Special Issue "Trends in Plants Phytochemistry and Bioactivity Analysis"

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Phytochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 March 2022) | Viewed by 18560

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Lina Raudone
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Pharmacognosy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Sukileliu Av. 13, LT-50162 Kaunas, Lithuania
2. Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Research, Institute of Pharmaceutical Technologies, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Sukileliu Av. 13, LT-50162 Kaunas, Lithuania
Interests: phytochemical and antioxidant research of plant raw materials rich in phenolic, triterpenic, diterpenic compounds, essential oils, and research of the effect of compounds in biological model systems; development and optimization of methodologies for the quantification of biologically active compounds of plant origin; determination of the qualitative and quantitative composition of biologically active compounds in raw materials of plant origin
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Nijole Savickienė
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department, School, City zipcode, Country: Department of Pharmacognosy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Sukileliu Av. 13, LT-50162 Kaunas, Lithuania
Interests: phytochemical and antioxidant investigation of herbal raw material and isolated compounds; qualitative–quantitative analysis of proteins; lectins; investigation of proteins; lectins’ biological activity tested in vitro and in vivo; search for new herbal drugs and pharmacological activities; clinical investigation of natural antioxidants on the development of Diabetes mellitus complications; periodontitis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The global use of herbal medicinal products continues to grow. Extensive research is performed on plant materials and the development of their preparations for the management of chronic diseases.

Plant raw material and the quality of products made from it must meet the requirements of safety and stability efficiency, and bioactive compounds are the key determinants. Plants are complex matrices containing a body of secondary metabolites with notable biological effects. Different subspecies, chemovarieties, and cultivars exist which might have strong influences on efficacy and safety. The phytochemical profiles highly depend on the genetic origin, harvesting time, environmental conditions of growing area, and phenological cycle. Thus, elucidation the phytochemical profiles and activity markers are essential for the standardization of herbal materials for the comprehensive characterization of herbal drugs. Studies of phytochemical composition and evaluation of biological and technological properties of plant materials are important applied scientific tasks. This Special Issue aims to collect research dealing with the determination of bioactive secondary metabolites in plants that have relevance in chemophenetics, pharmacognosy, phytotherapy, and functionalization. 

Prof. Dr. Lina Raudone
Prof. Dr. Nijole Savickienė
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Phytochemistry
  • Natural products
  • Chemophenetics
  • Antioxidants
  • Phenolics
  • Secondary metabolites
  • Chromatography
  • Extraction
  • Investigation in vitro and in vivo

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Research

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Article
Phytochemical Analysis, Antioxidant Potential, and Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Traditionally Used Artemisia absinthium L. (Wormwood) Growing in the Central Region of Saudi Arabia
Plants 2022, 11(8), 1028; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11081028 - 09 Apr 2022
Viewed by 431
Abstract
Artemisia absinthium, a plant distributed worldwide, has been reported for its numerous traditional uses, and its phytoconstituents have been investigated in several previous publications. The current study was designed to investigate the chemistry and quality; i.e., the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities, of [...] Read more.
Artemisia absinthium, a plant distributed worldwide, has been reported for its numerous traditional uses, and its phytoconstituents have been investigated in several previous publications. The current study was designed to investigate the chemistry and quality; i.e., the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities, of A. absinthium volatile oil from plant species growing in the central area of Saudi Arabia compared to reported data for the plant growing in other parts of the world. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) spectroscopic analyses, in addition to in vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic assays, were conducted to fulfill the aims, and integrated the study’s conclusion. A total of 34 compounds representing 99.98% of the essential oil of the plant were identified; among them, cis-davanone was found at the highest concentration (52.51%) compared to the other constituents. In addition, α-gurjunene (7.15%), chamazulene (3.38%), camphene (3.27), γ-eudesmol (2.49%), pinocarvone (2.18%), and ocimenone (2.03%) were also identified as major constituents of the plant’s essential oil. The total percentage of davanones (53%) was the highest percentage found in the plant species growing elsewhere in the world. The antioxidant assays; i.e., the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl-scavenging activity (DPPH-SA), evidenced the potential in vitro antioxidant activity of the A. absinthium essential oil, with 35.59, 10.54, and 24.00 mg Trolox equivalent per gram of the essential oil. In addition, the metal-cheating activity (MCA) of the essential oil was measured at 29.87 mg ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) equivalent per gram of the essential oil. Moreover, a limited cytotoxic effect of the essential oil against all tested cell lines was observed, which might be considered as an indicator of the safety of A. absinthium as a worldwide edible plant. In conclusion, the study confirmed the variations in the A. absinthium essential oil constituents in response to the environmental conditions. The study also highlighted the potential health benefits of the plant’s essential oil as an antioxidant agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Plants Phytochemistry and Bioactivity Analysis)
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Article
Supercritical Fluid and Conventional Extractions of High Value-Added Compounds from Pomegranate Peels Waste: Production, Quantification and Antimicrobial Activity of Bioactive Constituents
Plants 2022, 11(7), 928; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11070928 - 30 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 630
Abstract
This study is focused on different extractions (Cold Maceration (CM), Ultrasonic Extraction (UE), Soxhlet Extraction (SE) and Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE)) of bioactive compounds from pomegranate (Punica Granatum L.) fruit peels using methanol, ethanol, and acetone as solvents in conventional extractions and [...] Read more.
This study is focused on different extractions (Cold Maceration (CM), Ultrasonic Extraction (UE), Soxhlet Extraction (SE) and Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE)) of bioactive compounds from pomegranate (Punica Granatum L.) fruit peels using methanol, ethanol, and acetone as solvents in conventional extractions and changing operating pressure (10, 15, 20, 25 MPa) in SFE, respectively. The extraction yields, total phenols (TP) and proanthocyanidins (PAC) contents, and antioxidant activity of different extracts are revealed. TP and PAC recovered by extracts ranged from 24.22 to 42.92 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g and 2.01 to 5.82 mg PAC/g, respectively. The antioxidant activity of extracts ranged from 84.70% to 94.35%. The phenolic compound identification and quantification in selective extracts was done using the LC-MS/MS method. The contents of different flavonoids and phenolic acids have been determined. SFE extract, obtained at 20 MPa, contained the highest content (11,561.84 μg/g) of analyzed total polyphenols, with predominant ellagic acid (7492.53 μg/g). For the first time, Microbial Growth Inhibition Rates (MGIRs) were determined at five different concentrations of pomegranate SFE extract against seven microorganisms. Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC90) was determined as 2.7 mg/mL of SFE pomegranate peel extract in the case of five different Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Plants Phytochemistry and Bioactivity Analysis)
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Article
Distribution of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Plant Parts and Populations of Seven Underutilized Wild Achillea Species
Plants 2022, 11(3), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030447 - 06 Feb 2022
Viewed by 533
Abstract
Evaluation of phytochemical composition of underutilized Achillea species provides the primary selection of germplasms with the desired quality of raw material for their further applications. The aim of the study was to evaluate the comprehensive distribution patterns of phenolic compounds in seven wild [...] Read more.
Evaluation of phytochemical composition of underutilized Achillea species provides the primary selection of germplasms with the desired quality of raw material for their further applications. The aim of the study was to evaluate the comprehensive distribution patterns of phenolic compounds in seven wild Achillea spp. and their plant parts, and to assess their antioxidant activity. Plant material was collected from different sites in Turkey. A complex of hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols and flavones was identified and quantified in methanolic extracts using HPLC-PDA method. Antioxidant activity was assessed by radical scavenging assay. The results showed that qualitative and qualitative profiles of caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids were species-specific, explaining the characteristic patterns of their variation in the corresponding species and plant parts. The highest total amount of caffeoylquinic acids was detected in A. setacea. A. arabica exposed the highest accumulation of mono-caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids with the greatest levels of quercetin and luteolin derivatives and the flavonol santin. Santin was detected in all plant parts of A. cappadocica, A. setacea, A. santolinoides subsp. wilhelmsii, and A. arabica. A notable antiradical capacity was confirmed in A. arabica, A. setacea and A. cappadocica plant extracts. The leaves of all studied species were found to have priority over inflorescences and stems in terms of radical scavenging activity. The new data complemented the information that may be relevant for the continuation of chemophenetic studies in the heterogeneous genus Achillea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Plants Phytochemistry and Bioactivity Analysis)
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Article
Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Peel, Pulp and Seed Extracts of Different Clones of the Turkish Grape Cultivar ‘Karaerik’
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2154; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102154 - 11 Oct 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 816
Abstract
The Erzincan plain is one of the richest regions in Turkey in terms of plant biodiversity. In this region, the famous grape cultivar ‘Karaerik’ has always dominated grape production due to its berry characteristics. The cultivar shows great morphological variation at clonal level. [...] Read more.
The Erzincan plain is one of the richest regions in Turkey in terms of plant biodiversity. In this region, the famous grape cultivar ‘Karaerik’ has always dominated grape production due to its berry characteristics. The cultivar shows great morphological variation at clonal level. In this study, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of peel, pulp and seed extracts of nine ‘Karaerik’ clones sampled from same location were investigated. The Folin–Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content of peel, pulp and seed extracts of nine clones. To determine antioxidant activity, three well known assays such as DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate), FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) and TEAC (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity) were used. In addition, the correlation between total phenol content and DPPH, FRAP and TEAC was determined. Results showed that among the tissues, seed samples in berries of all clones had the highest total phenol content and antioxidant activity determined by three assays. Seed samples were followed by peel and pulp for total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Among the nine ‘Karaerik’ clones, Clone 8 had the highest total phenolic content (149 mg GAE/100 g FW) while Clone 3 had the lowest (111 mg GAE/100 g FW). Peel, pulp and seed samples of nine ‘Karaerik’ clones showed strong antioxidant activity in DPPH, FRAP and TEAC assays. In particular, grape seeds were found rich for better in phenolic compounds including gallic acid, quercetin, catechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid. Clones such as 7, 8 and 9 higher antioxidant activity may present great potential for grape breeders and the food industry as well as health-conscious consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Plants Phytochemistry and Bioactivity Analysis)
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Article
Phenological and Geographical Effects on Phenolic and Triterpenoid Content in Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. Leaves
Plants 2021, 10(10), 1986; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10101986 - 23 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 703
Abstract
Lingonberry leaves have been proposed as a potential raw material for nutraceutical products and functional food due to the richness of phenolic and triterpenic compounds. However, contents of these bioactive compounds tend to vary greatly with physiological, climatic, and edaphic conditions, resulting in [...] Read more.
Lingonberry leaves have been proposed as a potential raw material for nutraceutical products and functional food due to the richness of phenolic and triterpenic compounds. However, contents of these bioactive compounds tend to vary greatly with physiological, climatic, and edaphic conditions, resulting in lingonberry leaves’ nutritional-pharmaceutical quality changes. In this context, we examined the effects of seasonal and geographical factors on phenolic and triterpenoid contents in lingonberry leaves. Quantitative and qualitative differences between samples were determined using validated HPLC-PDA methods. A total of 43 bioactive compounds were found at a detectable level throughout the year in young and old lingonberry leaves, with the highest contents of most compounds observed in samples collected in autumn–first half of spring. This suggests the potential to exploit the continuous biosynthesis for a longer harvesting season. Considerable variations in phytochemical profiles of lingonberry leaves, obtained from 28 locations in Lithuania, were found. Correlation analyses revealed significant negative correlations between contents of particular constituents and sunshine duration, temperature, and precipitation, and positive correlation with air humidity, longitudes, and altitudes of collecting locations and macronutrients in soil. These results suggest that harsh weather is favorable for most identified compounds and it may be possible to achieve appropriate accumulation of secondary metabolites by adjusting edaphic conditions. Taken together, the accumulation of phenolics and triterpenoids in lingonberry leaves highly depends on phenological and geographical factors and the influence of both variables differ for the particular compounds due to different metabolic processes in response to stresses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Plants Phytochemistry and Bioactivity Analysis)
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Article
The Cultivation of Chelidonium majus L. Increased the Total Alkaloid Content and Cytotoxic Activity Compared with Those of Wild-Grown Plants
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1971; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091971 - 21 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 947
Abstract
The effect of cultivation practises on both the phytochemical profile and biological activity of aqueous ethanol extracts of Chelidonium majus L. was studied. Extracts were prepared from aerial parts of the same plant population collected in the wild and grown under organic farming [...] Read more.
The effect of cultivation practises on both the phytochemical profile and biological activity of aqueous ethanol extracts of Chelidonium majus L. was studied. Extracts were prepared from aerial parts of the same plant population collected in the wild and grown under organic farming conditions. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses of alkaloids and flavonoid derivatives were performed by LC/MS methods, and the cytotoxicity of lyophilised extracts was studied in B16-F10, HepG2, and CaCo-2 cells. Coptisine was the dominant alkaloid of extracts prepared from wild-grown plants, whereas after cultivation, chelidonine was the most abundant alkaloid. The total alkaloid content was significantly increased by cultivation. Ten flavonol glycoconjugates were identified in C. majus extracts, and quantitative analysis did not reveal significant differences between extracts prepared from wild-grown and cultivated specimens. Treatment with C. majus extracts resulted in a dose-dependent increase in cytotoxicity in all three cell lines. The extracts prepared from cultivated specimens showed higher cytotoxicity than the extracts prepared from wild-grown plants. The strongest cytotoxic effect of cultivated C. majus was observed in B16-F10 cells (IC50 = 174.98 ± 1.12 µg/mL). Cultivation-induced differences in the phytochemical composition of C. majus extracts resulted in significant increases in the cytotoxic activities of the preparations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Plants Phytochemistry and Bioactivity Analysis)
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Article
Metabolite Profiling of Dioscorea (Yam) Leaves to Identify Bioactive Compounds Reveals Their Potential as Renewable Resources
Plants 2021, 10(8), 1751; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10081751 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1022
Abstract
Yams (Dioscorea spp.) are cultivated and consumed as edible tubers, while their leaves are discarded as waste or burned with negative environmental impact. Herein, the metabolites of two yam species (Danma, DAN; Dunggeunma, DUN), harvested in June, July, and August, were profiled [...] Read more.
Yams (Dioscorea spp.) are cultivated and consumed as edible tubers, while their leaves are discarded as waste or burned with negative environmental impact. Herein, the metabolites of two yam species (Danma, DAN; Dunggeunma, DUN), harvested in June, July, and August, were profiled using GC-TOF-MS and UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS/MS and the antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated to stimulate the utilization of yam leaves as a by-product. We observed that the relative levels of amino acids, organic acids, sugars, and saponins decreased linearly with prolonged harvest time, while fatty acid, phenanthrene, and flavonoid levels gradually increased. Furthermore, the leaf extracts obtained in August exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. To determine the antioxidant-contributing metabolites, OPLS-DA was performed for the leaf metabolites of DAN and DUN leaves harvested in August. Hydroxytyrosol-glucoside, apigenin-rhamnoside, and rutin were more abundant in DUN, while luteolin, phenanthrene derivatives, epicatechin, and kaempferide were relatively higher in DAN and their respective metabolites were positively correlated with the antioxidant activity. Moreover, secondary metabolites were more abundant in the leaves than in the roots, and consequently, the antioxidant activity of the former was also higher. Overall, the potential value of yam leaves as a renewable source of bioactive compounds is proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Plants Phytochemistry and Bioactivity Analysis)
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Article
Phytochemicals and In Vitro Bioactivities of Aqueous Ethanolic Extracts from Common Vegetables in Thai Food
Plants 2021, 10(8), 1563; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10081563 - 29 Jul 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1013
Abstract
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading global cause of death. The World Health Organization (WHO) has endorsed the consumption of fruits and vegetables because they are rich in phytochemicals that sustainably ameliorate the occurrence of NCDs. Thai food contains many spices and vegetables [...] Read more.
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading global cause of death. The World Health Organization (WHO) has endorsed the consumption of fruits and vegetables because they are rich in phytochemicals that sustainably ameliorate the occurrence of NCDs. Thai food contains many spices and vegetables with recognized health benefits. Quality control of plant samples encountered a bottleneck in the field and comparative studies of plant control origins including species or cultivar identification, growing area and appropriate harvesting time are limited. To address this issue, all plant samples used in this study were cultivated and controlled by the Department of Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Thailand. The samples were phytochemically screened and determined their health-promoting bioactivities via antioxidant activities and inhibition of NCD-related enzymes including lipase (obesity), α-amylase and α-glucosidase (diabetes), angiotensin-converting enzyme (hypertension), as well as acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase and β-secretase (Alzheimer’s disease). The non-enzymatic reaction toward glycation was also evaluated. The results showed that Senegalia pennata subsp. insuavis (Lace) Maslin, Seigler & Ebinger, Citrus hystrix DC. and Solanum melongena ‘Kermit’ extracts exhibited high antioxidant activities. Moreover, Citrus hystrix DC. extract was a potent inhibitor against lipase, angiotensin-converting enzyme and butyrylcholinesterase, while Coriandrum sativum L. and Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC. were potent anti-diabetic agents and Senegalia pennata subsp. insuavis (Lace) Maslin, and Seigler & Ebinger was a potent anti-glycation agent. Our data provide a comparative analysis of ten vegetables to encourage healthy food consumption and development to control NCDs in Thailand in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Plants Phytochemistry and Bioactivity Analysis)
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Article
Cassia fistula Leaves; UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS Based Metabolite Profiling and Molecular Docking Insights to Explore Bioactives Role towards Inhibition of Pancreatic Lipase
Plants 2021, 10(7), 1334; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10071334 - 29 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1174
Abstract
The present work was aimed at investigating hydroethanolic leaf extracts of Cassia fistula for their antioxidant and pancreatic lipase (PL) enzyme inhibitory properties. The most active extract was selected to profile the phytoconstituents by UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS technique. Among the tested extracts, the 80% hydroethanolic [...] Read more.
The present work was aimed at investigating hydroethanolic leaf extracts of Cassia fistula for their antioxidant and pancreatic lipase (PL) enzyme inhibitory properties. The most active extract was selected to profile the phytoconstituents by UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS technique. Among the tested extracts, the 80% hydroethanolic extract exhibited the maximum levels of total phenolic and flavonoid contents (TPC and TFC) with a contribution of 201.3 ± 2.6 mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram of extract (GAE/g extract), and 116.3 ± 2.4 mg of rutin equivalent per gram of extract (RE/g extract), respectively. The same extract also showed promising 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and PL inhibitory activity with an IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) of 30.5 ± 2.8 µg/mL and 17.31 ± 1.18 μg/mL, respectively. The phytochemical profiling of 80% hydroethanolic extract confirmed the presence of 23 metabolites of immense medicinal significance. Docking studies were conducted to investigate the potential interactions of compounds identified in the study. The docking study-based binding energy data and the interaction scheme both revealed the possible role of the identified compounds towards PL inhibitor. Moreover, energies of frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs), ionization potentials (IP), electron affinities (EA) and molecular electrostatic potentials (MEP) were also explored. The findings of the current work suggest that C. fistula is a promising natural source of antioxidant and antiobesity agents, which may be exploited to add pharmacological functionalities to food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Plants Phytochemistry and Bioactivity Analysis)
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Article
Study of the Biologically Active Properties of Medicinal Plant Cotinus coggygria
Plants 2021, 10(6), 1224; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10061224 - 16 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 874
Abstract
The results of the studies have shown that to obtain an extract of a complex of biologically active substances of Cotinus coggygria, ethyl alcohol (mass fraction of alcohol 70%) with a hydromodule of 1:5 should be used, and the extraction should be [...] Read more.
The results of the studies have shown that to obtain an extract of a complex of biologically active substances of Cotinus coggygria, ethyl alcohol (mass fraction of alcohol 70%) with a hydromodule of 1:5 should be used, and the extraction should be carried out for 60 min at a temperature of 60 °C. The investigated plant extracts with the complex of bioactive substances from the Cotinus coggygria leaves and flowers are safe from the point of view of the content of heavy metals, pesticides, aflatoxin B1, radionuclides, as well as pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms. It has been established that the Cotinus coggygria extract contains rutin, hyperoside, ferulic acid, quercetin, kaempferol, disulphuretin, sulphurein, sulphurein, gallic acid, methyl gallate, pentagalloyl glucose, 3,3′,4′,5,6,7-hexahydroxyflavonone, 3,3′,4′,5,5′,7-hexahydroxyflavonone, 3-O-α-L-rhamnofuranoside, 3,3′,4′,5,5′,7-hexahydroxyflavulium(1+), 7-O-β-D glucopyranoside, and 3,3′,4′,7-tetrahydroxyflavonone. The tested extracts have anticancer, antigenotoxic, and antimicrobial (against E. coli, S. aureus, P. vulgaris, C. albicans, L. mesenteroides) properties. The high antioxidant status of the tested extracts was established; the antioxidant activity of the samples was 145.09 mg AA/g (AA—ascorbic acid). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Plants Phytochemistry and Bioactivity Analysis)
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Article
The In Vitro α-Glucosidase Inhibition Activity of Various Solvent Fractions of Tamarix dioica and 1H-NMR Based Metabolite Identification and Molecular Docking Analysis
Plants 2021, 10(6), 1128; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10061128 - 02 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1252
Abstract
The Tamarix dioica (T. dioica) is widely used medicinal plant to cure many chronic ailments. T. dioica is being used to manage diabetes mellitus in traditional medicinal system; however, very little scientific evidence is available on this plant in this context. [...] Read more.
The Tamarix dioica (T. dioica) is widely used medicinal plant to cure many chronic ailments. T. dioica is being used to manage diabetes mellitus in traditional medicinal system; however, very little scientific evidence is available on this plant in this context. The current study involves the fractionation of crude methanolic extract of T. dioica using n-hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, and n-butanol. The screening for antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was carried out. The in vitro antidiabetic potential was assessed by measuring α-glucosidase inhibition. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also determined for each fraction. The metabolites were identified using highly sensitive and emerging 1H-NMR technique. The results revealed the ethyl acetate fraction as the most potent with DPPH scavenging activity of 84.44 ± 0.21% and α-glucosidase inhibition with IC50 value of 122.81 ± 2.05 µg/mL. The total phenolic and flavonoid content values of 205.45 ± 1.36 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram dried extract and 156.85 ± 1.33 mg quercetin equivalent per gram dried extract were obtained for ethyl acetate fraction. The bucketing of 1H-NMR spectra identified 22 metabolites including some pharmacologically important like tamarixetin, tamaridone, quercetin, rutin, apigenin, catechin, kaempferol, myricetin and isorhamnetin. Leucine, lysine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, serine, and tyrosine were the major amino acids identified in ethyl acetate fraction. The molecular docking analysis provided significant information on the binding affinity among secondary metabolites and α-glucosidase. These metabolites were most probably responsible for the antioxidant activity and α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of ethyl acetate fraction. The study ascertained the ethnomedicinal use of T. dioica to manage diabetes mellitus and may be a helpful lead towards naturopathic mode for anti-hyperglycemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Plants Phytochemistry and Bioactivity Analysis)
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Article
Volatile Compounds, Sensory Profile and Phenolic Compounds in Fermented Rice Bran
Plants 2021, 10(6), 1073; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10061073 - 27 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1646
Abstract
Rice bran (RB), a by-product of the rice milling process, is a rich source of bioactive compounds. Current studies have suggested that fermentation can enhance the bioactivities of RB. This study is aimed to analyse the volatile compounds and sensory profile of fermented [...] Read more.
Rice bran (RB), a by-product of the rice milling process, is a rich source of bioactive compounds. Current studies have suggested that fermentation can enhance the bioactivities of RB. This study is aimed to analyse the volatile compounds and sensory profile of fermented RB from two cultivars (Inpari 30 and Cempo Ireng) that are well-known in Indonesia, as well as to measure total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Volatile compounds of fermented RB were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with headspace-solid phase microextraction. The optimum TPC and antioxidant activity were observed after 72 h fermentation of RB. The 55 volatile compounds were identified in fermented and non-fermented RB. They were classified into alcohols, aldehydes, acids, ketones, phenols, esters, benzene, terpenes, furans, lactone, pyridines, pyrazines, and thiazoles. Volatile compounds were significantly different among the varieties. The sensory analysis showed that the panelists could differentiate sensory profiles (color, taste, flavor, and texture) between the samples. Fermentation can enhance the acceptance of RB. These studies may provide opportunities to promote the production of fermented RB as a functional ingredient with enhanced bioactivity for health promotion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Plants Phytochemistry and Bioactivity Analysis)
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Article
24-Epibrasinolide Modulates the Vase Life of Lisianthus Cut Flowers by Modulating ACC Oxidase Enzyme Activity and Physiological Responses
Plants 2021, 10(5), 995; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10050995 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 954
Abstract
Ethylene is the most important factor playing roles in senescence and deterioration of harvested crops including cut flowers. Brassinosteroids (BRs), as natural phytohormones, have been reported to differently modulate ethylene production and related senescence processes in different crops. This study was carried out [...] Read more.
Ethylene is the most important factor playing roles in senescence and deterioration of harvested crops including cut flowers. Brassinosteroids (BRs), as natural phytohormones, have been reported to differently modulate ethylene production and related senescence processes in different crops. This study was carried out to determine the effects of different levels of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) on ACC oxidase enzyme activity, the final enzyme in ethylene biosynthesis pathway, vase life, and senescence rate in lisianthus cut flowers. Harvested flowers were treated with EBL (at 0, 3, 6, and 9 µmol/L) and kept at 25 °C for 15 days. The ACC oxidase activity, water absorption, malondialdehyde (MDA) production and vase solution absorption rates, chlorophyll and anthocyanin contents, and the vase life of the flowers were evaluated during and at the end of storage. EBL at 3 µmol/L significantly (p ≤ 0.01) enhanced the flower vase life by decreasing the ACC oxidase activity, MDA production and senescence rates, and enhancing chlorophyll and anthocyanin biosynthesis and accumulation, relative water content, and vase solution absorption rates. By increasing the concentration, EBL negatively affected the flower vase life and postharvest quality probably via enhancing the ACC oxidase enzyme activity and subsequent ethylene production. EBL at 6 and 9 µmol/L and in a concentration dependent manner, enhanced the ACC oxidase activity and MDA production rate and decreased chlorophyll and anthocyanin accumulation and water absorption rate. The results indicate that the effects of brassinosteroids on ethylene production and physiology of lisianthus cut flowers is highly dose dependent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Plants Phytochemistry and Bioactivity Analysis)
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Article
Echinacea purpurea L. (Moench) Hemagglutinin Effect on Immune Response In Vivo
Plants 2021, 10(5), 936; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10050936 - 07 May 2021
Viewed by 1115
Abstract
Echinacea purpurea L. (Moench) is used in traditional and conventional medicine. However, there is lack of data on the biological activities of primary plant metabolite lectins. The aim of our experiment was to find out how lectin LysM (lysine motif), which was previously [...] Read more.
Echinacea purpurea L. (Moench) is used in traditional and conventional medicine. However, there is lack of data on the biological activities of primary plant metabolite lectins. The aim of our experiment was to find out how lectin LysM (lysine motif), which was previously purified, affects the immune response in vivo. Eight-week-old BALB/c male mice (n = 15) received four weekly 250 μg/kg peritonial injections of purified Echinacea purpurea L. (Moench) roots’ LysM lectin. The control animal group (n = 15) received 50 μL peritoneal injections of fresh Echinacea purpurea L. (Moench) root tincture, and the negative control animal group (n = 15) received 50 μL peritoneal injections of physiological solution. At the fifth experimental week, the animals were sedated with carbon dioxide, and later euthanized by cervical dislocation, and then their blood and spleen samples were collected. The leukocytes’ formula and lymphocytes’ count was estimated in blood samples, the T lymphocytes’ density was evaluated in spleen zones. A statistically significant (p < 0.05) difference between each group was observed in the leukocytes’ formula (monocytes’ percentage, also little, medium and giant size lymphocytes). The purple coneflower fresh roots’ tincture significantly decreased (p < 0.05) the T lymphocytes’ quantity in peritoneal lymphoid sheaths (PALS) compared with the physiological solution injection’s group (p < 0.05) and the lectin injection’s group (p < 0.001). Meanwhile, lectin injections caused a significant (p < 0.01) increase in the T lymphocytes in a spleen PALS zone, compared with the physiological solution and tincture injection’s group. Our data suggests that LysM lectin acts as an immunostimulant, while fresh purple coneflower tincture causes immunosuppression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Plants Phytochemistry and Bioactivity Analysis)
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Article
Biological Properties of Essential Oils from Thymus algeriensis Boiss
Plants 2021, 10(4), 786; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10040786 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1371
Abstract
This study describes the chemical composition, antitumor, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the plant Thymus algeriensis Boiss. Essential oils (EOs) were collected in different periods (before, during, and after flowering stage) from the El-Guetfa region, M’sila, Algeria. The EOs extraction was achieved using [...] Read more.
This study describes the chemical composition, antitumor, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the plant Thymus algeriensis Boiss. Essential oils (EOs) were collected in different periods (before, during, and after flowering stage) from the El-Guetfa region, M’sila, Algeria. The EOs extraction was achieved using three distinguishing techniques: hydro (Clevenger trap), steam, and microwave distillations, targeting different aerial parts of the plant (stems, flowers, and leaves). The EOs chemical components were estimated using GC-FID and GC-MS apparatuses. The resulting yield of the extracted oil was moderate and ranged between 0.84 and 1.53% (wt/vol). In total, eighty-five components were identified, in which the oxygenated monoterpenes family formed the main portion, starting from 40.56 up to 70.66%. The obtained essential oil was dominated by five major components that varied from low to quite moderate percentages: camphor (17.45–32.56%), borneol (11.16–22.2%), camphene (7.53–12.86%), 1.8-cineole (5.16–11.21%), and bornyl acetate (3.86–7.92%). The biological results of this oil pointed out that the EOs extracted from the leaves part exposed a weak radical scavenging activity afterward using two well-known antioxidant assays DPPH (IC50 = 8.37 mg/mL) and ABTS (10.84 mg/mL). Meanwhile, this oil presented strong inhibition activity against colon cancer cell line HCT116 (LC50 = 39.8 µg/mL) and a moderate inhibitory against hepatocellular cancer cells HePG2 (LC50 > 100 µg/mL). In addition, this oil antimicrobial activity was quite important against Micrococcus luteus (M. luteus), Staphylococcus aureus CIP 7625, Escherichia coli ATCC 10536, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 4226, Candida albicans IPA200, Candida tropicalis (Ct), and Candida glabrata (Cg) after using Amoxicillin and Itraconazole as references. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Plants Phytochemistry and Bioactivity Analysis)
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Review

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Review
Cyano-Phycocyanin: Mechanisms of Action on Human Skin and Future Perspectives in Medicine
Plants 2022, 11(9), 1249; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11091249 - 05 May 2022
Viewed by 531
Abstract
Cyano-phycocyanin is one of the active pigments of the blue-green algae and is usually isolated from the filamentous cyanobacteria Arthrospira platensis Gomont (Spirulina). Due to its multiple physiological functions and non-toxicity, cyano-phycocyanin may be a potential substance for the topical treatment of various [...] Read more.
Cyano-phycocyanin is one of the active pigments of the blue-green algae and is usually isolated from the filamentous cyanobacteria Arthrospira platensis Gomont (Spirulina). Due to its multiple physiological functions and non-toxicity, cyano-phycocyanin may be a potential substance for the topical treatment of various skin diseases. Considering that the conventional medicine faces drug resistance, insufficient efficacy and side effects, the plant origin compounds can act as an alternative option. Thus, the aim of this paper was to review the wound healing, antimicrobial, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimelanogenic and anticancer properties and mechanisms of cyano-phycocyanin topical activities on human skin. Moreover, possible applications and biotechnological requirements for pharmaceutical forms of cyano-phycocyanin for the treatment of various skin diseases are discussed in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Plants Phytochemistry and Bioactivity Analysis)
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Review
Oxypeucedanin: Chemotaxonomy, Isolation, and Bioactivities
Plants 2021, 10(8), 1577; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10081577 - 30 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1281
Abstract
The present review comprehensively gathered phytochemical, bioactivity, and pharmacokinetic reports on a linear furanocoumarin, namely oxypeucedanin. Oxypeucedanin (OP), which structurally contains an epoxide ring, has been majorly isolated from ethyl acetate-soluble partitions of several genera, particularly Angelica, Ferulago, and Prangos of [...] Read more.
The present review comprehensively gathered phytochemical, bioactivity, and pharmacokinetic reports on a linear furanocoumarin, namely oxypeucedanin. Oxypeucedanin (OP), which structurally contains an epoxide ring, has been majorly isolated from ethyl acetate-soluble partitions of several genera, particularly Angelica, Ferulago, and Prangos of the Apiaceae family; and Citrus, belonging to the Rutaceae family. The methanolic extract of Angelica dahurica roots has been analytically characterized as the richest natural OP source. This naturally occurring secondary metabolite has been described to possess potent antiproliferative, cytotoxic, anti-influenza, and antiallergic activities, as assessed in preclinical studies. In order to explore potential drug candidates, oxypeucedanin, its derivatives, and semi-synthetically optimized analogues can be considered for the complementary assessments of biological assays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Plants Phytochemistry and Bioactivity Analysis)
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