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Plants, Volume 10, Issue 12 (December 2021) – 275 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The impacts of CO2 and temperature on Fusarium graminearum disease are dependent on the host and the pathogen strain. On wheat, NA2 was more aggressive than NA1, and elevated CO2 further increased the severity of disease caused by NA2 but had no significant effect on NA1. In contrast, on corn, NA1 caused more disease, and there was no interaction between strain and CO2. Warmer temperature increased disease on wheat but reduced symptoms on corn. Deoxynivalenol contamination in wheat and corn was both greater at elevated CO2 and cool temperature treatment. However, NA2 caused more DON contamination in wheat, while NA1 caused more DON contamination in corn. View this paper.
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Article
Analyses of MADS-box Genes Suggest HvMADS56 to Regulate Lateral Spikelet Development in Barley
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2825; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122825 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1186
Abstract
MADS-box transcription factors are crucial regulators of inflorescence and flower development in plants. Therefore, the recent interest in this family has received much attention in plant breeding programs due to their impact on plant development and inflorescence architecture. The aim of this study [...] Read more.
MADS-box transcription factors are crucial regulators of inflorescence and flower development in plants. Therefore, the recent interest in this family has received much attention in plant breeding programs due to their impact on plant development and inflorescence architecture. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of HvMADS-box genes in lateral spikelet development in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). A set of 30 spike-contrasting barley lines were phenotypically and genotypically investigated under controlled conditions. We detected clear variations in the spike and spikelet development during the developmental stages among the tested lines. The lateral florets in the deficiens and semi-deficiens lines were more reduced than in two-rowed cultivars except cv. Kristina. Interestingly, cv. Kristina, int-h.43 and int-i.39 exhibited the same behavior as def.5, def.6, semi-def.1, semi-def.8 regarding development and showed reduced lateral florets size. In HOR1555, HOR7191 and HOR7041, the lateral florets continued their development, eventually setting seeds. In contrast, lateral florets in two-rowed barley stopped differentiating after the awn primordia stage giving rise to lateral floret sterility. At harvest, the lines tested showed large variation for all central and lateral spikelet-related traits. Phylogenetic analysis showed that more than half of the 108 MADS-box genes identified are highly conserved and are expressed in different barley tissues. Re-sequence analysis of a subset of these genes showed clear polymorphism in either SNPs or in/del. Variation in HvMADS56 correlated with altered lateral spikelet morphology. This suggests that HvMADS56 plays an important role in lateral spikelet development in barley. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Genetics, Genomics and Biotechnology)
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Article
Cold Acclimation in Brachypodium Is Accompanied by Changes in Above-Ground Bacterial and Fungal Communities
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2824; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122824 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1455
Abstract
Shifts in microbiota undoubtedly support host plants faced with abiotic stress, including low temperatures. Cold-resistant perennials prepare for freeze stress during a period of cold acclimation that can be mimicked by transfer from growing conditions to a reduced photoperiod and a temperature of [...] Read more.
Shifts in microbiota undoubtedly support host plants faced with abiotic stress, including low temperatures. Cold-resistant perennials prepare for freeze stress during a period of cold acclimation that can be mimicked by transfer from growing conditions to a reduced photoperiod and a temperature of 4 °C for 2–6 days. After cold acclimation, the model cereal, Brachypodium distachyon, was characterized using metagenomics supplemented with amplicon sequencing (16S ribosomal RNA gene fragments and an internal transcribed spacer region). The bacterial and fungal rhizosphere remained largely unchanged from that of non-acclimated plants. However, leaf samples representing bacterial and fungal communities of the endo- and phyllospheres significantly changed. For example, a plant-beneficial bacterium, Streptomyces sp. M2, increased more than 200-fold in relative abundance in cold-acclimated leaves, and this increase correlated with a striking decrease in the abundance of Pseudomonas syringae (from 8% to zero). This change is of consequence to the host, since P. syringae is a ubiquitous ice-nucleating phytopathogen responsible for devastating frost events in crops. We posit that a responsive above-ground bacterial and fungal community interacts with Brachypodium’s low temperature and anti-pathogen signalling networks to help ensure survival in subsequent freeze events, underscoring the importance of inter-kingdom partnerships in the response to cold stress. Full article
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Article
New European Discovery of Splachnum pensylvanicum (Bryophyta, Splachnaceae) in Lithuania, with Taxonomic Notes and a Review of Its World Distribution
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2823; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122823 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 939
Abstract
Splachnum pensylvanicum (Brid.) Grout ex H.A.Crum is recorded for the first time in Lithuania and it is its fourth discovery at a third locality in Europe. It was found for the first time in 2000 in Kamanos mire, the largest peatland complex in [...] Read more.
Splachnum pensylvanicum (Brid.) Grout ex H.A.Crum is recorded for the first time in Lithuania and it is its fourth discovery at a third locality in Europe. It was found for the first time in 2000 in Kamanos mire, the largest peatland complex in the northern part of this East Baltic country. Targeted investigations at this site in 2017 resulted in the discovery of 14 populations and it is apparently the largest and most abundant locality of the species in Europe. Splachnum pensylvanicum is briefly described and illustrated along with some taxonomic notes and a detailed description of its habitat requirements. The global geographical distribution of S. pensylvanicum is reviewed and mapped. It is a Euro-Eastern North American temperate species and deeply penetrates into the Neotropics at montane stations in Venezuela and SE Brazil in South America. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Knowledge in Bryology 2.0)
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Article
Analysis of Phenolic Compounds for the Determination of Grafts (in) Compatibility Using In Vitro Callus Cultures of Sato-Zakura Cherries
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2822; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122822 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1062
Abstract
The aim of this study was to prove that under in vitro conditions, the adhesiveness of the callus between rootstock and scion, the development of callus cells at the points of fusion, and the presence of phenolic components are closely related to the [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to prove that under in vitro conditions, the adhesiveness of the callus between rootstock and scion, the development of callus cells at the points of fusion, and the presence of phenolic components are closely related to the level of (in) compatibility of the grafting combinations between Sato-zakura cherry cultivars (‘Amanogawa’, ‘Kanzan’, and ‘Kiku-shidare-zakura’) and commercial rootstocks. Prunus avium, Prunus ‘Colt’, Prunus mahaleb and Prunus serrulata were used as compatible and Prunus serotina and Pyrus communis ‘Pyrodwarf’ were used as two potentially incompatible rootstocks. The results indicated the significant manifestations of the early signs of the incompatibility on the callus junction. Phenols, as well as tissue senescence, were very precisely localized by toluidine blue and alcian blue as well as safranin staining, which can indicate the early signs of the callus incompatibility in some grafting unions. In the callus unions of Prunus avium with ‘Amanogawa’ and ‘Kiku-shidare-zakura’ the results of chemical analyses indicated that the existence of several flavonols, flavones and phenol acids could be involved in the incompatibility process in grafted combination. The detection of flavonol astragalin in the unions can be a biomarker of compatibility between scion and the rootstock, while some polyphenols, such as neochlorogenic acid, sinapic acid, ellagic acid, caffeic acid, baicalein, naringenin, apigenin and luteolin can be used as the indicators of graft incompatibility. p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid could be used for detection of delayed incompatibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Polyphenols - from Plants to Human Health Volume II)
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Article
Exogenous Glycine Betaine Application Improves Freezing Tolerance of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) Leaves
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2821; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122821 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1057
Abstract
Exogenous glycine betaine (GB) application has been reported to improve plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses, but its effect on freezing tolerance has not been well studied. We investigated the effect of exogenous GB on freezing tolerance of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) [...] Read more.
Exogenous glycine betaine (GB) application has been reported to improve plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses, but its effect on freezing tolerance has not been well studied. We investigated the effect of exogenous GB on freezing tolerance of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) leaves. Seedlings fed with 30 mM GB via sub-irrigation showed effectively assimilated GB as evident by higher GB concentration. Exogenous GB did not retard leaf-growth (fresh weight, dry weight, and leaf area) rather slightly promoted it. Temperature controlled freeze-thaw tests proved GB-fed plants were more freeze-tolerant as indicated by lower electrolyte leakage (i.e., indication of less membrane damage) and alleviating oxidative stress (less accumulation of O2•− and H2O2, as well as of malondialdehyde (MDA)) following a relatively moderate or severe freeze-thaw stress, i.e., −2.5 and −3.5 °C. Improved freezing tolerance induced by exogenous GB application may be associated with accumulation of compatible solute (proline) and antioxidant (glutathione). GB-fed leaves also had higher activity of antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). These changes, together, may improve freezing tolerance through membrane protection from freeze-desiccation and alleviation of freeze-induced oxidative stress. Full article
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Article
High-Frequency Plant Regeneration, Genetic Uniformity, and Flow Cytometric Analysis of Regenerants in Rutachalepensis L.
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2820; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122820 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1041
Abstract
Ruta chalepensis L., an evergreen shrub in the citrus family, is well-known around the world for its essential oils and variety of bioactivities, indicating its potential medicinal applications. In this study, we investigated the effect of different culture conditions, including plant growth regulators, [...] Read more.
Ruta chalepensis L., an evergreen shrub in the citrus family, is well-known around the world for its essential oils and variety of bioactivities, indicating its potential medicinal applications. In this study, we investigated the effect of different culture conditions, including plant growth regulators, media types, pH of the medium, and carbon sources, on in vitro regeneration from nodal explants of R. chalepensis. Following 8 weeks of culture, the highest percentage of regeneration (96.3%) and maximum number of shoots (40.3 shoot/explant) with a length of 4.8 cm were obtained with Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium at pH 5.8, supplemented with 3.0% sucrose and 5.0 µM 6-Benzyladenine (BA) in combination with 1.0 µM 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). For rooting, individually harvested shootlets were transferred on ½ MS (half-strength) supplemented with IAA (indole-3-acetic acid), IBA (indole 3-butyric acid), or NAA, and the best response in terms of root induction (91.6%), number of roots (5.3), and root mean length (4.9 cm) was achieved with 0.5 µM IBA after 6 weeks. An average of 95.2 percent of healthy, in vitro regenerated plantlets survived after being transplanted into potting soil, indicating that they were effectively hardened. DNA assays (PCR-based markers) such as random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and directed amplification of minisatellite-region (DAMD) were employed to assess in vitro cultivated R. chalepensis plantlets that produced a monomorphic banding pattern confirming the genetic stability. Additionally, no changes in the flow cytometric profile of ploidy between regenerated plantlets and donor plants were detected. Regeneration of this valuable medicinal plant in vitro will open up new avenues in pharmaceutical biotechnology by providing an unconventional steadfast system for mass multiplication and might be effectively used in genetic manipulation for enhanced bioactive constituents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Tissue Culture II)
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Article
The Patterns of Male and Female Flowers in Flowering Stage May Not Be Optimal Resource Allocation for Fruit and Seed Growth
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2819; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122819 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 799
Abstract
Changes in the proportions of male and female flowers in monoecious plants in response to external environmental conditions are directly related to the reproductive fitness of plants. The monoecious cucumber (Cucumber sativus) plant was used in this study to assess the [...] Read more.
Changes in the proportions of male and female flowers in monoecious plants in response to external environmental conditions are directly related to the reproductive fitness of plants. The monoecious cucumber (Cucumber sativus) plant was used in this study to assess the responses of sex differentiation and the breeding process to nutrient supply and the degree of artificial pollination using pollen solutions of different concentrations. We found that the nutrient supply significantly improved the number of female flowers, while pollination treatments did not obviously increase the number of male flowers. Continuous pollination changed the number of female flowers especially in the later stage of the pollination experiment. Therefore, pollination changed the ratio of male and female flowers in the flowering stage of cucumber. Pollination treatment affected the fruit growth, seed set, and fruit yield. The number of fruit, fruit set percentage, and total seeds per plant did not increase with the pollination level, but individual fruit weight and seed number in one fruit did increase. The differentiation of male and female flowers in the flowering stage of cucumber is a response to nutrient and pollination resources, but this response is not the optimal resource allocation for subsequent fruit development and seed maturity, which suggests that the response of plants to external environment resources is short-term and direct. Full article
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Review
Prospects for Protective Potential of Moringa oleifera against Kidney Diseases
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2818; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122818 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1760
Abstract
Kidney diseases are regarded as one of the major public health issues in the world. The objectives of this study were: (i) to investigate the causative factors involved in kidney disease and the therapeutic aspects of Moringa oleifera, as well as (ii) [...] Read more.
Kidney diseases are regarded as one of the major public health issues in the world. The objectives of this study were: (i) to investigate the causative factors involved in kidney disease and the therapeutic aspects of Moringa oleifera, as well as (ii) the effectiveness of M. oleifera in the anti-inflammation and antioxidant processes of the kidney while minimizing all potential side effects. In addition, we proposed a hypothesis to improve M. oleifera based drug development. This study was updated by searching the key words M. oleifera on kidney diseases and M. oleifera on oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis in online research databases such as PubMed and Google Scholar. The following validation checking and scrutiny analysis of the recently published articles were used to explore this study. The recent existing research has found that M. oleifera has a plethora of health benefits. Individual medicinal properties of M. oleifera leaf extract, seed powder, stem extract, and the whole extract (ethanol/methanol) can up-increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH), while decreasing the activity of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and COX-2. In our study, we have investigated the properties of this plant against kidney diseases based on existing knowledge with an updated review of literature. Considering the effectiveness of M. oleifera, this study would be useful for further research into the pharmacological potential and therapeutic insights of M. oleifera, as well as prospects of Moringa-based effective medicine development for human benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Therapeutics)
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Article
Boosted Antioxidant Effect Using a Combinatory Approach with Essential Oils from Origanum compactum, Origanum majorana, Thymus serpyllum, Mentha spicata, Myrtus communis, and Artemisia herba-alba: Mixture Design Optimization
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2817; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122817 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1075
Abstract
Several studies have demonstrated the possible synergistic effect as an effective strategy to boost the bioactivity of essential oils. Using this framework, this study was conducted to effectively establish the ideal combination of six essential oils from different plants (Origanum compactum, [...] Read more.
Several studies have demonstrated the possible synergistic effect as an effective strategy to boost the bioactivity of essential oils. Using this framework, this study was conducted to effectively establish the ideal combination of six essential oils from different plants (Origanum compactum, Origanum majorana, Thymus serpyllum, Mentha spicata, Myrtus communis, and Artemisia herba-alba) that would express the best antioxidant activity. Each mixture was optimized using a mixture design approach to generate the most effective blend. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method was used as a reference method to assess the antioxidant activity. Each essential oil’s composition was identified using the GC/MS method. The single essential oil activities demonstrated variable antioxidant effects, and following the mixture design approach, the optimal antioxidant blend was revealed, as two mixtures demonstrated the best antiradical activity with 79.46% obtained with the mixture of O. majorana (28%) and M. spicata (71%) and 78.8% obtained with the mixture O. compactum (64%), O. majorana (13%), and T. serpyllum (21%). This study proposes a practical way to elaborate mixtures in the search for a boosting effect that can be oriented for the food or pharmaceutical industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Capacity of Plant Extracts)
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Article
Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of Caffeic Acid O-Methyltransferase Gene Family in Soybean
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2816; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122816 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1091
Abstract
Soybean is one of the most important legumes, providing high-quality protein for humans. The caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene has previously been demonstrated to be a critical gene that regulates lignin production in plant cell walls and plays an important function in plant [...] Read more.
Soybean is one of the most important legumes, providing high-quality protein for humans. The caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene has previously been demonstrated to be a critical gene that regulates lignin production in plant cell walls and plays an important function in plant growth and development. However, the COMT gene family has not been studied in soybeans. In this study, 55 COMT family genes in soybean were identified by phylogenetic analysis and divided into two groups, I and II. The analysis of conserved domains showed that all GmCOMTs genes contained Methyltransferase-2 domains. Further prediction of cis-acting elements showed that GmCOMTs genes were associated with growth, light, stress, and hormonal responses. Eventually, based on the genomic data of soybean under different stresses, the results showed that the expression of GmCOMTs genes was different under different stresses, such as salt and drought stress. This study has identified and characterized the COMT gene family in soybean, which provides an important theoretical basis for further research on the biological functions of COMT genes and promotes revealing the role of GmCOMTs genes under stress resistance. Full article
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Article
Genetic and Molecular Characterization of a Self-Compatible Brassica rapa Line Possessing a New Class II S Haplotype
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2815; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122815 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1119
Abstract
Most flowering plants have evolved a self-incompatibility (SI) system to maintain genetic diversity by preventing self-pollination. The Brassica species possesses sporophytic self-incompatibility (SSI), which is controlled by the pollen- and stigma-determinant factors SP11/SCR and SRK. However, the mysterious molecular mechanism of SI remains [...] Read more.
Most flowering plants have evolved a self-incompatibility (SI) system to maintain genetic diversity by preventing self-pollination. The Brassica species possesses sporophytic self-incompatibility (SSI), which is controlled by the pollen- and stigma-determinant factors SP11/SCR and SRK. However, the mysterious molecular mechanism of SI remains largely unknown. Here, a new class II S haplotype, named BrS-325, was identified in a pak choi line ‘325’, which was responsible for the completely self-compatible phenotype. To obtain the entire S locus sequences, a complete pak choi genome was gained through Nanopore sequencing and de novo assembly, which provided a good reference genome for breeding and molecular research in B. rapa. S locus comparative analysis showed that the closest relatives to BrS-325 was BrS-60, and high sequence polymorphism existed in the S locus. Meanwhile, two duplicated SRKs (BrSRK-325a and BrSRK-325b) were distributed in the BrS-325 locus with opposite transcription directions. BrSRK-325b and BrSCR-325 were expressed normally at the transcriptional level. The multiple sequence alignment of SCRs and SRKs in class II S haplotypes showed that a number of amino acid variations were present in the contact regions (CR II and CR III) of BrSCR-325 and the hypervariable regions (HV I and HV II) of BrSRK-325s, which may influence the binding and interaction between the ligand and the receptor. Thus, these results suggested that amino acid variations in contact sites may lead to the SI destruction of a new class II S haplotype BrS-325 in B. rapa. The complete SC phenotype of ‘325’ showed the potential for practical breeding application value in B. rapa. Full article
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Article
Sewage Pollution Promotes the Invasion-Related Traits of Impatiens glandulifera in an Oligotrophic Habitat of the Sharr Mountain (Western Balkans)
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2814; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122814 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1032
Abstract
An annual plant, Himalayan balsam (Impatiens glandulifera Royle) is globally widespread and one of Europe’s top invaders. We focused on two questions: does this species indeed not invade the southern areas and does the environment affect some of its key invisibility traits. [...] Read more.
An annual plant, Himalayan balsam (Impatiens glandulifera Royle) is globally widespread and one of Europe’s top invaders. We focused on two questions: does this species indeed not invade the southern areas and does the environment affect some of its key invisibility traits. In an isolated model mountainous valley, we jointly analyzed the soil (21 parameters), the life history traits of the invader (height, stem diameter, aboveground dw), and the resident vegetation (species composition and abundances, Ellenberg indicator values), and supplemented it with local knowledge (semi-structured interviews). Uncontrolled discharge of fecal wastewaters directly into the local dense hydrological network fostered mass infestation of an atypical habitat. The phenotypic plasticity of the measured invasion-related traits was very high in the surveyed early invasion (30–50% invader cover) stages. Different microhabitat conditions consistently correlated with its growth performance. The largest individuals were restricted to the deforested riparian habitats, with extreme soil nutrient enrichment (primarily by P and K) and low-competitive, species-poor resident vegetation. We showed that ecological context can modify invasion-related traits and what could affect a further invasion process. Finally, this species is likely underreported in the wider region; public attitude and loss of traditional ecological knowledge are further management risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecology of Invasive Plants)
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Article
Vulnerability of the Ancient Peat Plateaus in Western Siberia
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2813; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122813 - 19 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1115
Abstract
Based on the data of the plant macrofossil and palynological composition of the peat deposits, the evolution and current state of polygonal peatlands were analyzed at the southern limit of continuous permafrost in the Pur-Taz interfluve. Paleoreconstruction shows that peat accumulation began in [...] Read more.
Based on the data of the plant macrofossil and palynological composition of the peat deposits, the evolution and current state of polygonal peatlands were analyzed at the southern limit of continuous permafrost in the Pur-Taz interfluve. Paleoreconstruction shows that peat accumulation began in the Early Holocene, about 9814 cal. year BP, in the Late Pre-Boreal (PB-2), at a rate of 1 to 1.5 mm year−1. Intensive peat accumulation continued in the Boreal and early Atlantic. The geocryological complex of polygonal peatlands has remained a stable bog system despite the predicted warming and increasing humidity. However, a rather rapid upper permafrost degradation and irreversible changes in the bog systems of polygonal peatlands occur with anthropogenic disturbances, in particular, a change in the natural hydrological regime under construction of linear objects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arctic and Boreal Ecosystems Changes)
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Article
Selection Gain of Maize Haploid Inducers for the Tropical Savanna Environments
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2812; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122812 - 19 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1105
Abstract
Lacking elite haploid inducers performing high haploid induction rate (HIR) and agronomic performance is one of fundamental factors hindering the rapid adoption of doubled haploid technology in maize hybrid breeding, especially under tropical savanna climate. Breeding haploid inducers for specific agro-ecology, thus, is [...] Read more.
Lacking elite haploid inducers performing high haploid induction rate (HIR) and agronomic performance is one of fundamental factors hindering the rapid adoption of doubled haploid technology in maize hybrid breeding, especially under tropical savanna climate. Breeding haploid inducers for specific agro-ecology, thus, is indispensable yet challenging. We used temperate inducer Stock6 as genetic source for haploid induction ability and eight tropical maize genotypes as principal donors for agronomic adaptation. Three cycles of modified ear-to-row with 5% intra-family selection were applied in a population set of 78 putative haploid inducer families emphasized on agronomic performance, R1-nj anthocyanin intensity, and inducer seed set. Genetic gains, variance components, and heritability on given traits were estimated. Hierarchical clustering based on five selection criteria was performed to investigate the phenotypic diversity of putative families. Cycle effect was predominant for all observed traits. Realized genetic gain was positive for HIR (0.40% per cycle) and inducer seed set (30.10% or 47.30 seeds per ear per cycle). In this study, we reported the first haploid inducers for regions under tropical savanna climate. Three inducer families, KHI-42, KHI-54, and KHI-64, were promising as they possessed HIR about 7.8% or 14 haploid seeds per tester ear and inducer seed rate about 95.0% or 208 inducer seeds per ear. The breeding method was effective for enhancing the seed set and the expression of R1-nj anthocyanin marker of inducers, yet it showed a low effectiveness to improve haploid induction rate. Introgression of temperate inducer Stock6 into tropical gene pool followed by phenotypic selections through modified ear-to-row selection on inducer seed set and R1-nj marker did not compromise the agronomic traits of tropical inducer families. Implications and further strategies for optimizing genetic gain on HIR are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Doubled Haploid Technology in Plant Breeding)
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Article
Biogeographical Patterns of Herbivore Arthropods Associated with Chenopodium quinoa Grown along the Latitudinal Gradient of Chile
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2811; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122811 - 19 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 788
Abstract
Identifying the particular guilds of herbivore arthropods that affect the production of crops is key to developing sustainable pest-management strategies; however, there is incomplete information about the identity of herbivore arthropods that could potentially damage the production of both highland and lowland quinoa [...] Read more.
Identifying the particular guilds of herbivore arthropods that affect the production of crops is key to developing sustainable pest-management strategies; however, there is incomplete information about the identity of herbivore arthropods that could potentially damage the production of both highland and lowland quinoa landraces grown in Chile. By both reviewing the literature and conducting field collections across a large latitudinal gradient, we generated an updated list of 43 herbivore arthropods associated with quinoa production in Chile. In general, most species are polyphagous feeders, and only seven are specialists. The number and identity of species varied in relation with the latitude, such that four distinctive assemblages of herbivores were identified, each containing 32, 27, 34, and 22 species between latitudes 18–26, 26–32, 32–40, and 40–44° S, respectively. The most northern production area (18–26° S) is affected by nine unique species, including the major quinoa pest Eurysacca quinoae Povolný (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Similarly, the central area (32–40° S) contains four unique species, including Eurysacca media Povolný (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and Orthotylus flavosparsus (Sahlberg) (Hemiptera: Miridae). The particular species assemblages described here will help further development of local pest-management practices. Full article
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Article
Oxidative Stress and DNA Lesion Reduction of a Polyphenolic Enriched Extract of Thymus marschallianus Willd. in Endothelial Vascular Cells Exposed to Hyperglycemia
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2810; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122810 - 18 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1027
Abstract
The present study aimed to compare two polyphenolic-enriched extracts obtained from the Thymus marschallianus Willd. (Lamiaceae) species, harvested from culture (TMCE in doses of 0.66 μg GAE/mL and 0.066 μg GAE/mL) and from spontaneous flora (TMSE in doses of 0.94 μg GAE/mL and [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to compare two polyphenolic-enriched extracts obtained from the Thymus marschallianus Willd. (Lamiaceae) species, harvested from culture (TMCE in doses of 0.66 μg GAE/mL and 0.066 μg GAE/mL) and from spontaneous flora (TMSE in doses of 0.94 μg GAE/mL and 0.094 μg GAE/mL) by assessing their biological effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to normoglycemic (137 mmol/L glucose) and hyperglycemic conditions (200 mmol/L glucose). Extracts were obtained by solid phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed by chromatographical (HPLC-DAD) and spectrophotometrical methods. Their effects on hyperglycemia were evaluated by the quantification of oxidative stress and NF-ĸB, pNF-ĸB, HIF-1α, and γ-H2AX expressions. The HPLC-DAD analysis highlighted significant amounts of rosmarinic acid (ranging between 0.18 and 1.81 mg/g dry extract), luteolin (ranging between 2.04 and 17.71 mg/g dry extract), kaempferol (ranging between 1.85 and 7.39 mg/g dry extract), and apigenin (ranging between 4.97 and 65.67 mg/g dry extract). Exposure to hyperglycemia induced oxidative stress and the activation of NF-ĸ increased the expression of HIF-1α and produced DNA lesions. The polyphenolic-enriched extracts proved a significant reduction of oxidative stress and γ-H2AX formation and improved the expression of HIF-1α, suggesting their protective role on endothelial cells in hyperglycemia. The tested extracts reduced the total NF-ĸB expression and diminished its activation in hyperglycemic conditions. The obtained results bring evidence for the use of the polyphenolic-enriched extracts of T. marschallianus as adjuvants in hyperglycemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plant Extracts)
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Article
Effects of NaCl on Antioxidant, Antifungal, and Antibacterial Activities in Safflower Essential Oils
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2809; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122809 - 18 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1127
Abstract
The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of essential oils (EO) extracted from safflower plants grown in the absence and presence of NaCl, 50 mM. Plants treated with 50 mM of NaCl showed decreases in root, stem, and leaf [...] Read more.
The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of essential oils (EO) extracted from safflower plants grown in the absence and presence of NaCl, 50 mM. Plants treated with 50 mM of NaCl showed decreases in root, stem, and leaf dry weight. Results of the essential oils showed that roots have a higher EO yield than leaves and stems. Salinity caused a decrease in this yield in roots and leaves but not in stems. The compounds identified in the EO extracted from these organs belong to seven chemical classes of which the dominant class is the sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The chemotype of C. tinctorius EO is variable depending on the organ and the treatment. The safflower essential oils showed low antioxidant, antiradical, and iron-reducing activities compared to those of the positive control (BHT). In an antifungal activity test, only two strains, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans, were found to be highly sensitive to these oils as they showed almost total inhibition of their growth. For antibacterial activity, safflower EOs showed significant antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, and Xanthomonas campestris in both control and NaCl-treated plants: for these three strains, total inhibition of growth was noted at 50,000 ppm of EO in leaves and roots; whereas for stems, total inhibition was noted only for the third strain (Xanthomonas campestris). For other strains, this inhibition was variable and weak. Salt was found to have no effect on the activities of safflower EOs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of Plant Antioxidants’ Action Volume II)
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Article
Light-Mediated Reduction in Photosynthesis in Closed Greenhouses Can Be Compensated for by CO2 Enrichment in Tomato Production
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2808; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122808 - 18 Dec 2021
Viewed by 896
Abstract
Concepts of semi-closed greenhouses can be used to save energy, whereas their technical equipment often causes a decrease in the light received by the plants. Nevertheless, higher yields are achieved, which are presumably triggered by a higher CO2 concentration in the greenhouse [...] Read more.
Concepts of semi-closed greenhouses can be used to save energy, whereas their technical equipment often causes a decrease in the light received by the plants. Nevertheless, higher yields are achieved, which are presumably triggered by a higher CO2 concentration in the greenhouse and associated higher photosynthesis because of the technical cooling and the longer period of closed ventilation. Therefore, we examined the effects of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and CO2 concentration on plant photosynthesis and transpiration in tomato using a multiple cuvette gas exchange system. In a growth chamber experiment, we demonstrated that a light-mediated reduction in photosynthesis can be compensated or even overcompensated for by rising CO2 concentration. Increasing the CO2 concentration from 400 to 1000 µmol mol−1 within the PPFD range from 303 to 653 µmol m−2 s−1 resulted in an increase in net photosynthesis of 51%, a decrease in transpiration of 5 to 8%, and an increase in photosynthetic water use efficiency of 60%. Estimations showed that light reductions of 10% can be compensated for via increasing the CO2 concentration by about 100 µmol mol−1 and overcompensated for by about 40% if CO2 concentration is kept at 1000 instead of 400 µmol mol−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Physiology and Environmental Stresses)
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Review
Stories from the Greenhouse—A Brief on Cotton Seed Germination
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2807; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122807 - 18 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1021
Abstract
Seed germination is the basis for the proliferation of sexual-reproducing plants, efficient crop production, and a successful crop improvement research program. Cotton (Gossypium spp.), the subject of this review, can be often sensitive to germination conditions. The hardness of the cotton seed [...] Read more.
Seed germination is the basis for the proliferation of sexual-reproducing plants, efficient crop production, and a successful crop improvement research program. Cotton (Gossypium spp.), the subject of this review, can be often sensitive to germination conditions. The hardness of the cotton seed coat, storage, extreme temperatures, and dormancy are some of the factors that can influence cotton seed germination. Research programs conducting studies on exotic and wild cotton species are especially affected by those hurdles. Here, we briefly review the challenges of cotton seed germination and some of the approaches our cotton breeding program explored throughout the years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genetic Resources and Their Use in Cotton Improvement)
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Article
Chemical Composition and Content of Biologically Active Substances Found in Cotinus coggygria, Dactylorhiza maculata, Platanthera chlorantha Growing in Various Territories
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2806; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122806 - 18 Dec 2021
Viewed by 920
Abstract
Medicinal plants (Cotinus coggygria, Dactylorhiza maculata, Platanthera chlorantha) growing in various territories (Kaliningrad, Moscow, and Minsk regions) were the objects of research. This paper presents a study of the chemical composition of these plants. To analyze the qualitative and [...] Read more.
Medicinal plants (Cotinus coggygria, Dactylorhiza maculata, Platanthera chlorantha) growing in various territories (Kaliningrad, Moscow, and Minsk regions) were the objects of research. This paper presents a study of the chemical composition of these plants. To analyze the qualitative and quantitative composition of biologically active substances, the method of high-performance liquid chromatography was used. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to study the content of trace elements. The content of organic acids and vitamins was determined by capillary electrophoresis using the Kapel-105/105M capillary electrophoresis system with high negative polarity. Extracts of medicinal plants were obtained on a Soxhlet apparatus using 70% ethanol as an extractant. It was found that among the biologically active substances in the plants under discussion, hyperoside, rutin (C. coggygria), Ferulic acid and Gallic acid (D. maculata), triene hydrocarbon (3,7-Dimethyl-1,3,6-octatriene), unsaturated alcohol (3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol), and benzyl acetate (P. chlorantha) prevailed. Samples of these medicinal plants contained trace elements (phosphorus, potassium, calcium, sodium, magnesium, and sulfur) and many aliphatic organic acids (succinic acid, benzoic acid, fumaric acid, citric acid, oxalic acid, and tartaric acid). The largest amount of biologically active substances and secondary metabolites of the studied plants from the Eastern Baltic is associated with climatic and ecological differences from other regions. The composition of these plants determines the potential of their use in feed additives for livestock and poultry as part of measures to improve the quality of livestock products. The use of medicinal plants for the production of feed additives is relevant in terms of improving regional economies, as well as improving the quality of life and nation’s health by providing ecologically clean livestock products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plant Extracts)
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Article
CottonGen: The Community Database for Cotton Genomics, Genetics, and Breeding Research
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2805; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122805 - 18 Dec 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1175
Abstract
Over the last eight years, the volume of whole genome, gene expression, SNP genotyping, and phenotype data generated by the cotton research community has exponentially increased. The efficient utilization/re-utilization of these complex and large datasets for knowledge discovery, translation, and application in crop [...] Read more.
Over the last eight years, the volume of whole genome, gene expression, SNP genotyping, and phenotype data generated by the cotton research community has exponentially increased. The efficient utilization/re-utilization of these complex and large datasets for knowledge discovery, translation, and application in crop improvement requires them to be curated, integrated with other types of data, and made available for access and analysis through efficient online search tools. Initiated in 2012, CottonGen is an online community database providing access to integrated peer-reviewed cotton genomic, genetic, and breeding data, and analysis tools. Used by cotton researchers worldwide, and managed by experts with crop-specific knowledge, it continuous to be the logical choice to integrate new data and provide necessary interfaces for information retrieval. The repository in CottonGen contains colleague, gene, genome, genotype, germplasm, map, marker, metabolite, phenotype, publication, QTL, species, transcriptome, and trait data curated by the CottonGen team. The number of data entries housed in CottonGen has increased dramatically, for example, since 2014 there has been an 18-fold increase in genes/mRNAs, a 23-fold increase in whole genomes, and a 372-fold increase in genotype data. New tools include a genetic map viewer, a genome browser, a synteny viewer, a metabolite pathways browser, sequence retrieval, BLAST, and a breeding information management system (BIMS), as well as various search pages for new data types. CottonGen serves as the home to the International Cotton Genome Initiative, managing its elections and serving as a communication and coordination hub for the community. With its extensive curation and integration of data and online tools, CottonGen will continue to facilitate utilization of its critical resources to empower research for cotton crop improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genetic Resources and Their Use in Cotton Improvement)
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Article
Development of a Low-Cost System for 3D Orchard Mapping Integrating UGV and LiDAR
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2804; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122804 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1107
Abstract
Growing evaluation in the early stages of crop development can be critical to eventual yield. Point clouds have been used for this purpose in tasks such as detection, characterization, phenotyping, and prediction on different crops with terrestrial mapping platforms based on laser scanning. [...] Read more.
Growing evaluation in the early stages of crop development can be critical to eventual yield. Point clouds have been used for this purpose in tasks such as detection, characterization, phenotyping, and prediction on different crops with terrestrial mapping platforms based on laser scanning. 3D model generation requires the use of specialized measurement equipment, which limits access to this technology because of their complex and high cost, both hardware elements and data processing software. An unmanned 3D reconstruction mapping system of orchards or small crops has been developed to support the determination of morphological indices, allowing the individual calculation of the height and radius of the canopy of the trees to monitor plant growth. This paper presents the details on each development stage of a low-cost mapping system which integrates an Unmanned Ground Vehicle UGV and a 2D LiDAR to generate 3D point clouds. The sensing system for the data collection was developed from the design in mechanical, electronic, control, and software layers. The validation test was carried out on a citrus crop section by a comparison of distance and canopy height values obtained from our generated point cloud concerning the reference values obtained with a photogrammetry method. A 3D crop map was generated to provide a graphical view of the density of tree canopies in different sections which led to the determination of individual plant characteristics using a Python-assisted tool. Field evaluation results showed plant individual tree height and crown diameter with a root mean square error of around 30.8 and 45.7 cm between point cloud data and reference values. Full article
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Article
Metamitron, a Photosynthetic Electron Transport Chain Inhibitor, Modulates the Photoprotective Mechanism of Apple Trees
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2803; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122803 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1255
Abstract
Chemical thinning of apple fruitlets is an important practice as it reduces the natural fruit load and, therefore, increases the size of the final fruit for commercial markets. In apples, one chemical thinner used is Metamitron, which is sold as the commercial product [...] Read more.
Chemical thinning of apple fruitlets is an important practice as it reduces the natural fruit load and, therefore, increases the size of the final fruit for commercial markets. In apples, one chemical thinner used is Metamitron, which is sold as the commercial product Brevis® (Adama, Ashdod, Israel). This thinner inhibits the electron transfer between Photosystem II and Quinone-b within light reactions of photosynthesis. In this study, we investigated the responses of two apple cultivars—Golden Delicious and Top Red—and photosynthetic light reactions after administration of Brevis®. The analysis revealed that the presence of the inhibitor affects both cultivars’ energetic status. The kinetics of the photoprotective mechanism’s sub-processes are attenuated in both cultivars, but this seems more severe in the Top Red cultivar. State transitions of the antenna and Photosystem II repair cycle are decreased substantially when the Metamitron concentration is above 0.6% in the Top Red cultivar but not in the Golden Delicious cultivar. These attenuations result from a biased absorbed energy distribution between photochemistry and photoprotection pathways in the two cultivars. We suggest that Metamitron inadvertently interacts with photoprotective mechanism-related enzymes in chloroplasts of apple tree leaves. Specifically, we hypothesize that it may interact with the kinases responsible for the induction of state transitions and the Photosystem II repair cycle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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Article
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.): Genetic Diversity According to ISSR and SCoT Markers, Relative Gene Expression, and Morpho-Physiological Variation under Salinity Stress
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2802; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122802 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1102
Abstract
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a halophytic crop that can withstand a variety of abiotic stresses, including salt. The present research examined the mechanisms of salt tolerance in five different quinoa genotypes at four different salinity levels (control (60), 80, 120, and [...] Read more.
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a halophytic crop that can withstand a variety of abiotic stresses, including salt. The present research examined the mechanisms of salt tolerance in five different quinoa genotypes at four different salinity levels (control (60), 80, 120, and 160 mM NaCl). ISSR and SCoT analysis revealed high polymorphism percentages of 90.91% and 85.26%, respectively. Furthermore, ISSR 1 and SCoT 7 attained the greatest number of polymorphic amplicons (27 and 26), respectively. Notably, LINE-6 and M-28 genotypes demonstrated the greatest number of unique positive and negative amplicons (50 and 42) generated from ISSR and SCoT, respectively. Protein pattern analysis detected 11 bands with a polymorphism percentage 27.27% among the quinoa genotypes, with three unique bands distinguishable for the M-28 genotype. Similarity correlation indicated that the highest similarity was between S-10 and Regeolone-3 (0.657), while the lowest similarity was between M-28 and LINE-6 (0.44). Significant variations existed among the studied salinity treatments, genotypes, and the interactions between them. The highest and lowest values for all the studied morpho-physiological and biochemical traits were recorded at 60 and 160 mM NaCl concentrations, respectively, except for the Na and proline contents, which exhibited the opposite relationship. The M-28 genotype demonstrated the highest values for all studied characteristics, while the LINE-6 genotype represented the lowest in both seasons. On the other hand, mRNA transcript levels for CqSOS1 did not exhibit differential expression in roots and leaf tissues, while the expression of CqNHX1 was upregulated more in both tissues for the M-28 genotype than for the LINE-6 genotype, and its maximum induction was seen in the leaves. Overall, the genotypes M-28 and LINE-6 were identified as the most and least salinity-tolerant, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Salinity Stress in Plants and Molecular Responses 2.0)
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Article
Multicomponent Polyphenolic Extracts from Vaccinium corymbosum at Lab and Pilot Scale. Characterization and Effectivity against Nosocomial Pathogens
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2801; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122801 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1046
Abstract
An extraction method was designed and scaled up to produce multicomponent polyphenolic extracts from blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum) of three different varieties. The process was specifically drawn up to comply with green chemistry principles. Extracts were obtained for the direct assessment of [...] Read more.
An extraction method was designed and scaled up to produce multicomponent polyphenolic extracts from blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum) of three different varieties. The process was specifically drawn up to comply with green chemistry principles. Extracts were obtained for the direct assessment of their antimicrobial and antiadhesive activities, and their direct use in the control of infections caused by concerning multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogens. Analytical characterization was performed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). Similar qualitative profiles were obtained in the three studied varieties with some significant quantitative differences. Up to 22 different polyphenols were identified with a clear predominance of anthocyani(di)ns followed by flavanols, non-flavonoids, and far behind by flavan-3-ols and procyanidins. The individual content of the main polyphenols was also discussed. A pilot scale extract has been also produced as a proof-of-concept, showing that scaling-up triples the content of bioactive phytochemicals. The effect of the polyphenolic extracts was analyzed against seven multidrug-resistance bacterial species by performing biofilm formation and growth and killing curves assays. All the studied varieties showed antibacterial and antiadhesive activities, being the extract containing the highest concentration of bioactive polyphenols, the most active with a high bactericidal effect. Full article
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Review
Toxicity of meta-Tyrosine
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2800; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122800 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 903
Abstract
L-Tyrosine (Tyr) is one of the twenty proteinogenic amino acids and also acts as a precursor for secondary metabolites. Tyr is prone to modifications, especially under conditions of cellular redox imbalance. The oxidation of Tyr precursor phenylalanine leads to the formation of Tyr [...] Read more.
L-Tyrosine (Tyr) is one of the twenty proteinogenic amino acids and also acts as a precursor for secondary metabolites. Tyr is prone to modifications, especially under conditions of cellular redox imbalance. The oxidation of Tyr precursor phenylalanine leads to the formation of Tyr non-proteinogenic isomers, including meta-Tyr (m-Tyr), a marker of oxidative stress. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on m-Tyr toxicity. The direct m-Tyr mode of action is linked to its incorporation into proteins, resulting in their improper conformation. Furthermore, m-Tyr produced by some plants as an allelochemical impacts the growth and development of neighboring organisms. In plants, the direct harmful effect of m-Tyr is due to its modification of the proteins structure, whereas its indirect action is linked to the disruption of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species metabolism. In humans, the elevated concentration of m-Tyr is characteristic of various diseases and ageing. Indeed, m-Tyr is believed to play an important role in cancer physiology. Thus, since, in animal cells, m-Tyr is formed directly in response to oxidative stress, whereas, in plants, m-Tyr is also synthesized enzymatically and serves as a chemical weapon in plant–plant competition, the general concept of m-Tyr role in living organisms should be specified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicity Mechanisms of Phytotoxins)
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Article
In Vitro Regeneration of Miscanthus x giganteus through Indirect Organogenesis: Effect of Explant Type and Growth Regulators
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2799; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122799 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 739
Abstract
Miscanthus x giganteus is a spontaneous sterile hybrid therefore the creation of useful genetic diversity by conventional breeding methods is restricted. Plant regeneration through indirect organogenesis may be a useful approach to create genetic variability of this important agricultural crop. The present study [...] Read more.
Miscanthus x giganteus is a spontaneous sterile hybrid therefore the creation of useful genetic diversity by conventional breeding methods is restricted. Plant regeneration through indirect organogenesis may be a useful approach to create genetic variability of this important agricultural crop. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the explant type and growth regulators on indirect organogenesis of Miscanthus x giganteus and to determine the ploidy level of plant regenerants by flow cytometry. On average, the highest percentage of morphogenic callus tested explants formed in the medium supplemented with 2.5 mg L–1 IBA + 0.1 mg L–1 BAP + 4.0 mg L–1 l-proline. The most intensive secondary differentiation of callus cells was observed in the medium supplemented with 4.0 mg L–1 ZEA + 1.0 mg L–1 NAA. The highest root formation frequency with the highest number of roots was determined in the MS nutrient medium supplemented with 0.4 mg L–1 IBA, where more than 95% of plant regenerants survived and were growing normally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Regeneration and Organ Formation)
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Article
Genome Size, Cytotype Diversity and Reproductive Mode Variation of Cotoneaster integerrimus (Rosaceae) from the Balkans
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2798; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122798 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1110
Abstract
Cotoneaster integerrimus represents a multiploid and facultative apomictic system of widely distributed mountain populations. We used flow cytometry to determine genome size, ploidy level, and reproduction mode variation of the Balkan populations, supplemented by analysis of nuclear microsatellites in order to address: (i) [...] Read more.
Cotoneaster integerrimus represents a multiploid and facultative apomictic system of widely distributed mountain populations. We used flow cytometry to determine genome size, ploidy level, and reproduction mode variation of the Balkan populations, supplemented by analysis of nuclear microsatellites in order to address: (i) geographic distribution and variation of cytotypes among the populations; (ii) variation of reproduction mode and the frequency of sexuality; (iii) pathways of endosperm formation among the sampled polyploids and their endosperm balance requirements; (iv) genotypic diversity and geographic distribution of clonal lineages of polyploids. The prevalence of apomictic tetraploid cytotype followed by sexual diploids and extremely rare triploids was demonstrated. This prevalence of tetraploids affected the populations’ structure composed from clonal genotypes with varying proportions. The co-occurrence of diploids and tetraploids generated higher cytotype, reproductive mode, and genotypic diversity, but mixed-ploidy sites were extremely rare. The endosperm imbalance facilitates the development and the occurrence of intermediate triploids in mixed-ploidy populations, but also different tetraploid lineages elsewhere with unbalanced endosperm. All these results showed that the South European populations of C. integerrimus have higher levels of cytotype and reproductive diversity compared to the Central European ones. Therefore, the South European populations can be considered as a potential reservoir of regional and global diversity for this species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Genome Size Evolution of Plants)
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Article
Usefulness of Tree Species as Urban Health Indicators
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2797; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122797 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 800
Abstract
We used the Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI), the amount of PM5 and PM10, and the elemental analysis of leaves to explore the sensitivity of tree species to air pollution. We assessed the tolerance of Robinia pseudoacacia, Acer saccharinum [...] Read more.
We used the Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI), the amount of PM5 and PM10, and the elemental analysis of leaves to explore the sensitivity of tree species to air pollution. We assessed the tolerance of Robinia pseudoacacia, Acer saccharinum, Tilia × europaea, Acer platanoides, Fraxinus excelsior, Betula pendula, Celtis occidentalis, and Platanus × acerifolia to the amount of dust, APTI, and the elemental concentration of leaves. Leaves were collected in Debrecen (Hungary), which has a high intensity of vehicular traffic. The highest amount of PM (both PM10 and PM5) was found on the leaves of A. saccharinum and B. pendula. Our results demonstrated that A. saccharinum was moderately tolerant, while P. acerifolia was intermediate, based on the APTI value. There was a significant difference in the parameters of APTI and the elemental concentration of leaves among species. We found that tree leaves are reliable bioindicators of air pollution in urban areas. Based on the value of APTI, A. saccharinum and P. acerifolia, and based on PM, A. saccharinum and B. pendula are recommended as pollutant-accumulator species, while other studied species with lower APTI values are useful bioindicators of air pollution. The results support landscape engineers and urban developers in finding the best tree species that are tolerant to pollution and in using those as proxies of urban environmental health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plants in Built-Up Areas)
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Article
Development of SSR Databases Available for Both NGS and Capillary Electrophoresis in Apple, Pear and Tea
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2796; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122796 - 17 Dec 2021
Viewed by 887
Abstract
Developing new varieties in fruit and tea breeding programs is very costly and labor-intensive. Thus, establishing a variety discrimination system is important for protecting breeders’ rights and producers’ profits. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) databases that can be utilized for both next-generation sequencing (SSR-GBS) [...] Read more.
Developing new varieties in fruit and tea breeding programs is very costly and labor-intensive. Thus, establishing a variety discrimination system is important for protecting breeders’ rights and producers’ profits. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) databases that can be utilized for both next-generation sequencing (SSR-GBS) and polymerase chain reaction–capillary electrophoresis (PCR-CE) would be very useful in variety discrimination. In the present study, SSRs with tri-, tetra- and pentanucleotide repeats were examined in apple, pear and tea. Out of 37 SSRs that showed clear results in PCR-CE, 27 were suitable for SSR-GBS. Among the remaining markers, there was allele dropout for some markers that caused differences between the results of PCR-CE and SSR-GBS. For the selected 27 markers, the alleles detected by SSR-GBS were comparable to those detected by PCR-CE. Furthermore, we developed a computational pipeline for automated genotyping using SSR-GBS by setting a value “α” for each marker, a criterion whether a genotype is homozygous or heterozygous based on allele frequency. The set of 27 markers contains 10, 8 and 9 SSRs for apple, pear and tea, respectively, that are useful for both PCR-CE and SSR-GBS and suitable for automation. The databases help researchers discriminate varieties in various ways depending on sample size, markers and methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Bioinformatics: Applications and Databases)
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