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Sci. Pharm., Volume 86, Issue 2 (June 2018)

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Open AccessReview Thiopyrano[2,3-d]Thiazoles as New Efficient Scaffolds in Medicinal Chemistry
Sci. Pharm. 2018, 86(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm86020026
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 6 June 2018 / Accepted: 7 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
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Abstract
This review presents the up to date development of fused thiopyranothiazoles that comprise one of the thiazolidine derivatives classes. Thiazolidine and thiazolidinone-related compounds belong to the widely studied heterocycles from a medicinal chemistry perspective. From the chemical point of view, they are perfect
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This review presents the up to date development of fused thiopyranothiazoles that comprise one of the thiazolidine derivatives classes. Thiazolidine and thiazolidinone-related compounds belong to the widely studied heterocycles from a medicinal chemistry perspective. From the chemical point of view, they are perfect heterodienes to undergo hetero-Diels–Alder reaction with a variety of dienophiles, yielding regio- and diastereoselectively thiopyranothiazole scaffolds. The annealing of thiazole and thiopyran cycles in condensed heterosystem is a precondition for the “centers conservative” creation of the ligand-target binding complex and can promote a potential selectivity to biotargets. The review covers possible therapeutic applications of thiopyrano[2,3-d]thiazoles, such as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anticancer as well as aniparasitic activities. Thus, thiopyrano[2,3-d]thiazoles may be used as powerful tools in the development of biologically active agents and drug-like molecules. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Novel Asymmetrical Mono-Carbonyl Analogs of Curcumin (AMACs) against Vero, HeLa, and MCF7 Cell Lines
Sci. Pharm. 2018, 86(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm86020025
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 1 June 2018 / Accepted: 5 June 2018 / Published: 7 June 2018
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Abstract
A series of novel asymmetrical mono-carbonyl analogs of curcumin (AMACs) were synthesized and evaluated for cytotoxic activity using BSLT and MTT assay against Vero, HeLa, and MCF7 cell lines. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR,
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A series of novel asymmetrical mono-carbonyl analogs of curcumin (AMACs) were synthesized and evaluated for cytotoxic activity using BSLT and MTT assay against Vero, HeLa, and MCF7 cell lines. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and mass spectral data. The results of the cytotoxicity evaluation showed that the synthesized compounds exhibited moderate to very high toxic activity in BSLT (LC50 value 29.80–1704.23 µM); most of the compound exhibited cytotoxic activity against HeLa cell lines, which is comparable to the activity of cisplatin (IC50 value 40.65–95.55 µM), and most of the compound tested against MCF7 cell lines exhibited moderate to very high cytotoxic activity (IC50 value 7.86–35.88 µM). However, the selectivity index (SI) of the compounds was low (<1–1.96). Among the synthesized compounds, compound 1b was the most cytotoxic and selective against MCF7 cell lines. It could be considered for further development to obtain the more active and selective chemotherapeutic agents against breast cancer. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Influence of Ispaghula and Zein Coating on Ibuprofen-Loaded Alginate Beads Prepared by Vibration Technology: Physicochemical Characterization and Release Studies
Sci. Pharm. 2018, 86(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm86020024
Received: 20 February 2018 / Revised: 21 May 2018 / Accepted: 1 June 2018 / Published: 5 June 2018
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Abstract
The purpose behind the work was to fabricate alginate beads with better drug loading and extended drug release. Ispaghula was used to enhance the drug loading while zein was employed to extend the drug release. Ibuprofen was employed as a model drug in
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The purpose behind the work was to fabricate alginate beads with better drug loading and extended drug release. Ispaghula was used to enhance the drug loading while zein was employed to extend the drug release. Ibuprofen was employed as a model drug in this study. Ibuprofen-loaded alginate beads with and without ispaghula were prepared using vibration technology and coated with zein. The beads prepared with alginate alone were shown to have loading and entrapment efficiencies of 35% and 70% w/w, respectively. Addition of ispaghula in alginate showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the drug loading (42% w/w) and entrapment efficiency (84% w/w). Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of ispaghula and zein coating in the alginate beads as well as the ibuprofen loading. Scanning electron microscopy revealed better spherical geometry in the beads with ispaghula. The surface morphology of the uncoated beads was rough due to crystalline and surface drug. The zein coating has produced a smoother surface and particle adhesion. Differential scanning calorimetry has shown a reduction in drug crystallinity. Alginate beads extended the drug release for 4 h and the presence of zein extended the release for 6 h. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cocrystal of Ibuprofen–Nicotinamide: Solid-State Characterization and In Vivo Analgesic Activity Evaluation
Sci. Pharm. 2018, 86(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm86020023
Received: 11 May 2018 / Revised: 31 May 2018 / Accepted: 1 June 2018 / Published: 4 June 2018
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Abstract
Ibuprofen is classified as a BCS class II drug which has low solubility and high permeability. We conducted the formation of the cocrystalline phase of ibuprofen with coformer nicotinamide to increase its solubility. The purpose of this study was to characterize the solid
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Ibuprofen is classified as a BCS class II drug which has low solubility and high permeability. We conducted the formation of the cocrystalline phase of ibuprofen with coformer nicotinamide to increase its solubility. The purpose of this study was to characterize the solid state of cocrystalline phase of ibuprofen-nicotinamide, determine the solubility, and evaluate its in vivo analgesic activity. The cocrystal of ibuprofen-nicotinamide was prepared by a slow evaporation method. The solid-state characterization was conducted by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis, differential thermal analysis (DTA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). To investigate the in vivo analgesic activity, 28 male Swiss-Webster mice were injected with acetic acid 0.5% following oral administration of intact ibuprofen, physical mixture, and its cocrystalline phase with nicotinamide (equivalent to 26 mg/kg ibuprofen). The number of writhes was counted, and pain inhibition was calculated. All data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (95% confidence interval). The results revealed that a new cocrystalline phase was successfully formed. The solubility testing showed that the cocrystal formation enhanced the solubility significantly as compared with the physical mixture and intact ibuprofen. A significant increase in the analgesic activity of cocrystal ibuprofen-nicotinamide was also confirmed. Full article
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Open AccessReview Impact of Fermented Foods on Human Cognitive Function—A Review of Outcome of Clinical Trials
Sci. Pharm. 2018, 86(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm86020022
Received: 17 April 2018 / Revised: 21 May 2018 / Accepted: 26 May 2018 / Published: 31 May 2018
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Abstract
Food is an essential need for all living creatures which provides the energy to maintain life and grow further. Fermentation is a process used to preserve and advance the quality of foods, and those foods are known as fermented foods. Some foods offer
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Food is an essential need for all living creatures which provides the energy to maintain life and grow further. Fermentation is a process used to preserve and advance the quality of foods, and those foods are known as fermented foods. Some foods offer health benefits to consumers apart from nutrition, and such foods are called as functional foods. Most functional foods are fermented foods, and the fermenting microorganism plays a precious role in the functional property of the food. Cognitive decline is closely associated with the productivity of an individual and the society. Even though cognitive decline is connected to aging, dietary pattern influences memory, anxiety and other social behaviors. Many scientific studies have explained the link between food habits and cognitive functions by in vitro and in vivo models. The present review compiled the clinical data on the impact of fermented foods on human cognitive function. Full article
Open AccessArticle Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Biological Activity of Ethyl 4-Methyl-2,2-dioxo-1H-2λ6,1-benzothiazine-3-carboxylate Polymorphic Forms
Sci. Pharm. 2018, 86(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm86020021
Received: 11 April 2018 / Revised: 19 May 2018 / Accepted: 21 May 2018 / Published: 30 May 2018
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Abstract
Continuing the search for new potential analgesics among the derivatives of 4-methyl-2,2-dioxo-1H-2λ6,1-benzothiazine-3-carboxylic acid, the possibility of obtaining its esters by the alkylation of the corresponding sodium salt with iodoethane in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at room temperature was studied. It
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Continuing the search for new potential analgesics among the derivatives of 4-methyl-2,2-dioxo-1H-2λ6,1-benzothiazine-3-carboxylic acid, the possibility of obtaining its esters by the alkylation of the corresponding sodium salt with iodoethane in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at room temperature was studied. It was found that under such conditions, together with the oxygen atom of the carboxyl group, a heteroatom of nitrogen is also alkylated. Therefore, the product of the reaction studied is a mixture of ethyl 4-methyl-2,2-dioxo-1H-2λ6,1-benzothiazine-3-carboxylate (major) and its 1-ethyl-substituted analog (minor). A simple but very effective method of preparative separation of these compounds was proposed. Moreover, the heterogeneous crystallization from ethanol was revealed to result in a monoclinic polymorphic form of ethyl 4-methyl-2,2-dioxo-1H-2λ6,1-benzothiazine-3-carboxylate, while the homogeneous crystallization results in its orthorhombic form. The molecular and crystal structures of both forms were confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis, and the phase purity by powder diffraction study. The pharmacological tests carried out on the model of a carrageenan edema showed that the screening dose of 20 mg/kg of 1-ethyl-substituted ester and the orthorhombic form of its analog unsubstituted in position 1 exhibited weak anti-inflammatory and moderate analgesic effects. At the same time, the monoclinic form of ethyl 4-methyl-2,2-dioxo-1H-2λ6,1-benzothiazine-3-carboxylate appeared to be both a powerful analgesic and an anti-inflammatory agent that exceeded Piroxicam and Meloxicam in the same doses by these indicators. A detailed comparative analysis of the molecular and crystal structures of two polymorphic forms of ethyl 4-methyl-2,2-dioxo-1H-2λ6,1-benzothiazine-3-carboxylate was carried out using quantum chemical calculations of the energies of pairwise interactions between molecules. An explanation of the essential differences of their biological properties based on this was offered. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Host-Guest Interactions of Plumbagin with β-Cyclodextrin, Dimethyl-β-Cyclodextrin and Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin: Semi-Empirical Quantum Mechanical PM6 and PM7 Methods
Sci. Pharm. 2018, 86(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm86020020
Received: 20 March 2018 / Revised: 27 April 2018 / Accepted: 9 May 2018 / Published: 15 May 2018
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Abstract
Molecular interactions of plumbagin inclusion complexes with β-cyclodextrin (BCD), dimethyl--cyclodextrin (MBCD), and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPBCD) were investigated by semi-empirical, Parameterization Method 6 and 7 (PM6, and PM7) in the aqueous phase using polarizable continuum calculations. The results revealed two different binding modes of the
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Molecular interactions of plumbagin inclusion complexes with β-cyclodextrin (BCD), dimethyl--cyclodextrin (MBCD), and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPBCD) were investigated by semi-empirical, Parameterization Method 6 and 7 (PM6, and PM7) in the aqueous phase using polarizable continuum calculations. The results revealed two different binding modes of the plumbagin molecule inside the BCD cavity with a negative value of the complexation energy. In conformation-I, the hydroxyl phenolic group of plumbagin was placed in the BCD cavity near the narrow-side of the host molecule. In the other model, conformation-II, the methyl quinone group of plumbagin was placed in the cavity of BCD near the narrow-side of the host molecule. The higher the negative value of the complexation energy, the more favorable is the pathway of inclusion-complex formation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Massoia (Massoia aromatica Becc.) Bark on the Phagocytic Activity of Wistar Rat Macrophages
Sci. Pharm. 2018, 86(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm86020019
Received: 2 April 2018 / Revised: 28 April 2018 / Accepted: 7 May 2018 / Published: 10 May 2018
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Abstract
The essential oil of Massoia (Massoia aromatica Becc., Lauraceae) bark is a potential immunomodulator in vitro. This study evaluated the potential immunomodulatory effects of Massoia bark infusion on the nonspecific immune response (phagocytosis) of Wistar rats. For the in vitro assay, macrophages
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The essential oil of Massoia (Massoia aromatica Becc., Lauraceae) bark is a potential immunomodulator in vitro. This study evaluated the potential immunomodulatory effects of Massoia bark infusion on the nonspecific immune response (phagocytosis) of Wistar rats. For the in vitro assay, macrophages were treated with the freeze-dried infusion at the concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10, 20, or 40 µg/mL media. For the in vivo assay, two-month-old male Wistar rats were divided into five groups. The baseline group received distilled water at the dose of 1 mL/100 g body weight (BW), with the herbal product containing Phyllanthus niruri extract that was administered as the positive control at the dose of 0.54 mL/rat. The treatment groups received the infusion at a dose of 100, 300, or 500 mg/100 g BW. Treatments were given orally every day for 14 days. The ability of macrophage cells to phagocyte latex was determined as phagocytic index (PI), and it was observed under microscopy with 300 macrophages. The in vitro study revealed that the phagocytic activity of the infusion-treated macrophages significantly increased in comparison with that of the control macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner. Among all of the treatment concentrations, the concentration of 40 µg/mL provided the highest activity with a PI value of 70.51 ± 1.11%. The results of the in vivo assay confirmed those of the in vitro assay. The results of the present study indicate that Massoia bark can increase the phagocytic activity of rat macrophage cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Quantification of 6-Mercaptopurine and Its Metabolites in Patients with Acute Lympoblastic Leukemia Using Dried Blood Spots and UPLC-MS/MS
Sci. Pharm. 2018, 86(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm86020018
Received: 2 April 2018 / Revised: 19 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 25 April 2018
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Abstract
This research aimed to quantitatively bioanalyze 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP), 6-methylmercaptopurine (6-MMP), and 6-thioguanosine-5′-monophosphate (6-TGMP) in dried blood spots (DBS) prepared from a small volume of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients. Analytes on the DBS card were extracted using 90% methanol with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) as
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This research aimed to quantitatively bioanalyze 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP), 6-methylmercaptopurine (6-MMP), and 6-thioguanosine-5′-monophosphate (6-TGMP) in dried blood spots (DBS) prepared from a small volume of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients. Analytes on the DBS card were extracted using 90% methanol with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) as an internal standard. Analytical separation was performed on a Waters Acquity® UPLC BEH AMIDA column of 1.7 μm (2.1 × 100 mm) with a mobile phase mixture of 0.2% formic acid in water and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile-methanol, with gradient elution and a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. Mass detection of 6-MP, 6-MMP, 6-TGMP, and 5-FU showed m/z values of 153.09 > 119.09, 167.17 > 126.03, 380.16 > 168.00, and 129.09 > 42.05, respectively. This DBS method had a run time of 5 min and yielded a linear calibration curve over a range of 25.5–1020 ng/mL for 6-MP, 6-MMP, and 6-TGMP. Analyte analysis in 22 of 24 ALL patients showed that the measured value of 6-TGMP as an active metabolite was in the range of 29–429 pmol/8 × 108 erythrocytes. Five of 22 patients had concentrations in a therapeutic range, which indicates that the treatment is effective, while 17 of 24 patients had concentrations below the therapeutic range, which indicates that a treatment dose adjustment is needed. The measured value of 6-MMP, an inactive metabolite, was in the range of 28–499 pmol/8 × 108 erythrocytes, which includes concentrations below the hepatotoxic range. The method employed here can thus be effectively utilized to support therapeutic drug monitoring. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Betulin-3,28-diphosphate as a Component of Combination Cytostatic Drugs for the Treatment of Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma In Vitro and In Vivo Experiments
Sci. Pharm. 2018, 86(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm86020017
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
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Abstract
The activity of betulin-3,28-diphosphate (BDP) in combination with the cytostatics such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and hydrazine sulfate (HS) was demonstrated by using the transplanted Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in mice. The dose-dependent effect of combination drugs BDP + HS and BDP + 5-FU
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The activity of betulin-3,28-diphosphate (BDP) in combination with the cytostatics such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and hydrazine sulfate (HS) was demonstrated by using the transplanted Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in mice. The dose-dependent effect of combination drugs BDP + HS and BDP + 5-FU was revealed by in vitro experiments on rats. The synergetic effect of HS and BDP on oxidative stress and energy metabolism was established. The malonic dialdehyde (MDA) level both in plasma and erythrocytes decreased by 87 ± 2%, and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased by 105 ± 7% in comparison with the control. The combination of BDP + HS promoted the increase of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in the reverse reaction by 195 ± 21% compared to the control. The combination drug of 5-FU with BDP caused the synergetic decrease of the lipid peroxidation (LPO) intensity estimated by the MDA level decrease up to 14 ± 4% compared to pure compounds. Betulin-3,28-diphosphate in combination with cytostatics for EAC treatment improved the animal health status, as well as decreased the cytostatics dose that can be used in palliative therapy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Ocular Delivery System for Propranolol Hydrochloride Based on Nanostructured Lipid Carrier
Sci. Pharm. 2018, 86(2), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm86020016
Received: 1 February 2018 / Revised: 31 March 2018 / Accepted: 9 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
One drawback of traditional forms of medical ocular dosage is drug dilution by tear; moreover, drugs are rapidly drained away from pre-corneal cavity by tear flow and lacrimo-nasal drainage. Prolonging contact time with different strategies and mucoadhesive vehicles will help to continuously deliver
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One drawback of traditional forms of medical ocular dosage is drug dilution by tear; moreover, drugs are rapidly drained away from pre-corneal cavity by tear flow and lacrimo-nasal drainage. Prolonging contact time with different strategies and mucoadhesive vehicles will help to continuously deliver drugs to the eyes. For this study, we prepared and evaluated the effects of a nanostructure lipid carrier (NLC) on propranolol hydrochloride as a hydrophilic drug model for rabbit corneal permeation. Propranolol hydrochloride NLC was prepared using cold homogenization. The lipid was melted, then the drug and surfactant were dispersed and stirred into the melted lipid. This fused lipid phase was scattered in aqueous solution containing the cosurfactant at 4 °C and then homogenized. We evaluated particle size, drug loading, drug release, and NLC permeability through rabbit cornea as well as the formula’s effect on the cornea. Our results show that drug loading efficiency depended on the surfactant/lipid ratio (S/L) and the percentages of liquid lipid and Transcutol (Gattefosse, Saint-Priest, France) (as solubilizer). Drug release data were evaluated with the Higuchi model and a significant correlation was shown between the S/L ratio and the amount of drug released after 4 and 48 h. NLC formulations improved propranolol hydrochloride permeation. We conclude that the effect of the NLC formulations was due to mucoadhesive and film forming properties. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Novel Mutations in pncA Gene of Pyrazinamide Resistant Clinical Isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Sci. Pharm. 2018, 86(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm86020015
Received: 1 March 2018 / Revised: 26 March 2018 / Accepted: 5 April 2018 / Published: 16 April 2018
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Abstract
In clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), resistance to pyrazinamide occurs by mutations in any positions of the pncA gene (NC_000962.3) especially in nucleotides 359 and 374. In this study we examined the pncA gene sequence in clinical isolates of MTB. Genomic DNA
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In clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), resistance to pyrazinamide occurs by mutations in any positions of the pncA gene (NC_000962.3) especially in nucleotides 359 and 374. In this study we examined the pncA gene sequence in clinical isolates of MTB. Genomic DNA of 33 clinical isolates of MTB was extracted by the Chelex100 method. The polymerase chain reactions (PCR) were performed using specific primers for amplification of 744 bp amplicon comprising the coding sequences (CDS) of the pncA gene. PCR products were sequenced by an automated sequencing Bioscience system. Additionally, semi Nested-allele specific (sNASP) and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods were carried out for verification of probable mutations in nucleotides 359 and 374. Sequencing results showed that from 33 MTB clinical isolates, nine pyrazinamide-resistant isolates have mutations. Furthermore, no mutation was detected in 24 susceptible strains in the entire 561 bp of the pncA gene. Moreover, new mutations of G→A at position 3 of the pncA gene were identified in some of the resistant isolates. Results showed that the sNASP method could detect mutations in nucleotide 359 and 374 of the pncA gene, but the PCR-RFLP method by the SacII enzyme could not detect these mutations. In conclusion, the identification of new mutations in the pncA gene confirmed the probable occurrence of mutations in any nucleotides of the pncA gene sequence in resistant isolates of MTB. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Honey Bee as Alternative Medicine to Treat Eleven Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Causing Urinary Tract Infection during Pregnancy
Sci. Pharm. 2018, 86(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm86020014
Received: 3 March 2018 / Revised: 28 March 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 13 April 2018
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Abstract
Medicinal benefits of honey bee have been recognized in the medical community since ancient times as a remedy for many diseases and infections. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of 11 multidrug-resistant bacterial strains, isolated from urinary tract infections of
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Medicinal benefits of honey bee have been recognized in the medical community since ancient times as a remedy for many diseases and infections. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of 11 multidrug-resistant bacterial strains, isolated from urinary tract infections of pregnant women, to six honey samples collected from different localities in the east of Algeria. The evaluation of the antibacterial activity was performed by the well method followed by the broth dilution method using two-fold dilutions of each honey sample ranging from 2.5 to 80% (w/v). The results obtained in this study revealed that all tested honeys exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the tested strains. The diameters of inhibition ranged from 19.67 to 53.33 mm, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 2.5 to 40% (w/v) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBCs) varied between 2.5 and 80% (w/v). Gram-positive bacteria were found to be more susceptible than Gram-negative bacteria with diameters ranging from 43.33 to 53.33 mm; MIC and MBC values ranged from 2.5 to 5% (w/v). The P. aeruginosa strain was found to be less susceptible than other strains with inhibitory diameters ranging from 19.67 to 27.33 mm; MICs ranged from 20 to 40% and MBCs ranged from 20 to 80% (w/v). This contribution has provided a broad overview of the antibacterial activity of Algerian honey and shown that honey bee has great potential for therapeutic use as an alternative therapy for urinary tract infection treatment which is safe and efficient during pregnancy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Gliadin Peptide Facilitates FITC Dextran Transport across the Non Everted Gut Sac of Rat Small Intestine
Sci. Pharm. 2018, 86(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm86020013
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 17 March 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 10 April 2018
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Abstract
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an antioxidant protein. When administered orally, it has low bioavailability due to its low permeation. In a previous study we fused gliadin peptide P51 (LGQQQPFPPQQPYPQPQPF) and gliadin peptide P61 (QQPYPQPQPF) with SOD Citrus limon (SOD_Cl), namely GliSOD_P51 and GliSOD_P61
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Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an antioxidant protein. When administered orally, it has low bioavailability due to its low permeation. In a previous study we fused gliadin peptide P51 (LGQQQPFPPQQPYPQPQPF) and gliadin peptide P61 (QQPYPQPQPF) with SOD Citrus limon (SOD_Cl), namely GliSOD_P51 and GliSOD_P61 to increase permeation of SOD_Cl through intestine. In this work, the permeation of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-Dextran 10 kDa, FD10 and 40 kDa, FD40 as paracellular transport markers across excised rat intestinal wall was investigated with the presence of GliSOD_P51 and GliSOD_P61. A permeability study was performed using non-everted rat intestine by incubating FD10 or FD40 with SOD_Cl, and GliSOD_P61. The presence of SOD_Cl, GliSOD_P51 or GliSOD_P61 inside intestine (apical) and outside intestine (basolateral) was analyzed by protein electrophoresis. The concentration of FD that penetrated to the basolateral solution was analyzed by spectrofluorometry. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis revealed the presence of GliSOD_P51 and GliSOD_P61 but not SOD_Cl in basolateral compartment. The percentage of FD10 but not FD40 and SOD_Cl that penetrated to the basolateral solution significantly increased with the presence of gliadin in GliSOD_P51 and GliSOD_P61. GliSOD_P51 and GliSOD_P61 are able to penetrate the rat intestinal epithelial membrane and the gliadin peptides facilitate FD10 to penetrate the epithelial. Full article
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Open AccessArticle N-Aryl-7-hydroxy-5-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H,5H-pyrido-[3,2,1-ij]quinoline-6-carboxamides. The Synthesis and Effects on Urinary Output
Sci. Pharm. 2018, 86(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm86020012
Received: 31 January 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 4 February 2018 / Published: 9 April 2018
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Abstract
Continuing a targeted search for new leading structures with diuretic action among tricyclic derivatives of hydroxyquinolines, which are of interest as potential inhibitors of aldosterone synthase, the synthesis of a series of the corresponding pyrido[3,2,1-ij]quinoline-6-carboxanilides was carried out by amidation of
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Continuing a targeted search for new leading structures with diuretic action among tricyclic derivatives of hydroxyquinolines, which are of interest as potential inhibitors of aldosterone synthase, the synthesis of a series of the corresponding pyrido[3,2,1-ij]quinoline-6-carboxanilides was carried out by amidation of ethyl-7-hydroxy-5-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H,5H-pyrido[3,2,1-ij]quinoline-6-carboxylate with aniline, aminophenols and O-alkylsubstituted analogs with high yields and purity. The optimal conditions of this reaction are proposed; they make it possible to prevent partial destruction of the original heterocyclic ester and thereby avoid formation of specific impurities of 7-hydroxy-2,3-dihydro-1H,5H-pyrido[3,2,1-ij]quinolin-5-one. To confirm the structure of all substances obtained, elemental analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry were used. Moreover, the peculiarities of their 1H and 13C-NMR spectra, as well as their mass spectrometric behavior under conditions of electron impact ionization, were discussed. The effect of pyrido[3,2,1-ij]quinoline-6-carboxanilides on the urinary function of the kidneys was studied in white rats of both genders by the standard method of oral administration at a dose of 10 mg/kg. Testing was conducted in comparison with hydrochlorothiazide, as well as with structurally close pyrrolo[3,2,1-ij] quinoline-5-carboxanilides studied earlier with the same substituents in the anilide fragments. It was found that addition of one methylene unit to the heterocycle partially hydrogenated and annelated with the quinolone core has a positive impact on biological properties—most of the substances studied exhibit a statistically significant diuretic effect exceeding the activity of not only hydrochlorothiazide, in some cases, but also the action of the structural analogs. The important structural and biological regularities, which are common with pyrroloquinolines and introduced by a chemical modification, were revealed. The importance of the presence in the structure of terminal amide fragments of tricyclic quinoline-3-carboxamides of a 4-methoxy-substituted aromatic ring was particularly marked. The expediency of further study of pyridoquinolines as promising diuretic agents has been shown. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition and Antioxidant Activity of N-trans-Caffeoyldopamine and N-trans-Feruloyldopamine
Sci. Pharm. 2018, 86(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm86020011
Received: 8 February 2018 / Revised: 7 March 2018 / Accepted: 24 March 2018 / Published: 4 April 2018
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Abstract
Phenolic acids and their derivatives found in nature are well-known for their potential biological activity. In this study, two amides derived from trans-caffeic/ferulic acid and dopamine were synthesized and characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), mass spectrometry, proton and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic
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Phenolic acids and their derivatives found in nature are well-known for their potential biological activity. In this study, two amides derived from trans-caffeic/ferulic acid and dopamine were synthesized and characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), mass spectrometry, proton and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The compounds were tested for the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from Electrophorus electricus and for antioxidant activity by scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS•+), reducing ferric ions, and ferrous ions chelation. N-trans-Feruloyldopamine displayed the highest inhibitory effect on AChE with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 8.52 μM. In addition, an in silico study was done to determine the most favorable AChE cluster with the synthesized compounds. Further, these clusters were investigated for binding positions at the lowest free binding energy. Both synthesized hydroxycinnamates were found to be better antioxidants than the parent acids in in vitro tests applied. N-trans-Caffeoyldopamine showed the best antioxidant activity in the three tested methods—against non-biological stable free radicals IC50 5.95 μM for DPPH, 0.24 μM for the ABTS•+ method, and for reducing power (ascorbic acid equivalent (AAE) 822.45 μmol/mmol)—while for chelation activity against Fe2+ ions N-trans-feruloyldopamine had slightly better antioxidant activity (IC50 3.17 mM). Full article
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Open AccessReview Application of the P300 Event-Related Potential in the Diagnosis of Epilepsy Disorder: A Review
Sci. Pharm. 2018, 86(2), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm86020010
Received: 19 February 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 23 March 2018 / Published: 26 March 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 681 | PDF Full-text (264 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Epilepsy is one of the most serious chronical neurological disorders, affecting more than 50 million people worldwide. It can be defined as a spectrum disorder, and patients with epilepsy possess abnormalities in cognitive functions. A number of factors can cause cognitive dysfunctions in
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Epilepsy is one of the most serious chronical neurological disorders, affecting more than 50 million people worldwide. It can be defined as a spectrum disorder, and patients with epilepsy possess abnormalities in cognitive functions. A number of factors can cause cognitive dysfunctions in epileptic syndromes, including etiology, the age of onset, type of seizure and severity, duration, and antiepileptic drugs. Event-related potentials (ERPs) are very useful clinical and research instruments to evaluate cognitive function in patients with neuropsychiatry disorders. Event-related potentials directly reflect cortical neuronal activity and provide a particular level of temporal resolution. Among various ERP components, the P300 is the most important component for assessing cognitive processes such as attention, working memory, and concentration. Numerous studies have reported the abnormalities in amplitude or latency of P300 component of ERP in epileptic patients, and these abnormalities are indicative of cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to consolidate the existing literature in connection with the use of P300 in epileptic patients. Full article
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