Plant–Plant Allelopathic Interactions

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Ecology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2022) | Viewed by 34830

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Mediterranean Institute of Biodiversity and Ecology, Aix-Marseille University, 13003 Marseille, France
Interests: plant-plant interactions; allelopathy; ecosystem functionning; forest ecosystems; chemical ecology; mangroves
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Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation, Charles Sturt University, Albert Pugsley Place, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2650, Australia
Interests: agronomy; crop and weed allelopathy; allelochemicals; metabolomics; crop and weed competition; soil carbon
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Guest Editor
Graham Centre of Agricultural Innovation, Charles Sturt University, Bathurst, NSW, Australia
Interests: metabolomics; plant interactions; allelopathy; field research; bioinformatics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

The ability of certain plant species to affect other plants has been well documented since antiquity. The first writings on this subject are attributed to Theophrastus (300 BC), a student of Aristotle who noticed the harmful effects of cabbage on a vine crop and suggested that such effects were caused by "smells" from cabbage plants. This phenomenon of interference among neighboring plants is known as allelopathy and typically includes the study of interactions between plants or plants and microbes, as well as the effects of compounds or allelochemicals released by plants on plant growth or other soil factors and can be studied at different scales within plant communities.

Allelopathic interference is mediated typically by the release of plant or microbially produced secondary metabolites into the environment via volatilization, leaching through rainfall, root exudation or decomposition of plant litter. A single compound or mixture of metabolites may prove to be active but the phenomenon of allelopathy is dependent on the accumulated concentration of bioactive compounds and their persistence over time in the natural environment. Therefore, the study of the ecology of such interactions, as well as the physiology and chemistry of allelochemical interference is critical to the field of allelopathy. Involvement of allelopathic mechanisms in vegetation dynamics and the spatial distribution of plants has been explored to date on a limited basis, both in natural ecosystems or agrosystems. In addition to the fundamental aspects of research on plant interference and relationships between plant species, the field of allelopathy also includes applied aspects of plant ecology including but not limited to, weed and crop ecology and invasive weed management. Aspects of phytoremediation and bioremediation may also be presented in this special issue as well as the development of novel bioherbicides or competitive crops through allelopathy.

Dr. Bousquet-Mélou Anne
Dr. James M Mwendwa
Dr. Sajid Latif
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • allelopathy
  • allelochemicals
  • vegetation dynamics
  • ecosystem functioning
  • forest ecosystems
  • bioassay
  • terrestrial invasion
  • crop and weed allelopathy
  • competitive crops
  • bioherbicides

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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20 pages, 1676 KiB  
Article
Allelopathic Potential of Mangroves from the Red River Estuary against the Rice Weed Echinochloa crus-galli and Variation in Their Leaf Metabolome
by Dounia Dhaou, Virginie Baldy, Dao Van Tan, Jean-Rémi Malachin, Nicolas Pouchard, Anaïs Roux, Sylvie Dupouyet, Stéphane Greff, Gérald Culioli, Thomas Michel, Catherine Fernandez and Anne Bousquet-Mélou
Plants 2022, 11(19), 2464; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11192464 - 21 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2021
Abstract
Mangroves are the only forests located at the sea–land interface in tropical and subtropical regions. They are key elements of tropical coastal ecosystems, providing numerous ecosystem services. Among them is the production of specialized metabolites by mangroves and their potential use in agriculture [...] Read more.
Mangroves are the only forests located at the sea–land interface in tropical and subtropical regions. They are key elements of tropical coastal ecosystems, providing numerous ecosystem services. Among them is the production of specialized metabolites by mangroves and their potential use in agriculture to limit weed growth in cultures. We explored the in vitro allelopathic potential of eight mangrove species’ aqueous leaf extracts (Avicennia marina, Kandelia obovata, Bruguiera gymnorhiza, Sonneratia apetala, Sonneratia caseolaris, Aegiceras corniculatum, Lumnitzera racemosa and Rhizophora stylosa) on the germination and growth of Echinochloa crus-galli, a weed species associated with rice, Oryza sativa. Leaf methanolic extracts of mangrove species were also studied via UHPLC-ESI/qToF to compare their metabolite fingerprints. Our results highlight that A. corniculatum and S. apetala negatively affected E. crus-galli development with a stimulating effect or no effect on O. sativa. Phytochemical investigations of A. corniculatum allowed us to putatively annotate three flavonoids and two saponins. For S. apetala, three flavonoids, a tannin and two unusual sulfated ellagic acid derivatives were found. Some of these compounds are described for the first time in these species. Overall, A. corniculatum and S. apetala leaves are proposed as promising natural alternatives against E. crus-galli and should be further assessed under field conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant–Plant Allelopathic Interactions)
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15 pages, 1575 KiB  
Article
Aqueous Extracts of Three Herbs Allelopathically Inhibit Lettuce Germination but Promote Seedling Growth at Low Concentrations
by Kaili Wang, Ting Wang, Cheng Ren, Pengpeng Dou, Zhengzhou Miao, Xiqiang Liu, Ding Huang and Kun Wang
Plants 2022, 11(4), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11040486 - 11 Feb 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3006
Abstract
Allelopathy is an important process in plant communities. The effects of allelopathy on seed germination and seedling development have been extensively investigated. However, the influences of extract soaking time and concentration on the foregoing parameters are poorly understood. Here, we conducted a seed [...] Read more.
Allelopathy is an important process in plant communities. The effects of allelopathy on seed germination and seedling development have been extensively investigated. However, the influences of extract soaking time and concentration on the foregoing parameters are poorly understood. Here, we conducted a seed germination assay to determine the allelopathic effects of the donor herbs Achnatherum splendens (Trin.) Nevski, Artemisia frigida Willd., and Stellera chamaejasme L., from a degraded grassland ecosystem in northern China, on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seed germination and early seedling growth. Extract soaking times (12 h or 24 h) did not exhibit significantly different effects on lettuce seed germination or seedling development. However, all aqueous herb extracts inhibited lettuce seed germination and root length (RI < 0) and promoted lettuce shoot length, stem length, leaf length, and leaf width (RI > 0) at both low (0.005 g mL−1) and high (0.05 g mL−1) concentrations. Moreover, A. splendens extracts increased seedling biomass (RI > 0) and synthetical allelopathic effect (SE > 0) at both concentrations. In contrast, both A. frigida and S. chamaejasme extracts had hormesis effects, which stimulate at low concentrations (RI > 0) but inhibit at high concentrations (RI < 0) on seedling biomass and synthetical allelopathic effect (SE). The results suggest that allelopathic potential may be an important mechanism driving the dominance of A. frigida and S. chamaejasme in degraded grasslands. Reseeding allelopathy-promoting species such as A. splendens may be beneficial to grassland restoration. The present study also demonstrated that seedling biomass, root and shoot length, and seed germination rate are the optimal bioindicators in allelopathy assays and could be more representative when they are combined with the results of multivariate analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant–Plant Allelopathic Interactions)
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15 pages, 8017 KiB  
Article
Trade-Off between Facilitation and Interference of Allelopathic Compounds in Vegetation Recovery: The Case of Rosmarinus officinalis in Degraded Gypsum Habitats
by Helena García-Robles, Eva María Cañadas, Juan Lorite and Emilia Fernández-Ondoño
Plants 2022, 11(3), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030459 - 07 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1676
Abstract
Rosmarinus officinalis advantageously competes with other species in restored gypsum outcrops, and further research is needed to understand the causes. Specifically, we focus on the potential allelopathic effects derived from its terpenes on the emergence of gypsum species. To this end, we [...] Read more.
Rosmarinus officinalis advantageously competes with other species in restored gypsum outcrops, and further research is needed to understand the causes. Specifically, we focus on the potential allelopathic effects derived from its terpenes on the emergence of gypsum species. To this end, we established 120 circular subplots in a previously restored gypsum outcrop, and randomly applied four different treatments based on the presence/absence of rosemary plants and their leaves on the soil. Afterwards, we conducted an experimental sowing of native gypsophiles. All subplots were monitored to estimate seedling emergence, and soil and leaf samples were analysed for terpenes. The results show that the treatments had significant effects on the overall emergence of seedlings, and terpenes were found in rosemary leaves and soils, with no significant differences in terpene composition. In particular, we identified a clear negative effect in the treatment where rosemary plants were eliminated but its leaves were left along with allelopathy (2.57 ± 0.54 individuals/subplot). Unexpectedly, the presence of rosemary plants seems to facilitate the emergence of gypsum species (9.93 ± 1.61 individuals/subplot), counteracting the effects of the allelopathic substances in the soil. Consequently, we do not suggest removing rosemary plants in early stages to encourage the emergence of gypsum species in restored areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant–Plant Allelopathic Interactions)
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10 pages, 1095 KiB  
Article
Identification of Weed-Suppressive Tomato Cultivars for Weed Management
by Isabel Schlegel Werle, Edicarlos Castro, Carolina Pucci, Bhawna Soni Chakraborty, Shaun Broderick and Te Ming Tseng
Plants 2022, 11(3), 411; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030411 - 02 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1626
Abstract
Weed-suppressive crop cultivars are a potentially attractive option in weed management strategies (IWM). A greenhouse study was conducted at the R. R. Foil Plant Science Research Center, Starkville, MS, to assess the potential weed-suppressive ability of 17 tomato cultivars against Palmer amaranth ( [...] Read more.
Weed-suppressive crop cultivars are a potentially attractive option in weed management strategies (IWM). A greenhouse study was conducted at the R. R. Foil Plant Science Research Center, Starkville, MS, to assess the potential weed-suppressive ability of 17 tomato cultivars against Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats), yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.), and large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L.). The experiment was a completely randomized design, with four replications, and was repeated twice. The height, chlorophyll, and dry weight biomass of the weeds were measured 28 days after sowing. Weed suppression varied greatly among tomato cultivars. The most significant effect of tomato interference was recorded on Palmer amaranth, and the least reduction was observed with yellow nutsedge plants. Cultivars 15 and 41 reduced Palmer amaranth height and biomass by about 45 and 80%, respectively, while cultivar 38 reduced 60% of the chlorophyll percentage. Large crabgrass plants were 35% shorter in the presence of cultivar 38 and had a biomass reduction of 35% in the presence of cultivar 38. Under tomato interference, a minimal effect was observed in chlorophyll, height, and biomass of yellow nutsedge seedlings. Factoring all parameters evaluated, cultivars 38 and 33 were most suppressive against Palmer amaranth and large crabgrass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant–Plant Allelopathic Interactions)
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14 pages, 3642 KiB  
Article
Allelopathic and Herbicidal Effects of Crude Extract from Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M.King and H.Rob. on Echinochloa crus-galli and Amaranthus viridis
by Thanatsan Poonpaiboonpipat, Ramida Krumsri and Hisashi Kato-Noguchi
Plants 2021, 10(8), 1609; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10081609 - 05 Aug 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3283
Abstract
The present study was aimed at investigating the allelopathic effects of a crude extract from Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M.King and H.Rob. (Siam weed). The effects of 70% crude ethanol extract from the whole plant, leaf, stem, and root on the germination and growth [...] Read more.
The present study was aimed at investigating the allelopathic effects of a crude extract from Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M.King and H.Rob. (Siam weed). The effects of 70% crude ethanol extract from the whole plant, leaf, stem, and root on the germination and growth of Echinochloa crus-galli and Amaranthus viridis seedlings were evaluated using Petri-dish tests under laboratory conditions. Crude extracts from the leaf showed the highest inhibitory activity. The leaf extract (OR) was further separated by sequential solvent extraction to provide hexane (HX), ethyl acetate (ET), and butanol (BU) fractions, which were also evaluated using Petri-dish tests. The hexane fraction was significantly the most active; therefore, it was selected for formulation in a concentrated suspension and tested for its herbicidal characteristics. The formulation showed greater early post-emergence than post- and pre-emergence activities, respectively. The physiological mechanism of the formulation was tested against E. crus-galli and showed that chlorophyll a and b and the carotenoid contents of the leaf dramatically decreased when the concentration was increased, suggesting its ability to disrupt the process of photosynthesis. As thiobarbituric acid reactive substances also occurred in the leaf of E. crus-galli, this suggests lipid peroxidation and cell disruption. These results represent the possibility that C. odorata extract contains inhibitory compounds with herbicidal activity and could be used as an early post-emergence herbicide for weed control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant–Plant Allelopathic Interactions)
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14 pages, 3406 KiB  
Article
Metabolomics Reveals the Allelopathic Potential of the Invasive Plant Eupatorium adenophorum
by Xunzhi Zhu, Yangmin Yi, Ling Huang, Chi Zhang and Hua Shao
Plants 2021, 10(7), 1473; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10071473 - 19 Jul 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3108
Abstract
Phytotoxic chemicals produced by alien invasive plants exert inhibitory effects on native species to facilitate their invasiveness. The allelopathic process of invaders has been hypothesized as the “Novel Weapon Hypothesis”. However, this hypothesis has been controversial for decades due to lack of molecular [...] Read more.
Phytotoxic chemicals produced by alien invasive plants exert inhibitory effects on native species to facilitate their invasiveness. The allelopathic process of invaders has been hypothesized as the “Novel Weapon Hypothesis”. However, this hypothesis has been controversial for decades due to lack of molecular evidence, and the underlying mechanism of allelopathy still remains ambiguous. Herein, we explore the allelopathic mechanisms of Eupatorium adenophorum, a world-widely spread noxious weed, by the methods of laboratory bioassay and metabolomics analyses in the recipient plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. The bioassay revealed significant phytotoxicity of E. adenophorum extracts. A total of 234 metabolites in A. thaliana were detected by Gas Chromatographic−Mass Spectrometric analysis. There were 48, 99 and 94 impacted metabolites in A. thaliana treated by 50, 25 and 12.5% aqueous extracts compared to control. When mapping all the impacted metabolites to the biological pathways in the KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) database, we found mineral absorption, ABC transporters, amino acid biosynthesis, metabolic pathways and biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites were mainly impacted. Synthesized with partial least-squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) results of metabolic profiles in A. thaliana, we found that citrate cycle was suppressed, metabolism of amino acids was disordered and phosphate absorption was inhibited. Subsequent investigation demonstrated that the phosphorus content in A. thaliana tissues exposed in allelopathic extracts was much lower, indicating inhibition of phosphate uptake. Our study revealed by metabolomics approaches that E. adenophorum is an allelopathic species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant–Plant Allelopathic Interactions)
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19 pages, 3875 KiB  
Article
Effect of Extracts from Dominant Forest Floor Species of Clear-Cuts on the Regeneration and Initial Growth of Pinus sylvestris L. with Respect to Climate Change
by Vaida Sirgedaitė-Šėžienė, Adas Marčiulynas and Virgilijus Baliuckas
Plants 2021, 10(5), 916; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10050916 - 02 May 2021
Viewed by 1678
Abstract
Climate change influences the ecological environment and affects the recruitment of plants, in addition to population dynamics, including Scots pine regeneration processes. Therefore, the impact of cover-dominant species extracts on the germination of pine seeds and morpho-physiological traits of seedling under different environmental [...] Read more.
Climate change influences the ecological environment and affects the recruitment of plants, in addition to population dynamics, including Scots pine regeneration processes. Therefore, the impact of cover-dominant species extracts on the germination of pine seeds and morpho-physiological traits of seedling under different environmental conditions was evaluated. Increasing temperature reinforces the plant-donor allelochemical effect, reduces Scots pine seed germination, and inhibits seedling morpho-physiological parameters. Conditions unfavourable for the seed germination rate were observed in response to the effect of aqueous extracts of 2-year-old Vaccinium vitis-ideae and 1-year-old Calluna vulgaris under changing environmental conditions. The lowest radicle length and hypocotyl growth were observed in response to the effect of 1-year-old C. vulgaris and 2-year-old Rumex acetosella under increasing temperature (+4 °C) conditions. The chlorophyll a + b concentration in control seedlings strongly decreased from 0.76 to 0.66 mg g−1 (due to current environmental and changing environmental conditions). These factors may reduce the resistance of Scots pine to the effects of dominant species and affect the migration of Scots pine habitats to more favourable environmental conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant–Plant Allelopathic Interactions)
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14 pages, 1013 KiB  
Article
Allelopathic Effect of Serphidium kaschgaricum (Krasch.) Poljak. Volatiles on Selected Species
by Shixing Zhou, Toshmatov Zokir, Yu Mei, Lijing Lei, Kai Shi, Ting Zou, Chi Zhang and Hua Shao
Plants 2021, 10(3), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030495 - 05 Mar 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2559
Abstract
The chemical profile and allelopathic effect of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by a dominant shrub Serphidium kaschgaricum (Krasch.) Poljak. growing in northwestern China was investigated for the first time. Serphidium kaschgaricu was found to release volatile compounds into the surroundings to [...] Read more.
The chemical profile and allelopathic effect of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by a dominant shrub Serphidium kaschgaricum (Krasch.) Poljak. growing in northwestern China was investigated for the first time. Serphidium kaschgaricu was found to release volatile compounds into the surroundings to affect other plants’ growth, with its VOCs suppressing root elongation of Amaranthus retroflexus L. and Poa annua L. by 65.47% and 60.37% at 10 g/1.5 L treatment, respectively. Meanwhile, volatile oils produced by stems, leaves, flowers and flowering shoots exhibited phytotoxic activity against A. retroflexus and P. annua. At 0.5 mg/mL, stem, leaf and flower oils significantly reduced seedling growth of the receiver plants, and 1.5 mg/mL oils nearly completely prohibited seed germination of both species. GC/MS analysis revealed that among the total 37 identified compounds in the oils, 19 of them were common, with eucalyptol (43.00%, 36.66%, 19.52%, and 38.68% in stem, leaf, flower and flowering shoot oils, respectively) and camphor (21.55%, 24.91%, 21.64%, and 23.35%, respectively) consistently being the dominant constituents in all oils. Eucalyptol, camphor and their mixture exhibited much weaker phytotoxicity compared with the volatile oils, implying that less abundant compounds in the volatile oil might contribute significantly to the oils’ activity. Our results suggested that S. kaschgaricum was capable of synthesizing and releasing allelopathic volatile compounds into the surroundings to affect neighboring plants’ growth, which might improve its competitiveness thus facilitate the establishment of dominance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant–Plant Allelopathic Interactions)
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Review

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15 pages, 1594 KiB  
Review
Allelopathy and Allelochemicals of Leucaenaleucocephala as an Invasive Plant Species
by Hisashi Kato-Noguchi and Denny Kurniadie
Plants 2022, 11(13), 1672; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11131672 - 24 Jun 2022
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 4056
Abstract
Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit is native to southern Mexico and Central America and is now naturalized in more than 130 countries. The spread of L. leucocephala is probably due to its multipurpose use such as fodder, timber, paper pulp, shade trees, and [...] Read more.
Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit is native to southern Mexico and Central America and is now naturalized in more than 130 countries. The spread of L. leucocephala is probably due to its multipurpose use such as fodder, timber, paper pulp, shade trees, and soil amendment. However, the species is listed in the world’s 100 worst invasive alien species, and an aggressive colonizer. It forms dense monospecific stands and threatens native plant communities, especially in oceanic islands. Phytotoxic chemical interactions such as allelopathy have been reported to play an important role in the invasion of several invasive plant species. Possible evidence for allelopathy of L. leucocephala has also been accumulated in the literature over 30 years. The extracts, leachates, root exudates, litter, decomposing residues, and rhizosphere soil of L. leucocephala increased the mortality and suppressed the germination and growth of several plant species, including weeds and woody plants. Those observations suggest that L. leucocephala is allelopathic and contains certain allelochemicals. Those allelochemicals may release into the rhizosphere soil during decomposition process of the plant residues and root exudation. Several putative allelochemicals such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, and mimosine were identified in L. leucocephala. The species produces a large amount of mimosine and accumulates it in almost all parts of the plants, including leaves, stems, seeds, flowers, roots, and root nodules. The concentrations of mimosine in these parts were 0.11 to 6.4% of their dry weight. Mimosine showed growth inhibitory activity against several plant species, including some woody plants and invasive plants. Mimosine blocked cell division of protoplasts from Petunia hybrida hort. ex E. Vilm. between G1 and S phases, and disturbed the enzyme activity such as peroxidase, catalase, and IAA oxidase. Some of those identified compounds in L. leucocephala may be involved in its allelopathy. Therefore, the allelopathic property of L. leucocephala may support its invasive potential and formation of dense monospecific stands. However, the concentrations of mimosine, phenolic acids, and flavonoids in the vicinity of L. leucocephala, including its rhizosphere soil, have not yet been reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant–Plant Allelopathic Interactions)
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10 pages, 1060 KiB  
Review
Allelopathy of Lantana camara as an Invasive Plant
by Hisashi Kato-Noguchi and Denny Kurniadie
Plants 2021, 10(5), 1028; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10051028 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 9670
Abstract
Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) is native to tropical America and has been introduced into many other countries as an ornamental and hedge plant. The species has been spreading quickly and has naturalized in more than 60 countries as an invasive noxious weed. It [...] Read more.
Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) is native to tropical America and has been introduced into many other countries as an ornamental and hedge plant. The species has been spreading quickly and has naturalized in more than 60 countries as an invasive noxious weed. It is considered to be one of the world’s 100 worst alien species. L. camara often forms dense monospecies stands through the interruption of the regeneration process of indigenous plant species. Allelopathy of L. camara has been reported to play a crucial role in its invasiveness. The extracts, essential oil, leachates, residues, and rhizosphere soil of L. camara suppressed the germination and growth of other plant species. Several allelochemicals, such as phenolic compounds, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, and a flavonoid, were identified in the extracts, essential oil, residues, and rhizosphere soil of L. camara. The evidence also suggests that some of those allelochemicals in L. camara are probably released into the rhizosphere soil under the canopy and neighboring environments during the decomposition process of the residues and as leachates and volatile compounds from living plant parts of L. camara. The released allelochemicals may suppress the regeneration process of indigenous plant species by decreasing their germination and seedling growth and increasing their mortality. Therefore, the allelopathic property of L. camara may support its invasive potential and formation of dense monospecies stands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant–Plant Allelopathic Interactions)
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