Biological Activities of Plant Extracts

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Phytochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 93037

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, Physics and Environment, Dunarea de Jos University of Galati, 800201 Galati, Romania
Interests: organic compounds; plant extracts; bioactive compounds; polyphenols; essential oils; antioxidants; antimicrobials; cytotoxicity
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Department of Chemistry, Physics and Environment, "Dunarea de Jos” University of Galati, 800201 Galati, Romania
Interests: heterocycles chemistry; organic synthesis; natural compounds; antimicrobials; chromatography; spectroscopy; toxicology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

From time immemorial, plant extracts and essential oils from plants have been used for therapeutic purposes. A number of phytochemicals—secondary metabolites such as polyphenols, carotenoids, polysaccharides, or volatile oils—are responsible for their medicinal properties. These bioactive phytochemicals from plants can limit or regulate the imbalance generated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can lead to inflammatory, neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, immune, and metabolic dysfunctions, or even to the appearance of tumors.

In addition, the anti-inflammatory properties of certain plant extracts are exploited to fight pathogens, bacteria, fungi, and viruses, which is of particular importance as it is known that an important problem in human health today is represented by resistance to conventional drugs.

Herbal extracts are an important source of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds, and are always an interesting area of research; currently, many studies are being conducted in order to identify their mechanism of action.

You are welcome to participate in this Special Issue with original research papers and reviews on the biologic activity of plant extracts, with the following topics: anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-aging, antitumor, antiviral, antiallergic, or antimicrobial properties of plant extracts, as well as the mechanisms involved in these therapeutic actions. 

Prof. Dr. Rodica-Mihaela Dinică
Dr. Bianca Furdui
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • plants bioactive compounds
  • oxidative stress
  • antioxidants
  • antimicrobials
  • antidiabetics
  • anti-inflammatory
  • antitumoral
  • antiviral

Published Papers (25 papers)

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19 pages, 8401 KiB  
Article
Apoptotic, Anti-Inflammatory Activities and Interference with the Glucocorticoid Receptor Signaling of Fractions from Pistacia lentiscus L. var. chia Leaves
by Foteini D. Kalousi, Federica Pollastro, Evgenia C. Christodoulou, Aikaterini G. Karra, Ioannis Tsialtas, Achilleas Georgantopoulos, Stefano Salamone and Anna-Maria G. Psarra
Plants 2022, 11(7), 934; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11070934 - 30 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2253
Abstract
In this study acetonic extracts of leaves of Pistacia lentiscus L. var. chia (mastiha tree) grown in the south as well as in the north Chios Greek island were isolated and further fractionated to give three different polarity fractions: apolar, medium-polar, and [...] Read more.
In this study acetonic extracts of leaves of Pistacia lentiscus L. var. chia (mastiha tree) grown in the south as well as in the north Chios Greek island were isolated and further fractionated to give three different polarity fractions: apolar, medium-polar, and polar. The isolated fractions were assessed as regards their main composition, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory activities, and interference with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling, applying cytotoxic assay, luciferase assays, and Western blot analysis of apoptosis-, energy-, and inflammation-associated molecules. Differences in cell viability have been detected among different polarity leaf fractions as well as among fractions of different plant origin with polar fractions showing the highest cytotoxicity. Fractions-induced anti-inflammatory activities and suppressive effects on the dexamethasone (DEX)-induced GR transcriptional activation were unveiled. The partition protocol of leaves fractions applied uncovers the enhanced glucocorticoid-associated biological activities of the medium-polar fractions, which may be associated with their enrichment in the triterpenoids that showed structural similarity with the glucocorticoids. A reduction in GR protein levels is observed by the fraction which is shown to be associated with the medium polar-induced proteolytic degradation of the receptor. In addition, the enhanced cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, and potential anti-glycemic activities of the fractions from the Southern P. lentiscus L. that exclusively produce the mastiha resin, is revealed, indicating that leaves fractions from mastiha tree, similarly to mastiha tree resin, may have the potential to be further analyzed for their potent applications in the pharmaceutical cosmetic and nutraceutical fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activities of Plant Extracts)
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12 pages, 1773 KiB  
Article
Dual Beneficial Effects of α-Spinasterol Isolated from Aster pseudoglehnii on Glucose Uptake in Skeletal Muscle Cells and Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic β-Cells
by Dahae Lee, Ji-Young Kim, Hak Cheol Kwon, Jaeyoung Kwon, Dae Sik Jang and Ki Sung Kang
Plants 2022, 11(5), 658; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11050658 - 28 Feb 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2091
Abstract
Herein, we determined whether α-Spinasterol, a stigmastane-type phytosterol isolated from Aster pseudoglehnii, potentially impacts glucose uptake and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in skeletal muscle cells and pancreatic β-cells, respectively. We observed that A. pseudoglehnii and its fractions enhanced glucose uptake, with no toxic [...] Read more.
Herein, we determined whether α-Spinasterol, a stigmastane-type phytosterol isolated from Aster pseudoglehnii, potentially impacts glucose uptake and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in skeletal muscle cells and pancreatic β-cells, respectively. We observed that A. pseudoglehnii and its fractions enhanced glucose uptake, with no toxic effects on C2C12 cells, with the n-hexane fraction exhibiting the most potent effect. α-Spinasterol, isolated from the n-hexane fraction, enhanced glucose uptake with no toxic effects on C2C12 cells. Additionally, α-Spinasterol increased the expression of associated proteins, including insulin receptor substrate-1, AMP-activated protein kinase, and glucose transporter type 4, as determined by Western blotting. Furthermore, α-Spinasterol enhanced insulin secretion in response to high glucose concentrations, with no toxic effects on INS-1 cells; this effect was superior to that demonstrated by gliclazide (positive control), commonly prescribed to treat type 2 diabetes (T2D). α-Spinasterol enhanced the expression of associated proteins, including insulin receptor substrate-2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, and pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1, as determined using Western blotting. The insulin secretory effect of α-Spinasterol was enhanced by a K+ channel blocker and L-type Ca2+ channel agonist and was suppressed by a K+ channel activator and L-type Ca2+ channel blocker. α-Spinasterol isolated from A. pseudoglehnii may improve hyperglycemia by improving glucose uptake into skeletal muscle cells and enhancing insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. Accordingly, α-Spinasterol could be a potential candidate for anti-T2D therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activities of Plant Extracts)
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18 pages, 908 KiB  
Article
Comparative Antioxidant, Anti-Acetylcholinesterase and Anti-α-Glucosidase Activities of Mediterranean Salvia Species
by Mateja Mervić, Maja Bival Štefan, Marija Kindl, Biljana Blažeković, Marijan Marijan and Sanda Vladimir-Knežević
Plants 2022, 11(5), 625; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11050625 - 25 Feb 2022
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 2938
Abstract
Salvia species have a cosmopolitan distribution and comprise several well-known plants valuable for pharmaceutical and food industries due to their recognized medicinal, food flavouring, and preservative properties. The present study aimed to evaluate and compare the biological activities of seven wild-growing Salvia species [...] Read more.
Salvia species have a cosmopolitan distribution and comprise several well-known plants valuable for pharmaceutical and food industries due to their recognized medicinal, food flavouring, and preservative properties. The present study aimed to evaluate and compare the biological activities of seven wild-growing Salvia species from the Mediterranean area (S. fruticosa, S. glutinosa, S. nemorosa, S. officinalis, S. pratensis, S. sclarea, S. verticillata). All studied ethanolic leaf extracts exhibited significant DPPH and NO radical scavenging ability, lipid peroxidation inhibition, and reducing power, as well as moderate iron-chelating properties. Together with S. officinalis and S. fruticosa, S. verticillata showed anti-acetylcholinesterase activity, while S. glutinosa was also found to possess the ability to inhibit α-glucosidase. Total flavonoid (0.37–0.90%), phenolic acid (3.55–12.44%), tannin (1.22–2.60%), and anthocyanin contents (0.03–0.08%) were determined in Salvia leaves. Rosmarinic acid was the predominant hydroxycinnamic acid in all studied sage plants, ranging from 9400 to 38,800 μg/g. The correlation study showed a strong relationship between biological activities and contents of total phenolic acids, total tannins, and rosmarinic acid, indicating their significant contribution to the efficiency of tested Salvia species. Our results highlighted Mediterranean sage plants as rich sources of potent antioxidant, neuroprotective, and hypoglycemic agents which are worthy of further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activities of Plant Extracts)
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17 pages, 10431 KiB  
Article
Opuntia ficus-indica Alleviates Particulate Matter 10 Plus Diesel Exhaust Particles (PM10D)—Induced Airway Inflammation by Suppressing the Expression of Inflammatory Cytokines and Chemokines
by Young-Sil Lee, Won-Kyung Yang, Ye-Rin Park, Yang-Chun Park, In-Jae Park, Geung-Joo Lee, Hyung-Sik Kang, Bong-Kyun Kim and Seung-Hyung Kim
Plants 2022, 11(4), 520; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11040520 - 14 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2206
Abstract
Particulate matter (PM) exposure may cause adverse health effects such as respiratory disorders. We evaluated the protective effects of various Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) extracts on airway inflammation associated with exposure to PM10D with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm (PM10) and diesel exhaust particles [...] Read more.
Particulate matter (PM) exposure may cause adverse health effects such as respiratory disorders. We evaluated the protective effects of various Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) extracts on airway inflammation associated with exposure to PM10D with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm (PM10) and diesel exhaust particles (DEP). BALB/c mice were exposed to PM10D via intranasal tracheal injection three times over a period of 12 days and various OFI extracts (water, 30% ethanolic, or 50% ethanolic extracts) were administered orally for 12 days. All OFI extracts suppressed neutrophil infiltration and the number of immune cells (CD3+/CD4+, CD3+/CD8+, and Gr-1+/CD11b) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lungs. OFI extracts decreased the expression of cytokines and chemokines, including chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)-1, interleukin (IL)-17, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, cyclooxygenase-2, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-5, IL-6, transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1, and mucin 5AC, and inhibited IRAK-1, TNF-α, and CXCL-1 localization in BALF and lungs of mice with PM10D-induced airway inflammation. Serum asymmetric and symmetric dimethyl arginine levels were also decreased by OFI extracts treatment. Moreover, all OFI extracts restored histopathological damage in the trachea and lungs of mice with PM10D-induced airway inflammation. These results indicate that OFI extracts may be used to prevent and treat airway inflammation and respiratory diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activities of Plant Extracts)
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12 pages, 3018 KiB  
Article
Silver Nanoparticle Production Mediated by Vitis vinifera Cane Extract: Characterization and Antibacterial Activity Evaluation
by Jana Michailidu, Olga Maťátková, Irena Kolouchová, Jan Masák and Alena Čejková
Plants 2022, 11(3), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030443 - 5 Feb 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2128
Abstract
The ever-growing range of possible applications of nanoparticles requires their mass production. However, there are problems resulting from the prevalent methods of nanoparticle production; physico-chemical routes of nanoparticle synthesis are not very environmentally friendly nor cost-effective. Due to this, the scientific community started [...] Read more.
The ever-growing range of possible applications of nanoparticles requires their mass production. However, there are problems resulting from the prevalent methods of nanoparticle production; physico-chemical routes of nanoparticle synthesis are not very environmentally friendly nor cost-effective. Due to this, the scientific community started exploring new methods of nanoparticle assembly with the aid of biological agents. In this study, ethanolic Vitis vinifera cane extract combined with silver nitrate was used to produce silver nanoparticles. These were subsequently characterized using UV-visible (UV-Vis) spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic light-scattering analysis. The antimicrobial activity of produced nanoparticles was tested against the planktonic cells of five strains of Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1, ATCC 10145, ATCC 15442, DBM 3081, and DBM 3777). After that, bactericidal activity was assessed using solid medium cultivation. In the end, nanoparticles’ inhibitory effect on adhering cells was analyzed by measuring changes in metabolic activity (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay-MTT). Our results confirmed that ethanolic Vitis vinifera cane extract is capable of mediating silver nanoparticle production; synthesis was conducted using 10% of extract and 1 mM of silver nitrate. The silver nanoparticles’ Z-average was 68.2 d nm, and their zeta potential was –30.4 mV. These silver nanoparticles effectively inhibited planktonic cells of all P. aeruginosa strains in concentrations less than 5% v/v and inhibited biofilm formation in concentrations less than 6% v/v. Moreover, minimum bactericidal concentration was observed to be in the range of 10–16% v/v. According to the results in this study, the use of wine agriculture waste is an ecological and economical method for the production of silver nanoparticles exhibiting significant antimicrobial properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activities of Plant Extracts)
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18 pages, 4666 KiB  
Article
UHPLC-OrbiTrap MS Characterization of Phenolic Profiles in French Marigold Extracts and Analysis of Their Antifeedant Activity against Colorado Potato Beetle
by Nina Devrnja, Uroš Gašić, Sanja Šajkunić, Aleksandar Cingel, Sofija Stupar, Ljiljana Tubić and Jelena Savić
Plants 2022, 11(3), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030407 - 1 Feb 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2193
Abstract
French marigold is an aromatic plant rich in polyphenolic secondary metabolites, which pesticidal potential was examined in this study. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) connected with OrbiTrap mass spectrometer (MS) identified 113 phenolics and revealed the most detailed phytochemistry of French marigold published so [...] Read more.
French marigold is an aromatic plant rich in polyphenolic secondary metabolites, which pesticidal potential was examined in this study. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) connected with OrbiTrap mass spectrometer (MS) identified 113 phenolics and revealed the most detailed phytochemistry of French marigold published so far. Depending on plant material (flowers or leaves) and solvents used for extraction (water, methanol, dichloromethane), the phenolic composition varied. Methanol extract of flowers, with 89 identified phenolics and high antioxidant activity statistically comparable with positive control Trolox, was chosen for testing of antifeedant potential against the 3rd and 4th instars of Colorado potato beetle (CPB). A significant reduction in final body mass of 4th larval stage fed with potato leaves coated with methanol extract of flowers in the concentration of 10 mg/mL was observed (157.67 mg vs. 182.26 mg of controls fed with non-treated leaves). This caused delayed molting since treated larvae reached the maximal mass a day after controls and this delay persisted during the entire larval development. Continuous feeding caused a 25% decline in digestive proteolytic activity of the 4th instar in comparison to controls. The results suggest that French marigold methanol extract of flowers could be proposed as a promising antifeedant for CPB management, with an impact on the reduction in the environmental footprint associated with synthetic pesticide application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activities of Plant Extracts)
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19 pages, 1048 KiB  
Article
Impact of Drying Processes on Phenolics and In Vitro Health-Related Activities of Indigenous Plants in Thailand
by Pandaree Sirichai, Suwapat Kittibunchakul, Sirinapa Thangsiri, Nattira On-Nom, Chaowanee Chupeerach, Piya Temviriyanukul, Woorawee Inthachat, Onanong Nuchuchua, Amornrat Aursalung, Yuraporn Sahasakul, Somsri Charoenkiatkul and Uthaiwan Suttisansanee
Plants 2022, 11(3), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030294 - 22 Jan 2022
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 3244
Abstract
Thailand has vast areas of tropical forests with many indigenous plants, but limited information is available on their phytochemical profile and in vitro inhibitions of enzymatic and nonenzymatic reactions. This study investigated phenolic profiles using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC–ESI-MS/MS), antioxidant [...] Read more.
Thailand has vast areas of tropical forests with many indigenous plants, but limited information is available on their phytochemical profile and in vitro inhibitions of enzymatic and nonenzymatic reactions. This study investigated phenolic profiles using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC–ESI-MS/MS), antioxidant activities, and in vitro inhibitory activities of 10 indigenous plants on key enzymes related to obesity (lipase), diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase), and Alzheimer’s disease (cholinesterases and β-secretase). The nonenzymatic anti-glycation reaction was also investigated. The 10 indigenous plants were Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth, Alpinia malaccensis (Burm.) Roscoe, Careya arborea Roxb., Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Swartz, Kaempferia roscoeana Wall., Millettia brandisiana Kurz., Momordica charantia, Phyllanthusemblica L., Zingiber cassumunar Roxb, and Zingiber citriodorum J. Mood & T. Theleide. Preparations were made by either freeze-drying or oven-drying processes. Results suggested that the drying processes had a minor impact on in vitro inhibitions of enzymatic and nonenzymatic reactions (<4-fold difference). P. emblica was the most potent antioxidant provider with high anti-glycation activity (>80% inhibition using the extract concentration of ≤6 mg/mL), while D. esculentum effectively inhibited β-secretase activity (>80% inhibition using the extract concentration of 10 mg/mL). C. arborea exhibited the highest inhibitory activities against lipase (47–51% inhibition using the extract concentration of 1 mg/mL) and cholinesterases (>60% inhibition using the extract concentration of 2 mg/mL), while Mi. brandisiana dominantly provided α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitors (>80% inhibition using the extract concentration of ≤2 mg/mL). Information obtained from this research may support usage of the oven-drying method due to its lower cost and easier preparation step for these studied plant species and plant parts. Furthermore, the information on in vitro inhibitions of enzymatic and nonenzymatic reactions could be used as fundamental knowledge for further investigations into other biological activities such as cell culture or in vivo experiments of these health-beneficial plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activities of Plant Extracts)
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16 pages, 1606 KiB  
Article
Antibacterial Potential of Extracts and Phytoconstituents Isolated from Syncarpia hillii Leaves In Vitro
by Muthukuttige M. N. Perera, Satish N. Dighe, Peter L. Katavic and Trudi A. Collet
Plants 2022, 11(3), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030283 - 21 Jan 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2854
Abstract
(1) Background: Rapidly increasing antibiotic resistance is one of the greatest threats to global health, affecting individuals regardless of age. Medicinal plants are widely used in traditional medicine to prevent and attenuate infectious conditions with minimal adverse effects. However, only a few have [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Rapidly increasing antibiotic resistance is one of the greatest threats to global health, affecting individuals regardless of age. Medicinal plants are widely used in traditional medicine to prevent and attenuate infectious conditions with minimal adverse effects. However, only a few have been phytochemically investigated for their medicinal properties and subsequent biological activities. Syncarpia hillii, a plant traditionally used by Indigenous Australians to treat sores, wounds, and skin infections, is no exception. (2) Methods: Primary extracts obtained from mature S. hillii leaves were evaluated for their antibacterial potential against 19 bacterial strains. The methanol extract was subjected to compound isolation and identification due to its preliminary bactericidal efficacy. (3) Results: Staphylococcal species were the most susceptible bacterial strain with a MIC value of 0.63 mg/mL to the S. hillii methanol extract. Quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronide and shikimic acid isolated from S. hillii methanol leaf extracts exhibited enhanced antibacterial effects against the tested bacteria with quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronide eliciting a MIC value of 0.78 µg/mL against E. faecalis. (4) Conclusions: S. hillii leaves are comprised of bioactive compounds that are bactericidal against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activities of Plant Extracts)
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15 pages, 2111 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Possible α-Glucosidase Inhibitors from Trigonella stellata Extract Using LC–MS and In Silico Molecular Docking
by Ahlam Elwekeel, Dalia El Amir, Enas I. A. Mohamed, Elham Amin, Marwa H. A. Hassan and Mohamed A. Zaki
Plants 2022, 11(2), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11020208 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2735
Abstract
The current study accentuates the significance of performing the multiplex approach of LC-HRESIMS, biological activity, and docking studies in drug discovery, taking into consideration a review of the literature. In this regard, the investigation of antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Trigonella stellata collected [...] Read more.
The current study accentuates the significance of performing the multiplex approach of LC-HRESIMS, biological activity, and docking studies in drug discovery, taking into consideration a review of the literature. In this regard, the investigation of antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Trigonella stellata collected from the Egyptian desert revealed a significant antioxidant capacity using DPPH with IC50 = 656.9 µg/mL and a moderate cytotoxicity against HepG2, MCF7, and CACO2, with IC50 values of 53.3, 48.3, and 55.8 µg/mL, respectively. The evaluation of total phenolic and flavonoid contents resulted in 32.8 mg GAE/g calculated as gallic acid equivalent and 5.6 mg RE/g calculated as rutin equivalent, respectively. Chemical profiling of T. stellata extract, using LC-HRESIMS analysis, revealed the presence of 15 metabolites, among which eleven compounds were detected for the first time in this species. Interestingly, in vitro testing of the antidiabetic activity of the alcoholic extract noted an α-glucosidase enzyme inhibitory activity (IC50 = 559.4 µg/mL) better than that of the standard Acarbose (IC50 = 799.9 µg/mL), in addition to a moderate inhibition of the α-amylase enzyme (IC50 = 0.77 µg/mL) compared to Acarbose (IC50 = 0.21 µg/mL). α-Glucosidase inhibition was also virtualized by binding interactions through the molecular docking study, presenting a high binding activity of six flavonoid glycosides, as well as the diterpenoid compound graecumoside A and the alkaloid fenugreekine. Taken together, the conglomeration of LC-HRESIMS, antidiabetic activity, and molecular docking studies shed light on T. stellata as a promising antidiabetic herb. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activities of Plant Extracts)
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10 pages, 1513 KiB  
Article
Comparative Study on Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activities of Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) Strobile Extracts
by Jae Il Lyu, Jaihyunk Ryu, Kyoung-Sun Seo, Kyung-Yun Kang, Sang Hoon Park, Tae Hyun Ha, Joon-Woo Ahn and Si-Yong Kang
Plants 2022, 11(1), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11010135 - 4 Jan 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2835
Abstract
In this study, we investigated the phenolic compounds in hop strobile extracts and evaluated their antioxidant property using DPPH and ABTS assay. The total phenolic compound (TPC) and total flavonoid compound (TFC) estimated in two different solvent extracts considerably varied depending on the [...] Read more.
In this study, we investigated the phenolic compounds in hop strobile extracts and evaluated their antioxidant property using DPPH and ABTS assay. The total phenolic compound (TPC) and total flavonoid compound (TFC) estimated in two different solvent extracts considerably varied depending on the extraction solvent. The most abundant phenolic compound in hop strobile was humulones (α-acid) with levels ranging from 50.44 to 193.25 µg/g. El Dorado accession revealed higher antioxidant activity in ethanol extracts (DPPH: IC50 124.3 µg/mL; ABTS: IC50 95.4 µg/mL) when compared with that of the other accessions. Correlations between DPPH (IC50) scavenging TFC in ethanol extract (TFC_E, −0.941), and TPC_E (−0.901), and between ABTS (IC50) scavenging TFC_E (−0.853), and TPC_E (−0.826), were statistically significant at p < 0.01 level, whereas no significant correlation was observed between antioxidant activities, TPC and TFC in water extract. This study is the first to report that variations in the level of phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of various hop cultivars depended on the type of extraction solvent used and the cultivation regions. These results could provide valuable information on developing hop products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activities of Plant Extracts)
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13 pages, 58684 KiB  
Article
Preventive Effect of Anemarrhenae rhizome and Phellodendri cortex on Danazol-Induced in Precocious Puberty in Female Rats and Network Pharmacological Analysis of Active Compounds
by Kyeong Ri Kim, Tuy An Trinh, Ji Yun Baek, Dahae Lee, Sehun Lim, Jonghyup Kim, Won-Yung Lee, Chang-Eop Kim, Ki Sung Kang and Hye Lim Lee
Plants 2022, 11(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11010023 - 22 Dec 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3532
Abstract
Anemarrhenae rhizome and Phellodendri cortex have historically been used for the treatment of precocious puberty (PP) in oriental medicine. Our study aimed to evaluate the effect of APE, a mixture of the extracts from these herbs, against danazol-induced PP in female rats. The [...] Read more.
Anemarrhenae rhizome and Phellodendri cortex have historically been used for the treatment of precocious puberty (PP) in oriental medicine. Our study aimed to evaluate the effect of APE, a mixture of the extracts from these herbs, against danazol-induced PP in female rats. The offspring were injected danazol to establish the PP model, and then treated with APE daily, and observed for vaginal opening. At the end of the study, the levels of gonadotropic hormones, such as estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone, were determined by ELISA. Moreover, the mRNA expression of GnRH, netrin-1, and UNC5C in hypothalamic tissues was determined by real-time PCR. Network pharmacological analysis was performed to predict the active compounds of APE and their potential actions. APE treatment delayed vaginal opening in rats with PP. In addition, APE treatment reduced LH levels and suppressed UNC5C expression. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that the targets of APE were significantly associated with GnRH signaling and ovarian steroidogenesis pathways. In conclusion, APE may be used as a therapeutic remedy to inhibit the activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activities of Plant Extracts)
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12 pages, 1474 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Anti-Epstein Barr Virus Activity of Olea europaea L. Leaf Extracts
by Ichrak Ben-Amor, Bochra Gargouri, Hamadi Attia, Khaoula Tlili, Imen Kallel, Maria Musarra-Pizzo, Maria Teresa Sciortino and Rosamaria Pennisi
Plants 2021, 10(11), 2445; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10112445 - 12 Nov 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2797
Abstract
Olea europaea L. var. sativa (OESA) preparations are widely used in traditional medicine in the Mediterranean region to prevent and treat different diseases. In this research, olive extracts derived from the leaves of the OESA tree have been screened for antioxidant activity by [...] Read more.
Olea europaea L. var. sativa (OESA) preparations are widely used in traditional medicine in the Mediterranean region to prevent and treat different diseases. In this research, olive extracts derived from the leaves of the OESA tree have been screened for antioxidant activity by two methods: the DPPH free radical scavenging assay (DPPH) and the Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The DPPH assay showed that OESA possesses a stronger antioxidant activity (84%) at 1 mg/mL while the FRAP method showed a strong metal ion chelating activity (90%) at 1 mg/mL. The low IC50 values, obtained by two different methods, implies that OESA has a noticeable effect on scavenging free radicals comparable to standards. During EBV infection, the free radicals increased triggering lipid oxidation. Therefore, the monitoring of the secondary lipid peroxidation products was done by measuring malonaldehyde (MDA) and conjugated dienes (DC). The simultaneous treatment of Raji cells with OESA and TPA, as an inductorof the lytic cycle, generated a significant decrease in MDA levels and DC (p < 0.05). Besides, Raji cells simultaneously exposed to TPA and OESA exhibited a percentage of EBV-positive fluorescence cells lower than TPA treated cells (**** p < 0.0001). This suggests that OESA treatment has a protective effect against EBV lytic cycle induction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activities of Plant Extracts)
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19 pages, 7656 KiB  
Article
Screening for Selective Anticancer Activity of 65 Extracts of Plants Collected in Western Andalusia, Spain
by José Manuel Calderón-Montaño, Sara María Martínez-Sánchez, Víctor Jiménez-González, Estefanía Burgos-Morón, Emilio Guillén-Mancina, Julio José Jiménez-Alonso, Patricia Díaz-Ortega, Felipe García, Abelardo Aparicio and Miguel López-Lázaro
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2193; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102193 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3093
Abstract
Finding cytotoxic drugs with a high selectivity towards cancer cells is crucial to improve the low survival rates of patients diagnosed with metastatic cancers. Since plants are an important source of anticancer drugs, we have screened 65 extracts from 45 plants collected in [...] Read more.
Finding cytotoxic drugs with a high selectivity towards cancer cells is crucial to improve the low survival rates of patients diagnosed with metastatic cancers. Since plants are an important source of anticancer drugs, we have screened 65 extracts from 45 plants collected in several areas of Western Andalusia (Spain) for cytotoxic activity on lung cancer cells versus lung normal cells. An extract from the leaves of Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast. (Cupressaceae) showed a marked cytotoxicity (IC50 = 0.37 ± 0.03 μg/mL) and selectivity (selectivity index = 378.3) against the lung cancer cells; cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and an extract from the leaves of Taxus baccata L. (Taxaceae) were less cytotoxic and selective. Extracts from Cascabela thevetia (L.) Lippold (Apocynaceae), Frangula alnus Mill. (Rhamnaceae), Iberis ciliata subsp. contracta (Pers.) Moreno (Brassicaceae), Juniperus macrocarpa Sm (Cupressaceae), and Pancratium maritimum L. (Amaryllidaceae) also showed selective cytotoxicity (selectivity index > 10). Active extracts were also tested against a panel of cancer cell lines from a variety tissues. The plants identified in this work are potential sources of natural compounds with selective toxicity towards cancer cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activities of Plant Extracts)
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15 pages, 1560 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Biosynthesized with Beech Bark Extract
by Anca Delia Mare, Cristina Nicoleta Ciurea, Adrian Man, Mihai Mareș, Felicia Toma, Lavinia Berța and Corneliu Tanase
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2153; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102153 - 11 Oct 2021
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 2605
Abstract
Biosynthesis is a green method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). This study aimed to assess the antifungal activity of two silver nanoparticle solutions, synthesized using beech bark extract (BBE) and acetate and nitrate silver salts (AgNP Acetate BBE and AgNP Nitrate [...] Read more.
Biosynthesis is a green method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). This study aimed to assess the antifungal activity of two silver nanoparticle solutions, synthesized using beech bark extract (BBE) and acetate and nitrate silver salts (AgNP Acetate BBE and AgNP Nitrate BBE), their influence on biofilm production, their potential synergistic effects with fluconazole, on different Candida spp., and their influence on virulence factors of C. albicans (germ tube production, gene expression for ALS3, SAP2, HSP70). Both the AgNP BBEs presented different minimum inhibitory concentrations for all the studied Candida spp., but biofilm production was inhibited only for C. albicans and C. guilliermondii. The growth rates of all the studied Candida spp. were inhibited in the presence of both AgNP BBEs, except for C. auris. Synergistic activity was observed for C. parapsilosis and C. guilliermondii, for different combinations of fluconazole with both the AgNP BBEs. The germ tube production of C. albicans was slightly inhibited by the AgNP BBEs. Only AgNP Acetate BBE was able to down-regulate the expression of SAP2. Overall, we can conclude that, even if more studies are necessary, AgNPs synthesized with beech bark extract might be an interesting alternative to classic antifungal treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activities of Plant Extracts)
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16 pages, 902 KiB  
Article
Chemical Composition, Anti-Quorum Sensing, Enzyme Inhibitory, and Antioxidant Properties of Phenolic Extracts of Clinopodium nepeta L. Kuntze
by Hatem Beddiar, Sameh Boudiba, Merzoug Benahmed, Alfred Ngenge Tamfu, Özgür Ceylan, Karima Hanini, Selcuk Kucukaydin, Abdelhakim Elomri, Chawki Bensouici, Hocine Laouer, Salah Akkal, Louiza Boudiba and Rodica Mihaela Dinica
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1955; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091955 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 3294
Abstract
Phenolic extracts of Clinopodium nepeta were prepared and their preliminary phenolic profiles determined using HPLC-DAD with 26 phenolic standards. Apigenin (21.75 ± 0.41 µg/g), myricetin (72.58 ± 0.57 µg/g), and rosmarinic acid (88.51 ± 0.55 µg/g) were the most abundant compounds in DCM [...] Read more.
Phenolic extracts of Clinopodium nepeta were prepared and their preliminary phenolic profiles determined using HPLC-DAD with 26 phenolic standards. Apigenin (21.75 ± 0.41 µg/g), myricetin (72.58 ± 0.57 µg/g), and rosmarinic acid (88.51 ± 0.55 µg/g) were the most abundant compounds in DCM (dichloromethane), AcOEt (ethyl acetate), and BuOH (butanol) extracts, respectively. The DCM and AcOEt extracts inhibited quorum-sensing mediated violacein production by C. violaceum CV12472. Anti-quorum-sensing zones on C. violaceum CV026 at MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration) were 10.3 ± 0.8 mm for DCM extract and 12.0 ± 0.5 mm for AcOEt extract. Extracts showed concentration-dependent inhibition of swarming motility on flagellated P. aeruginosa PA01 and at the highest test concentration of 100 μg/mL, AcOEt (35.42 ± 1.00%) extract displayed the best activity. FRAP assay indicated that the BuOH extract (A0.50 = 17.42 ± 0.25 µg/mL) was more active than standard α-tocopherol (A0.50 = 34.93 ± 2.38 µg/mL). BuOH extract was more active than other extracts except in the ABTS●+, where the DCM extract was most active. This antioxidant activity could be attributed to the phenolic compounds detected. C. nepeta extracts showed moderate inhibition on acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), tyrosinase, and α-amylase. The results indicate that C. nepeta is a potent source of natural antioxidants that could be used in managing microbial resistance and Alzheimer′s disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activities of Plant Extracts)
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14 pages, 1064 KiB  
Article
Mode-Dependent Antiviral Activity of Medicinal Plant Extracts against the Mosquito-Borne Chikungunya Virus
by Sze Mun Chan, Kong Soo Khoo, Shamala Devi Sekaran and Nam Weng Sit
Plants 2021, 10(8), 1658; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10081658 - 11 Aug 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3028
Abstract
The lack of specific treatment for chikungunya fever makes the need for anti-chikungunya virus agents more crucial. This study was conducted to evaluate 132 extracts obtained by sequential solvent extraction from 21 medicinal plants for cytopathic effect inhibitory activity using virus-infected Vero cells [...] Read more.
The lack of specific treatment for chikungunya fever makes the need for anti-chikungunya virus agents more crucial. This study was conducted to evaluate 132 extracts obtained by sequential solvent extraction from 21 medicinal plants for cytopathic effect inhibitory activity using virus-infected Vero cells in two different sample introduction modes. Among the extracts, 42 extracts (31.8%) from 12 plants in the concurrent mode and three extracts (2.3%) from a plant in the non-concurrent mode displayed strong cytopathic effect inhibitory activity (cell viability ≥70%). Viral load quantification analysis unveiled that the extracts of Clinacanthus nutans (chloroform, ethyl acetate, and ethanol), Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides (ethanol), and Ocimum americanum (ethanol and methanol) hindered the release of viral progeny from the infected cells while the extracts of Ficus deltoidea (ethanol), Gynura bicolor (water), H. sibthorpioides (water), and O. americanum (chloroform and ethyl acetate) blocked the entry of virus into the cells. The extracts of Diodella sarmentosa (ethyl acetate), Diplazium esculentum (chloroform, ethyl acetate, and ethanol), and G. bicolor (ethanol) possessed virucidal effect and caused 5.41-log to 6.63-log reductions of viral load compared to the virus control. The results indicate that these medicinal plants are potential sources of anti-chikungunya virus agents that have varied modes of action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activities of Plant Extracts)
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15 pages, 5778 KiB  
Article
The Unique Substance, Lidocaine and Biological Activity of the Dioscorea Species for Potential Application as a Cancer Treatment, Natural Pesticide and Product
by Warin Wonok, Arunrat Chaveerach, Pornnarong Siripiyasing, Runglawan Sudmoon and Tawatchai Tanee
Plants 2021, 10(8), 1551; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10081551 - 28 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2399
Abstract
The six Dioscorea species, D. brevipetiolata, D. bulbifera, D. depauperata (Dd), D. glabra (Dg), D. pyrifolia and D. hamiltonii were analyzed for phytochemicals, toxicity in PBMCs, and biological activity in two cancer cell lines by MTT and [...] Read more.
The six Dioscorea species, D. brevipetiolata, D. bulbifera, D. depauperata (Dd), D. glabra (Dg), D. pyrifolia and D. hamiltonii were analyzed for phytochemicals, toxicity in PBMCs, and biological activity in two cancer cell lines by MTT and comet assays, and pesticide efficiency. Via GC-MS, lidocaine was found to be the predominant compound in two of the studied species. To confirm the systematics, lidocaine was also found in lower amounts in 11 species. The MTT assay showed no toxicity in all six of the studied species. The comet assay showed the key result that the ethanol extracts of Dd and Dg violently broke DNA into pieces. Biological activity of these two species’ extracts showed toxicity on HepG2 and no effects on HCT-116. The water extracts of Dd and Dg, applied to Brassica chinensis showed high efficiency as a bioprotectant. In summary, lidocaine seems to be the predominant identifying compound of the genus Dioscorea in Thailand, which is useful in systematics. At least the two species, Dd and Dg, may be used for human hepatocyte cancer treatment and as an alternative pesticide for economically important vegetables. Dioscorea species containing lidocaine or extracted lidocaine have promise for natural product creation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activities of Plant Extracts)
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16 pages, 11808 KiB  
Article
Biological Activities of In-House Developed Haloxylon griffithii Plant Extract Formulations
by Shagufta Kamal, Ismat Bibi, Kanwal Rehman, Ameer Fawad Zahoor, Amna Kamal, Fatima Aslam, Fatmah Ali Alasmary, Tahani Mazyad Almutairi, Hassna Mohammed Alhajri, Siham A. Alissa and Hafiz M. N. Iqbal
Plants 2021, 10(7), 1427; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10071427 - 13 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2254
Abstract
The therapeutic potential of whitish glaucous sub-shrub Haloxylon griffithii (H. griffithii), abundantly present in southern regions of South Asia, has been neglected. The current study aimed to assess the phytochemicals and pharmacological potential of native and gemm forms of H [...] Read more.
The therapeutic potential of whitish glaucous sub-shrub Haloxylon griffithii (H. griffithii), abundantly present in southern regions of South Asia, has been neglected. The current study aimed to assess the phytochemicals and pharmacological potential of native and gemm forms of H. griffithii. Results of antimicrobial activity revealed that all tested bacteria were susceptible at concentrations ≤50 µg/mL, while tested fungal species were susceptible at ≤25 µg/mL. The values of minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) ranged between 10.75 ± 0.20 to 44.25 ± 0.42 µg/mL, 8.25 ± 0.02 to 28.20 ± 0.80 µg/mL. The value of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of all microbial species was ≤100 µg/mL and the antibiotic mechanism showed that both extracts were highly bactericidal and fungicidal. Results of average log reduction of viable cell count in time kill assay indicated that Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) NCTC 1662, Candida albicans (C. albicans) IBL-01, Candidakrusei (C. krusei) ATCC 6258, and Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) QC 6158 were the most susceptible microbial species. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based quantification confirmed the presence of gallic acid p.coumeric acid catechin, vanillin, ellagic acid, and salicylic acid, while in native extract only gallic acid. Native and gemm extracts exhibited excellent radical scavenging potential measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical scavenging assay. Significant thrombolytic activity was found in both extracts with negligible haemolytic activity. Highest percent (%) clot lysis was observed with gemm extracts (87.9 ± 0.85% clot lysis). In summary, we infer that valuable evidence congregated can be exploited for better understanding of gemm H. griffithii’s health benefits, further, to increase its utility with enriching dietary sources of health-promoting compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activities of Plant Extracts)
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15 pages, 3119 KiB  
Article
Baicalein 5,6-Dimethyl Ether Prevents Memory Deficits in the Scopolamine Zebrafish Model by Regulating Cholinergic and Antioxidant Systems
by Ion Brinza, Iriny M. Ayoub, Omayma A. Eldahshan and Lucian Hritcu
Plants 2021, 10(6), 1245; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10061245 - 18 Jun 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3322
Abstract
Baicalein 5,6-dimethyl ether, a bioactive flavonoid isolated for the first time from Alnus rugosa, was explored for its capability to relieve memory deficits and decrease oxidative stress. We examined the neuropharmacological effects of baicalein 5,6-dimethyl ether on scopolamine (Sco)-induced zebrafish (Danio [...] Read more.
Baicalein 5,6-dimethyl ether, a bioactive flavonoid isolated for the first time from Alnus rugosa, was explored for its capability to relieve memory deficits and decrease oxidative stress. We examined the neuropharmacological effects of baicalein 5,6-dimethyl ether on scopolamine (Sco)-induced zebrafish (Danio rerio) anxiety, amnesia, and brain oxidative stress and attempted to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Anxiety-like behavior, exploratory behavior, and memory performance were measured using novel tank-diving test (NTT), Y-maze, and novel object recognition (NOR) tests. For 10 days, baicalein 5,6-dimethyl ether (1, 3, and 5 µg/L) was administered through immersion, whereas Sco (100 μM) was delivered 30 min before behavioral tests. Treatment with baicalein 5,6-dimethyl ether reduced anxiety and memory impairment, and increased exploratory behavior in specific tests, along with significant protection from neuronal oxidative stress in the brain tissue of Sco-treated zebrafish. Antioxidant and anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities of baicalein 5,6-dimethyl ether in the Sco-induced zebrafish were further confirmed using in vivo assays. In Sco-treated zebrafish, baicalein 5,6-dimethyl ether regulated cholinergic function by inhibiting AChE activity. Baicalein 5,6-dimethyl ether may be a promising candidate compound for treating anxiety and amnesia by restoring cholinergic activity and reducing brain oxidative stress, according to our findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activities of Plant Extracts)
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16 pages, 3952 KiB  
Article
The Anti-Inflammatory and the Antinociceptive Effects of Mixed Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. and Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge Extract
by Jing-Hui Feng, Hyun-Yong Kim, Su-Min Sim, Guang-Lei Zuo, Jeon-Sub Jung, Seung-Hwan Hwang, Youn-Gil Kwak, Min-Jung Kim, Jeong-Hun Jo, Sung-Chan Kim, Soon-Sung Lim and Hong-Won Suh
Plants 2021, 10(6), 1234; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10061234 - 17 Jun 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3318
Abstract
Arthritis is a common condition that causes pain and inflammation in a joint. Previously, we reported that the mixture extract (ME) from Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. (AP) and Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (SM) could ameliorate gout arthritis. In the present study, we aimed to investigate [...] Read more.
Arthritis is a common condition that causes pain and inflammation in a joint. Previously, we reported that the mixture extract (ME) from Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. (AP) and Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (SM) could ameliorate gout arthritis. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the potential anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of ME and characterize the mechanism. We compared the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of a positive control, Perna canaliculus powder (PC). The results showed that one-off and one-week treatment of ME reduced the pain threshold in a dose-dependent manner (from 10 to 100 mg/kg) in the mono-iodoacetate (MIA)-induced osteoarthritis (OA) model. ME also reduced the plasma TNF-α, IL-6, and CRP levels. In LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, ME inhibited the release of NO, PGE2, LTB4, and IL-6, increased the phosphorylation of PPAR-γ protein, and downregulated TNF-α and MAPKs proteins expression in a concentration-dependent (from 1 to 100 µg/mL) manner. Furthermore, ME ameliorated the progression of ear edema in mice. In most of the experiments, ME-induced effects were almost equal to, or were higher than, PC-induced effects. Conclusions: The data presented here suggest that ME shows anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities, indicating ME may be a potential therapeutic for arthritis treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activities of Plant Extracts)
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14 pages, 2093 KiB  
Article
Calligonum polygonoides L. as Novel Source of Bioactive Compounds in Hot Arid Regions: Evaluation of Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity
by Mukesh K. Berwal, Shravan M. Haldhar, Chet Ram, Sandip Shil, Ramesh Kumar, Jagan S. Gora, Dhurendra Singh, Dilip K. Samadia, Manoj Kumar and Mohamed Mekhemar
Plants 2021, 10(6), 1156; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10061156 - 6 Jun 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4047
Abstract
Calligonum polygonoides L. (Phog) is an endemic perennial herb that is highly resistant to all type of abiotic stresses and dominant biomass as well as phytochemicals producer in its natural habitat of the “Thar Desert” of Rajasthan, India. The present study was conducted [...] Read more.
Calligonum polygonoides L. (Phog) is an endemic perennial herb that is highly resistant to all type of abiotic stresses and dominant biomass as well as phytochemicals producer in its natural habitat of the “Thar Desert” of Rajasthan, India. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of extreme environmental conditions on the phenolic, flavonoids, tannin content, and total antioxidant activities of C. polygonoides foliage harvested during different months. It exhibited a significant variation in the content of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, and antioxidant activity with harvesting time and all parameters are positively correlated to each other. The highest phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity was observed during severe winter and summer months, when monthly average environmental temperature was lowest and highest of the year, respectively. On the basis of the results, two harvests of C. polygonoides foliage during June and December are advised to maximize the phenolic compound production with highest antioxidant activity. These results demonstrate C. polygonoides, which is a dominant biomass producer under the harsh climatic conditions, can be an important source for the development of the functional foods rich in antioxidants in hot arid regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activities of Plant Extracts)
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20 pages, 2449 KiB  
Article
Anti-Allergic, Anti-Inflammatory, and Anti-Hyperglycemic Activity of Chasmanthe aethiopica Leaf Extract and Its Profiling Using LC/MS and GLC/MS
by Iriny M. Ayoub, Michal Korinek, Mohamed El-Shazly, Bernhard Wetterauer, Hesham A. El-Beshbishy, Tsong-Long Hwang, Bing-Hung Chen, Fang-Rong Chang, Michael Wink, Abdel Nasser B. Singab and Fadia S. Youssef
Plants 2021, 10(6), 1118; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10061118 - 31 May 2021
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 4332
Abstract
This study aims to comprehensively explore the phytoconstituents as well as investigate the different biological activities of Chasmanthe aethiopica (Iridaceae) for the first time. Metabolic profiling of the leaf methanol extract of C. aethiopica (CAL) was carried out using HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS. Twenty-nine compounds were [...] Read more.
This study aims to comprehensively explore the phytoconstituents as well as investigate the different biological activities of Chasmanthe aethiopica (Iridaceae) for the first time. Metabolic profiling of the leaf methanol extract of C. aethiopica (CAL) was carried out using HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS. Twenty-nine compounds were annotated belonging to various phytochemical classes including organic acids, cinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoids, isoflavonoids, and fatty acids. Myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside was the major compound identified. GLC/MS analysis of the n-hexane fraction (CAL-A) resulted in the identification of 45 compounds with palmitic acid (16.08%) and methyl hexadecanoic acid ester (11.91%) representing the major constituents. CAL-A exhibited a potent anti-allergic activity as evidenced by its potent inhibition of β-hexosaminidase release triggered by A23187 and IgE by 72.7% and 48.7%, respectively. Results were comparable to that of dexamethasone (10 nM) in the A23187 degranulation assay showing 80.7% inhibition for β-hexosaminidase release. Both the n-hexane (CAL-A) and dichloromethane (CAL-B) fractions exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity manifested by the significant inhibition of superoxide anion generation and prohibition of elastase release. CAL showed anti-hyperglycemic activity in vivo using streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model by reducing fasting blood glucose levels (FBG) by 53.44% as compared with STZ-treated rats along with a substantial increase in serum insulin by 22.22%. Molecular modeling studies indicated that dicaffeoylquinic acid showed the highest fitting with free binding energies (∆G) of −47.24 and −60.50 Kcal/mol for human α-amylase and α-glucosidase, respectively confirming its anti-hyperglycemic activity. Thus, C. aethiopica leaf extract could serve as an effective antioxidant natural remedy combating inflammation, allergy, and hyperglycemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activities of Plant Extracts)
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14 pages, 5995 KiB  
Article
Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of the Extracts of Different Parts of Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh
by Mohammad K. Okla, Abdulrahman A. Alatar, Saud S. Al-amri, Walid H. Soufan, Altaf Ahmad and Mostafa A. Abdel-Maksoud
Plants 2021, 10(2), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10020252 - 28 Jan 2021
Cited by 41 | Viewed by 9750
Abstract
Increased problems associated with side effects and bacterial resistance of chemical drugs has prompted the research focus on herbal medicines in the past few decades. In the present investigation, the antimicrobial activity of the various parts of Avicennia marina (AM), a mangrove plant, [...] Read more.
Increased problems associated with side effects and bacterial resistance of chemical drugs has prompted the research focus on herbal medicines in the past few decades. In the present investigation, the antimicrobial activity of the various parts of Avicennia marina (AM), a mangrove plant, has been evaluated. The plants were collected from the Jazan area of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Primary extracts of roots, stem, leaves, fruits, and seeds were made in ethanol and fractioned in ethanol, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, chloroform, and water. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extracts were determined against Bacillussubtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. It has been observed that the chloroform extract of roots of the AM exhibited inhibitory effects against both S. aureus (MIC = 1.5 ± 0.03 mg/mL) and E. coli (MIC = 1.7 ± 0.01 mg/mL). The ethanolic extract of the AM roots has shown antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC = 10.8 ± 0.78 mg/mL), Bacillussubtilis (MIC = 6.1 ± 0.27 mg/mL), Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 2.3 ± 0.08 mg/mL), and Escherichia coli (MIC = 6.3 ± 0.28 mg/mL). The leaf extract of the AM in ethyl acetate showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus and E. coli. Antifungal activity of these extracts was also investigated against Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans. Ethanolic extract of roots and seeds of the AM has shown antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus when applied individually. Ethanolic extract of the AM fruits has shown an inhibitory effect on the growth of Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans. It is suggested that the plant extracts of AM have tremendous antimicrobial activity against a group of microbes, and this effect depends on both the plant part and the solvent used for extraction. Therefore, this plant can be considered to treat various diseases caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activities of Plant Extracts)
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17 pages, 857 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant, Anti-tyrosinase, Anti-α-amylase, and Cytotoxic Potentials of the Invasive Weed Andropogon virginicus
by La Hoang Anh, Nguyen Van Quan, Vu Quang Lam, Yu Iuchi, Akiyoshi Takami, Rolf Teschke and Tran Dang Xuan
Plants 2021, 10(1), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10010069 - 31 Dec 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 6460
Abstract
Andropogon virginicus is an invasive weed that seriously threatens agricultural production and economics worldwide. In this research, dried aerial parts of A. virginicus were extracted, applying Soxhlet and liquid-liquid phase methods to acquire the total crude (T-Anvi), hexane (H-Anvi), ethyl acetate (E-Anvi), butanol [...] Read more.
Andropogon virginicus is an invasive weed that seriously threatens agricultural production and economics worldwide. In this research, dried aerial parts of A. virginicus were extracted, applying Soxhlet and liquid-liquid phase methods to acquire the total crude (T-Anvi), hexane (H-Anvi), ethyl acetate (E-Anvi), butanol (B-Anvi), and water (W-Anvi) extracts, respectively. In which, T-Anvi contains the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents (24.80 mg gallic acid and 37.40 mg rutin equivalents per g dry weight, respectively). Via anti-radical (ABTS and DPPH), and reducing power assays, E-Anvi exhibits the most potent activities (IC50 = 13.96, 43.59 and 124.11 µg/mL, respectively), stronger than butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), a standard antioxidant, while the lipid peroxidation inhibitory effect of E-Anvi (LPI = 90.85% at the concentration of 500 µg/mL) is close to BHT. E-Anvi shows the most substantial inhibition (IC50 = 2.58 mg/mL) on tyrosinase. Notably, α-amylase is significantly suppressed by H-Anvi (IC50 = 0.72 mg/mL), over twice stronger than the positive control, palmitic acid. In the cytotoxic assay, E-Anvi is the strongest extract inhibiting K562 cells (IC50 = 112.01 µg/mL). Meanwhile, T-Anvi shows the highest prevention on Meg-01 expansion (IC50 = 91.40 µg/mL). Dominant compounds detected in E-Anvi by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) are identified as flavonoids. However, among four major compounds identified in H-Anvi by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), palmitic acid and phytol are the most abundant compounds with peak areas of 27.97% and 16.42%, respectively. In essence, this is the first report describing that A. virginicus is a potential natural source of antioxidants, tyrosinase and α-amylase inhibitors, and anti-chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) agents which may be useful in future therapeutics as promising alternative medicines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activities of Plant Extracts)
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31 pages, 5442 KiB  
Review
An Overview on the Conservative Management of Endometriosis from a Naturopathic Perspective: Phytochemicals and Medicinal Plants
by Andreea Balan, Marius Alexandru Moga, Lorena Dima, Catalina Georgeta Dinu, Carmen Constantina Martinescu, Diana Elena Panait, Claudia Alexandrina Irimie and Costin Vlad Anastasiu
Plants 2021, 10(3), 587; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030587 - 20 Mar 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 7857
Abstract
Background: Endometriosis is a chronic and debilitating disease, which affects millions of young women worldwide. Although medicine has incontestably evolved in the last years, there is no common ground regarding the early and accurate diagnosis of this condition, its pathogenic mechanisms, and curative [...] Read more.
Background: Endometriosis is a chronic and debilitating disease, which affects millions of young women worldwide. Although medicine has incontestably evolved in the last years, there is no common ground regarding the early and accurate diagnosis of this condition, its pathogenic mechanisms, and curative treatment. Even though the spontaneous resolution of endometriosis is sometimes possible, recent reports suggested that it can be a progressive condition. It can associate chronic pelvic pain, vaginal bleeding, infertility, or malignant degenerescence. Conventional treatments could produce many side effects, and despite treatment, the symptoms may reappear. In recent years, experimental evidence suggested that plant-based medicine could exert beneficial effects on endometriosis and endometriosis-related symptoms. This study aims to highlight the pharmaceutical activity of phytochemicals and medicinal plants against endometriosis and to provide a source of information regarding the alternative treatment of this condition. Methods: For this review, we performed a research using PubMed, GoogleScholar, and CrossRef databases. We selected the articles published between January 2000 and July 2020, written in English. Results: We found 17 medicinal plants and 13 phytochemicals, which have demonstrated their beneficial effects against endometriosis. Several of their biological activities consist of antiangiogenic, anti-inflammatory effects, and oxidative-stress reduction. Conclusion: Medicinal herbs and their bioactive compounds exhibit antiangiogenic, antioxidant, sedative and pain-alleviating properties and the effects recorded until now encourage their use for the conservative management of endometriosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activities of Plant Extracts)
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