH3 genes are one of the major auxin responsive genes, whose expression changes lead to modulation of plant development and auxin homeostasis. However, the transcriptional regulation of these GH3 genes remains [...] Read more.
Auxin is a well-studied phytohormone, vital for diverse plant developmental processes. The GH3 genes are one of the major auxin responsive genes, whose expression changes lead to modulation of plant development and auxin homeostasis. However, the transcriptional regulation of these GH3 genes remains largely unknown. WRI1 is an essential transcriptional regulator governing plant fatty acid biosynthesis. Recently, we identified that the expression of GH3.3 is increased in the roots of wri1-1 mutant. Nevertheless, in this study we found that AtWRI1 did not activate or repress the promoter of GH3.3 (proGH3.3) despite of its binding to proGH3.3. Cross-family transcription factor interactions play pivotal roles in plant gene regulatory networks. To explore the molecular mechanism by which WRI1 controls GH3.3 expression, we screened an Arabidopsis transcription factor library and identified TCP20 as a novel AtWRI1-interacting regulator. The interaction between AtWRI1 and TCP20 was further verified by several approaches. Importantly, we found that TCP20 directly regulates GH3.3 expression via binding to TCP binding element. Furthermore, AtWRI1 repressed the TCP20-mediated transactivation of proGH3.3. EMSAs demonstrated that AtWRI1 antagonized TCP20 from binding to proGH3.3. Collectively, we provide new insights that WRI1 attenuates GH3.3 expression through interaction with TCP20, highlighting a new mechanism that contributes to fine-tuning auxin homeostasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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Editorial
Crop Adaptation to Elevated CO2 and Temperature
Plants 2022, 11(3), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030453 - 07 Feb 2022
Viewed by 442
Abstract
There is no ambiguity about the fact that both atmospheric CO2 levels and air temperatures are continuing to increase [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crop Adaptation to Elevated CO2 and Temperature)
Article
Antidiabetic Activity and In Silico Molecular Docking of Polyphenols from Ammannia baccifera L. subsp. Aegyptiaca (Willd.) Koehne Waste: Structure Elucidation of Undescribed Acylated Flavonol Diglucoside
Plants 2022, 11(3), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030452 - 06 Feb 2022
Viewed by 554
Abstract
Chemical investigation of the aerial parts of Ammania aegyptiaca ethanol extract (AEEE) showed high concentrations of polyphenol and flavonoid content, with notable antioxidant activity. Undescribed acylated diglucoside flavonol myricetin 3-O-β-4C1-(6″-O-galloyl glucopyranoside) 7-O [...] Read more.
Chemical investigation of the aerial parts of Ammania aegyptiaca ethanol extract (AEEE) showed high concentrations of polyphenol and flavonoid content, with notable antioxidant activity. Undescribed acylated diglucoside flavonol myricetin 3-O-β-4C1-(6″-O-galloyl glucopyranoside) 7-O-β-4C1-glucopyranoside (MGGG) was isolated from the aerial parts of AEEE, along with four known polyphenols that had not been characterized previously from AEEE. The inhibitory effects of MGGG, AEEE, and all compounds against α-amylase, pancreatic lipase and β-glucosidase were assessed. In addition, molecular docking was used to determine the inhibition of digestive enzymes, and this confirmed that the MGGG interacted strongly with the active site residues of these enzymes, with the highest binding free energy against α-amylase (−8.99 kcal/mol), as compared to the commercial drug acarbose (−5.04 kcal/mol), thus justifying its use in the potential management of diabetes. In streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, AEEE significantly decreased high serum glucose, α-amylase activity and serum liver and kidney function markers, as well as increasing insulin blood level. Moreover, AEEE improved the lipid profile of diabetic animals, increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and inhibited lipid peroxidation. Histopathological studies proved the decrease in pancreas damage and supported the biochemical findings. These results provide evidence that AEEE and MGGG possess potent antidiabetic activity, which warrants additional investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols in Plants)
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Article
Flax and Sorghum: Multi-Element Contents and Nutritional Values within 210 Varieties and Potential Selection for Future Climates to Sustain Food Security
Plants 2022, 11(3), 451; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030451 - 06 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 583
Abstract
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends giving priority to nutrient-dense foods while decreasing energy-dense foods. Although both flax (Linum usitatissimum) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) are rich in various essential minerals, their ionomes have yet to be investigated. Furthermore, previous [...] Read more.
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends giving priority to nutrient-dense foods while decreasing energy-dense foods. Although both flax (Linum usitatissimum) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) are rich in various essential minerals, their ionomes have yet to be investigated. Furthermore, previous studies have shown that elevated CO2 levels could reduce key nutrients in crops. In this study, we analyzed 102 flax and 108 sorghum varieties to investigate their ionomic variations (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Mo), elemental level interactions, and nutritional value. The results showed substantial genetic variations and elemental correlations in flax and sorghum. While a serving size of 28 g of flax delivers 37% daily value (DV) of Cu, 31% of Mn, 28% of Mg, and 19% of Zn, sorghum delivers 24% of Mn, 16% of Cu, 11% of Mg, and 10% of Zn of the recommended daily value (DV). We identified a set of promising flax and sorghum varieties with superior seed mineral composition that could complement breeding programs for improving the nutritional quality of flax and sorghum. Overall, we demonstrate additional minerals data and their corresponding health and food security benefits within flax and sorghum that could be considered by consumers and breeding programs to facilitate improving seed nutritional content and to help mitigate human malnutrition as well as the effects of rising CO2 stress. Full article
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Review
Sulfur in Seeds: An Overview
Plants 2022, 11(3), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030450 - 06 Feb 2022
Viewed by 613
Abstract
Sulfur is a growth-limiting and secondary macronutrient as well as an indispensable component for several cellular components of crop plants. Over the years various scientists have conducted several experiments on sulfur metabolism based on different aspects of plants. Sulfur metabolism in seeds has [...] Read more.
Sulfur is a growth-limiting and secondary macronutrient as well as an indispensable component for several cellular components of crop plants. Over the years various scientists have conducted several experiments on sulfur metabolism based on different aspects of plants. Sulfur metabolism in seeds has immense importance in terms of the different sulfur-containing seed storage proteins, the significance of transporters in seeds, the role of sulfur during the time of seed germination, etc. The present review article is based on an overview of sulfur metabolism in seeds, in respect to source to sink relationships, S transporters present in the seeds, S-regulated seed storage proteins and the importance of sulfur at the time of seed germination. Sulfur is an essential component and a decidable factor for seed yield and the quality of seeds in terms of oil content in oilseeds, storage of qualitative proteins in legumes and has a significant role in carbohydrate metabolism in cereals. In conclusion, a few future perspectives towards a more comprehensive knowledge on S metabolism/mechanism during seed development, storage and germination have also been stated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Sulfur Network)
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Article
Monoterpene Synthase Genes and Monoterpene Profiles in Pinus nigra subsp. laricio
Plants 2022, 11(3), 449; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030449 - 06 Feb 2022
Viewed by 499
Abstract
In the present study, we carried out a quantitative analysis of the monoterpenes composition in different tissues of the non-model conifer Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold subsp. laricio Palib. ex Maire (P. laricio, in short). All the P. laricio tissues examined showed [...] Read more.
In the present study, we carried out a quantitative analysis of the monoterpenes composition in different tissues of the non-model conifer Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold subsp. laricio Palib. ex Maire (P. laricio, in short). All the P. laricio tissues examined showed the presence of the same fourteen monoterpenes, among which the most abundant were β-phellandrene, α-pinene, and β-pinene, whose distribution was markedly tissue-specific. In parallel, from the same plant tissues, we isolated seven full-length cDNA transcripts coding for as many monoterpene synthases, each of which was found to be attributable to one of the seven phylogenetic groups in which the d1-clade of the canonical classification of plants’ terpene synthases can be subdivided. The amino acid sequences deduced from the above cDNA transcripts allowed to predict their putative involvement in the biosynthesis of five of the monoterpenes identified. Transcripts profiling revealed a differential gene expression across the different tissues examined, and was found to be consistent with the corresponding metabolites profiles. The genomic organization of the seven isolated monoterpene synthase genes was also determined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Genetics, Genomics and Biotechnology)
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Article
Comparison of Magnoliaceae Plastomes: Adding Neotropical Magnolia to the Discussion
Plants 2022, 11(3), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030448 - 06 Feb 2022
Viewed by 684
Abstract
Chloroplast genomes are considered to be highly conserved. Nevertheless, differences in their sequences are an important source of phylogenetically informative data. Chloroplast genomes are increasingly applied in evolutionary studies of angiosperms, including Magnoliaceae. Recent studies have focused on resolving the previously debated classification [...] Read more.
Chloroplast genomes are considered to be highly conserved. Nevertheless, differences in their sequences are an important source of phylogenetically informative data. Chloroplast genomes are increasingly applied in evolutionary studies of angiosperms, including Magnoliaceae. Recent studies have focused on resolving the previously debated classification of the family using a phylogenomic approach and chloroplast genome data. However, most Neotropical clades and recently described species have not yet been included in molecular studies. We performed sequencing, assembly, and annotation of 15 chloroplast genomes from Neotropical Magnoliaceae species. We compared the newly assembled chloroplast genomes with 22 chloroplast genomes from across the family, including representatives from each genus and section. Family-wide, the chloroplast genomes presented a length of about 160 kb. The gene content in all species was constant, with 145 genes. The intergenic regions showed a higher level of nucleotide diversity than the coding regions. Differences were higher among genera than within genera. The phylogenetic analysis in Magnolia showed two main clades and corroborated that the current infrageneric classification does not represent natural groups. Although chloroplast genomes are highly conserved in Magnoliaceae, the high level of diversity of the intergenic regions still resulted in an important source of phylogenetically informative data, even for closely related taxa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolutionary Genomics II)
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Article
Distribution of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Plant Parts and Populations of Seven Underutilized Wild Achillea Species
Plants 2022, 11(3), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030447 - 06 Feb 2022
Viewed by 467
Abstract
Evaluation of phytochemical composition of underutilized Achillea species provides the primary selection of germplasms with the desired quality of raw material for their further applications. The aim of the study was to evaluate the comprehensive distribution patterns of phenolic compounds in seven wild [...] Read more.
Evaluation of phytochemical composition of underutilized Achillea species provides the primary selection of germplasms with the desired quality of raw material for their further applications. The aim of the study was to evaluate the comprehensive distribution patterns of phenolic compounds in seven wild Achillea spp. and their plant parts, and to assess their antioxidant activity. Plant material was collected from different sites in Turkey. A complex of hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols and flavones was identified and quantified in methanolic extracts using HPLC-PDA method. Antioxidant activity was assessed by radical scavenging assay. The results showed that qualitative and qualitative profiles of caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids were species-specific, explaining the characteristic patterns of their variation in the corresponding species and plant parts. The highest total amount of caffeoylquinic acids was detected in A. setacea. A. arabica exposed the highest accumulation of mono-caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids with the greatest levels of quercetin and luteolin derivatives and the flavonol santin. Santin was detected in all plant parts of A. cappadocica, A. setacea, A. santolinoides subsp. wilhelmsii, and A. arabica. A notable antiradical capacity was confirmed in A. arabica, A. setacea and A. cappadocica plant extracts. The leaves of all studied species were found to have priority over inflorescences and stems in terms of radical scavenging activity. The new data complemented the information that may be relevant for the continuation of chemophenetic studies in the heterogeneous genus Achillea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Plants Phytochemistry and Bioactivity Analysis)
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Article
A New Strategy to Improve Management of Citrus Mal Secco Disease Using Bioformulates Based on Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strains
Plants 2022, 11(3), 446; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030446 - 06 Feb 2022
Viewed by 616
Abstract
The effectiveness of biological commercial products based on Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strains was evaluated through in vitro and in vivo experiments against Plenodomus tracheiphilus. The activity of bacterial cells, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and culture filtrates of bacteria were tested in vitro against [...] Read more.
The effectiveness of biological commercial products based on Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strains was evaluated through in vitro and in vivo experiments against Plenodomus tracheiphilus. The activity of bacterial cells, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and culture filtrates of bacteria were tested in vitro against different isolates of P. tracheiphilus. Afterwards, the virulence of these isolates was evaluated on Citrus volkameriana plants to select the most virulent isolate to use in the in vivo experiments. To evaluate the effectiveness of products, C. volkameriana seedlings were pre-treated, twice with biological products and once with standard fungicides, before pathogen inoculation. Moreover, in order to determine the endophytic ability of the bacteria, the population density within the treated citrus stem was determined. Comprehensively, bacterial cells, filtrates, and VOCs were able to significantly reduce the average mycelial diameter of P. tracheiphilus, with some variability according to pathogen isolate. In planta experiments showed that the biological products on average were less effective than fungicides, although all formulates were able to significantly reduce disease incidence and symptom severity, except B. amyloliquefaciens strain D747 (Amylo-X) for symptom severity (SS) 20 days after inoculation. Bacteria were re-isolated from the internal woody tissue of treated plants, showing strong endophytic ability. This work is important as commercial biological products based on B. amyloliquefaciens strains could represent a promising and sustainable alternative for the integrated management of mal secco disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Citrus Fungal and Oomycete Diseases)
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Article
Transcriptome and Physiological Analysis of Rootstock Types and Silicon Affecting Cold Tolerance of Cucumber Seedlings
Plants 2022, 11(3), 445; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030445 - 06 Feb 2022
Viewed by 471
Abstract
Cucumbers grafted on rootstocks with different de-blooming capacity show varying levels of cold tolerance. The content of fruit bloom correlates with its silicon-metabolizing capacity, and rootstock grafting can alter not only the cold tolerance but also the silicon-metabolizing capacity of the scion. The [...] Read more.
Cucumbers grafted on rootstocks with different de-blooming capacity show varying levels of cold tolerance. The content of fruit bloom correlates with its silicon-metabolizing capacity, and rootstock grafting can alter not only the cold tolerance but also the silicon-metabolizing capacity of the scion. The molecular mechanisms responsible for resistance due to rootstocks and silicon and the pathway that affects cold tolerance, however, remain poorly understood. Therefore, we performed physiological and transcriptome analysis to clarify how rootstock types and silicon affect cold tolerance in cucumber seedlings. Then, we randomly selected eight differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis to proof the reliability of the transcriptome data. The results showed that silicon can enhance the cold tolerance of cucumbers by boosting the phenylpropanoid metabolism, and rootstock grafting can boost the active oxygen scavenging ability and synthesis level of hormones in cucumbers and maintain the stability of the membrane structure to enhance cold tolerance. The difference in cold tolerance between the two rootstocks is because the cold-tolerant one has stronger metabolic and sharp signal transduction ability and can maintain the stability of photosynthesis, thereby contributing to the stability of the cellular system and enhancing tolerance to cold. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulation of Abiotic Stress Responses in Vegetable Crops)
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Article
Controlling Woody Weed Chinese Elm (Celtis sinensis Pers.) with Stem-Implanted Herbicide Capsules
Plants 2022, 11(3), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030444 - 06 Feb 2022
Viewed by 619
Abstract
Chinese elm [Celtis sinensis Pers.] is an emerging environmental weed naturalised throughout the coastal and riparian (creek-banks, river margins, and streams) regions of eastern Australia. Throughout this introduced range, its management is limited to the application of synthetic herbicides and mechanical clearing [...] Read more.
Chinese elm [Celtis sinensis Pers.] is an emerging environmental weed naturalised throughout the coastal and riparian (creek-banks, river margins, and streams) regions of eastern Australia. Throughout this introduced range, its management is limited to the application of synthetic herbicides and mechanical clearing operations (terrain and soil type permitting). The current mechanisms of chemical control (basal bark spraying, stem-injection, and cut-stump applications) often result in collateral damage to non-target native species (such as Eucalyptus spp. and Casuarina cunninghamiana Miq.) through herbicidal drift, runoff or leaching into adjacent habitats. This has raised concerns regarding the suitability of synthetic herbicides in ecologically sensitive (e.g., riparian zones, rainforest margins, and woodlands) or low-value habitats, thereby promoting significant developments in the fields of integrated weed management. This study investigated the effectiveness of a novel stem-implantation system for controlling woody weed species in the context of a conserved habitat. A replicated trial (n = 315) was established among a naturally occurring population of C. sinensis. This trial involved the mapping, measurement, and treatment of this invasive species with five encapsulated synthetic herbicides, as well as an untreated control and benchmark treatment (diesel + AccessTM). A significant effect (p < 0.05) on plant vigour and functional canopy was discerned for each assessment period following trial establishment. The highest incidence of mortality was observed among the individuals treated with glyphosate (245 mg/capsule), aminopyralid and metsulfuron-methyl (58.1 and 37.5 mg/capsule) and picloram (10 mg/capsule), achieving a similar response to the basal bark application of diesel and AccessTM (240 g/L triclopyr, 120 g/L picloram, and 389 g/L liquid hydrocarbon). This was also evidenced by a rapid reduction in functional canopy (i.e., no or little living leaf tissue) from three weeks after treatment. Unlike their industry counterparts, these encapsulated herbicides are immediately sealed into the vascular system of the target species by a plug. This significantly minimises the possibility of environmental or operator exposure to synthetic compounds by providing a targeted, readily calibrated herbicide application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Weed Management)
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Article
Silver Nanoparticle Production Mediated by Vitis vinifera Cane Extract: Characterization and Antibacterial Activity Evaluation
Plants 2022, 11(3), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030443 - 05 Feb 2022
Viewed by 603
Abstract
The ever-growing range of possible applications of nanoparticles requires their mass production. However, there are problems resulting from the prevalent methods of nanoparticle production; physico-chemical routes of nanoparticle synthesis are not very environmentally friendly nor cost-effective. Due to this, the scientific community started [...] Read more.
The ever-growing range of possible applications of nanoparticles requires their mass production. However, there are problems resulting from the prevalent methods of nanoparticle production; physico-chemical routes of nanoparticle synthesis are not very environmentally friendly nor cost-effective. Due to this, the scientific community started exploring new methods of nanoparticle assembly with the aid of biological agents. In this study, ethanolic Vitis vinifera cane extract combined with silver nitrate was used to produce silver nanoparticles. These were subsequently characterized using UV-visible (UV-Vis) spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic light-scattering analysis. The antimicrobial activity of produced nanoparticles was tested against the planktonic cells of five strains of Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1, ATCC 10145, ATCC 15442, DBM 3081, and DBM 3777). After that, bactericidal activity was assessed using solid medium cultivation. In the end, nanoparticles’ inhibitory effect on adhering cells was analyzed by measuring changes in metabolic activity (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay-MTT). Our results confirmed that ethanolic Vitis vinifera cane extract is capable of mediating silver nanoparticle production; synthesis was conducted using 10% of extract and 1 mM of silver nitrate. The silver nanoparticles’ Z-average was 68.2 d nm, and their zeta potential was –30.4 mV. These silver nanoparticles effectively inhibited planktonic cells of all P. aeruginosa strains in concentrations less than 5% v/v and inhibited biofilm formation in concentrations less than 6% v/v. Moreover, minimum bactericidal concentration was observed to be in the range of 10–16% v/v. According to the results in this study, the use of wine agriculture waste is an ecological and economical method for the production of silver nanoparticles exhibiting significant antimicrobial properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activities of Plant Extracts)
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Article
Transcriptome Analysis Revealed a Positive Role of Ethephon on Chlorophyll Metabolism of Zoysia japonica under Cold Stress
Plants 2022, 11(3), 442; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030442 - 05 Feb 2022
Viewed by 458
Abstract
Zoysia japonica is a warm-season turfgrass with a good tolerance and minimal maintenance requirements. However, its use in Northern China is limited due to massive chlorophyll loss in early fall, which is the main factor affecting its distribution and utilization. Although ethephon treatment [...] Read more.
Zoysia japonica is a warm-season turfgrass with a good tolerance and minimal maintenance requirements. However, its use in Northern China is limited due to massive chlorophyll loss in early fall, which is the main factor affecting its distribution and utilization. Although ethephon treatment at specific concentrations has reportedly improved stress tolerance and extended the green period in turfgrass, the potential mechanisms underlying this effect are not clear. In this study, we evaluated and analyzed chlorophyll changes in the physiology and transcriptome of Z. japonica plants in response to cold stress (4 °C) with and without ethephon pretreatment. Based on the transcriptome and chlorophyll content analysis, ethephon pretreatment increased the leaf chlorophyll content under cold stress by affecting two processes: the stimulation of chlorophyll synthesis by upregulating ZjMgCH2 and ZjMgCH3 expression; and the suppression of chlorophyll degradation by downregulating ZjPAO, ZjRCCR, and ZjSGR expression. Furthermore, ethephon pretreatment increased the ratio of chlorophyll a to chlorophyll b in the leaves under cold stress, most likely by suppressing the conversion of chlorophyll a to chlorophyll b due to decreased chlorophyll b synthesis via downregulation of ZjCAO. Additionally, the inhibition of chlorophyll b synthesis may result in energy redistribution between photosystem II and photosystem I. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress Biology of Turfgrass)
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Article
Effects of Light Spectral Quality on Photosynthetic Activity, Biomass Production, and Carbon Isotope Fractionation in Lettuce, Lactuca sativa L., Plants
Plants 2022, 11(3), 441; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030441 - 05 Feb 2022
Viewed by 553
Abstract
The optimization of plant-specific LED lighting protocols for indoor plant growing systems needs both basic and applied research. Experiments with lettuce, Lactuca sativa L., plants using artificial lighting based on narrow-band LEDs were carried out in a controlled environment. We investigated plant responses [...] Read more.
The optimization of plant-specific LED lighting protocols for indoor plant growing systems needs both basic and applied research. Experiments with lettuce, Lactuca sativa L., plants using artificial lighting based on narrow-band LEDs were carried out in a controlled environment. We investigated plant responses to the exclusion of certain spectral ranges of light in the region of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR); in comparison, the responses to quasimonochromatic radiation in the red and blue regions were studied separately. The data on plant phenotyping, photosynthetic activity determination, and PAM fluorometry, indicating plant functional activity and stress responses to anomalous light environments, are presented. The study on carbon isotopic composition of photoassimilates in the diel cycle made it possible to characterize the balance of carboxylation and photorespiration processes in the leaves, using a previously developed oscillatory model of photosynthesis. Thus, the share of plant photorespiration (related to plant biomass enrichment with 13C) increased in response to red-light action, while blue light accelerated carboxylation (related to 12C enrichment). Blue light also reduced water use efficiency. These data are supported by the observations from the light environments missing distinct PAR spectrum regions. The fact that light of different wavelengths affects the isotopic composition of total carbon allowed us to elucidate the nature of its action on the organization of plant metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effects of LED Light Spectra and Intensities on Plant Growth)
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Article
Effect of Processing on Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant Activity, Physicochemical, and Sensory Properties of Orange Sweet Potato, Red Rice, and Their Application for Flake Products
Plants 2022, 11(3), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030440 - 05 Feb 2022
Viewed by 468
Abstract
Orange sweet potato (OSP) and red rice (RR) are rich sources of health benefit-associated substances and can be conventionally cooked or developed into food products. This research approach was to closely monitor the changes of bioactive compounds and their ability as antioxidants from [...] Read more.
Orange sweet potato (OSP) and red rice (RR) are rich sources of health benefit-associated substances and can be conventionally cooked or developed into food products. This research approach was to closely monitor the changes of bioactive compounds and their ability as antioxidants from the native form to the food products which are ready to be consumed. Moreover, this research explored the individual carotenoids and tocopherols of raw and cooked OSP and RR and their developed flake products, and also investigated their antioxidant activity, physicochemical properties, and sensory properties. Simultaneous identification using the liquid chromatographic method showed that OSP, RR, and their flake products have significant amounts (µg/g) of β-carotene (278.58–48.83), α-carotene (19.57–15.66), β-cryptoxanthin (4.83–2.97), α-tocopherol (57.65–18.31), and also γ-tocopherol (40.11–12.15). Different responses were observed on the bioactive compound and antioxidant activity affected by heating process. Meanwhile, OSP and RR can be combined to form promising flake products, as shown from the physicochemical analysis such as moisture (5.71–4.25%) and dietary fiber (13.86–9.47%) contents, water absorption index (1.69–1.06), fracturability (8.48–2.27), crispness (3.9–1.5), and color. Those quality parameters were affected by the proportions of OSP and RR in the flake products. Moreover, the preference scores (n = 120 panelists) for the flakes ranged from slightly liked to indifferent. It can be concluded that OSP and RR are potential sources of bioactive compounds which could act as antioxidants and could be developed into flake products that meet the dietary and sensory needs of consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality Evaluation of Plant-Derived Foods Ⅱ)
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Review
Root Cultures, a Boon for the Production of Valuable Compounds: A Comparative Review
Plants 2022, 11(3), 439; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030439 - 05 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 623
Abstract
Medicinal plants are an inevitable source of pharmaceutical drugs and most of the world population depends on these plants for health benefits. The increasing global demand for bioactive compounds from medicinal plants has posed a great threat to their existence due to overexploitation. [...] Read more.
Medicinal plants are an inevitable source of pharmaceutical drugs and most of the world population depends on these plants for health benefits. The increasing global demand for bioactive compounds from medicinal plants has posed a great threat to their existence due to overexploitation. Adventitious root and hairy root culture systems are an alternative approach to the conventional method for mass production of valuable compounds from medicinal plants owing to their rapid growth, biosynthetic and genetic stability. The main purpose of this review is to investigate the recent scientific research published worldwide on the application of adventitious and hairy root cultures to produce valuable compounds from medicinal plants. Furthermore, a comparison of adventitious root vs. hairy root cultures to produce valuable compounds has also been discussed. Various aspects such as medium composition, carbon source, pH, amount of macronutrients, optimization strategy, scale-up cultures, and use of biotic abiotic and nano-elicitors at various concentrations are the topic of discussion in this review. Several studies on adventitious and hairy root cultures of Polygonum multiflorum¸ Withania somnifera¸ Echinacea purpurea and Ajuga bracteosa have been discussed in detail which highlights the importance of elicitation strategies and bioreactor system, presenting commercial applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Biotechnology Applications in Secondary Metabolite Production)
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Article
Evaluating Branched Broomrape (Phelipanche ramosa) Management Strategies in California Processing Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)
Plants 2022, 11(3), 438; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030438 - 05 Feb 2022
Viewed by 394
Abstract
Detections of the regulated noxious parasitic weed branched broomrape (Phelipanche ramosa) in California tomato fields have led to interest in eradication, sanitation, and management practices. Researchers in Israel developed a decision-support system and herbicide treatment regime for management of Egyptian broomrape [...] Read more.
Detections of the regulated noxious parasitic weed branched broomrape (Phelipanche ramosa) in California tomato fields have led to interest in eradication, sanitation, and management practices. Researchers in Israel developed a decision-support system and herbicide treatment regime for management of Egyptian broomrape (P. aegyptiaca) in tomato. Research was conducted in 2019 and 2020 to evaluate whether similar treatments could be used to manage branched broomrape in California processing tomatoes and to provide registration support data for the herbicide use pattern. Treatment programs based on preplant incorporated (PPI) sulfosulfuron and chemigated imazapic were evaluated in 2019 and 2020 to determine safety on the processing tomato crop and on common rotational crops. Three single-season tomato safety experiments were conducted and a single rotational crop study was conducted in which a tomato crop received herbicide treatments in 2019 and several common rotational crops were planted and evaluated in 2020 in a site without branched broomrape. In 2020, an efficacy study was conducted in a commercial tomato field known to be infested with branched broomrape to evaluate the efficacy of PPI sulfosulfuron and chemigated imazapic, imazapyr, imazethapyr, and imazamox. After two field seasons, sulfosulfuron and imazapic appeared to have reasonable crop safety on tomato in California; however, rotational crop restrictions will need to be considered if sulfosulfuron is used to manage branched broomrape. In the efficacy study, there was a trend in which the sulfosulfuron and imidazolinone treatments had fewer broomrape shoots per plot than the grower standard treatments, however, none were fully effective and there were no significant differences among the various sulfosulfuron and imidazolinone treatment combinations. Additional research is needed to optimize the treatment timing for management of branched broomrape in this cropping system. Because of registration barriers with imazapic in the California market, future research will focus on treatment combinations of PPI sulfosulfuron and chemigated imazamox rather than imazapic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasitic Weeds: Biology and Control)
Article
Identification of QTLs for Grain Protein Content in Russian Spring Wheat Varieties
Plants 2022, 11(3), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030437 - 05 Feb 2022
Viewed by 384
Abstract
Most modern breeding programs aim to develop wheat (T. aestivum L.) varieties with a high grain protein content (GPC) due to its greater milling and cooking quality, and improved grain price. Here, we used a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to map single [...] Read more.
Most modern breeding programs aim to develop wheat (T. aestivum L.) varieties with a high grain protein content (GPC) due to its greater milling and cooking quality, and improved grain price. Here, we used a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to map single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with GPC in 93 spring bread wheat varieties developed by eight Russian Breeding Centers. The varieties were evaluated for GPC, grain weight per spike (GWS), and thousand-kernel weight (TKW) at six environments, and genotyped with 9351 polymorphic SNPs and two SNPs associated with the NAM-A1 gene. GPC varied from 9.8 to 20.0%, depending on the genotype and environment. Nearly 52% of the genotypes had a GPC > 14.5%, which is the threshold value for entry into high-class wheat varieties. Broad-sense heritability for GPC was moderate (0.42), which is due to the significant effect of environment and genotype × environment interactions. GWAS performed on mean GPC evaluated across six environments identified eleven significant marker-trait associations, of which nine were physically mapped on chromosome 6A. Screening of wheat varieties for allelic variants of the NAM-A1 gene indicated that 60% of the varieties contained the NAM-A1c allele, followed by 33% for NAM-A1d, and 5% for NAM-A1a alleles. Varieties with the NAM-A1d allele showed significantly (p < 0.01) smaller GPC than those with NAM-A1c and NAM-A1a. However, no significant differences between NAM-A1 alleles were observed for both GWS and TKW. Full article
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