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Sci. Pharm., Volume 86, Issue 3 (September 2018)

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Open AccessArticle In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Sardinian Flora against Cutibacterium (Formerly Propionibacterium) acnes and Its Enhancement by Chitosan
Sci. Pharm. 2018, 86(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm86030040
Received: 15 August 2018 / Revised: 9 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
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Abstract
The in vitro antibacterial activity of some essential oils from Sardinian flora, both alone and in combination with chitosan, was investigated against a strain of Cutibacterium acnes, a bacterium involved in pathogenesis of acne. The composition of the essential oils was determined
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The in vitro antibacterial activity of some essential oils from Sardinian flora, both alone and in combination with chitosan, was investigated against a strain of Cutibacterium acnes, a bacterium involved in pathogenesis of acne. The composition of the essential oils was determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The results of this investigation demonstrated that some of the oils examined, characterised by different chemical profiles, possessed some activity against C. acnes. Interestingly, this antibacterial effect was enhanced by sub-inhibitory concentrations of chitosan. These observations suggest the potential application of this synergy in the development of innovative topical formulations useful in the management of acne. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmeceuticals from Natural Sources)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Piperine on Skin Permeation of Curcumin from a Bacterially Derived Cellulose-Composite Double-Layer Membrane for Transdermal Curcumin Delivery
Sci. Pharm. 2018, 86(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm86030039
Received: 17 August 2018 / Revised: 6 September 2018 / Accepted: 8 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
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Abstract
Curcumin is a naturally occurring substance with various pharmacological activities. It has not been developed as a drug because of its low bioavailability due to its low solubility and absorption. Piperine is a natural enhancer that is popularly used to increase the absorption
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Curcumin is a naturally occurring substance with various pharmacological activities. It has not been developed as a drug because of its low bioavailability due to its low solubility and absorption. Piperine is a natural enhancer that is popularly used to increase the absorption of curcumin in oral applications; however, it has not been applied for transdermal curcumin delivery. This study aims to develop a transdermal curcumin delivery system using piperine as a skin permeation enhancer in the form of composite double-layer membrane; the upper layer consisted of curcumin and the lower layer consisted of piperine. The amount of curcumin was fixed, but the amount of piperine varied at three levels from 1.96% to 7.41%. The composite membrane had moderate mechanical strength (15–22 MPa) with a good swelling degree (~435%). From an in vitro skin permeation study, piperine had the effect to increase the permeation of curcumin. The permeation rate was related to the amount of piperine. The composite membrane containing piperine at 7.41% could increase the permeation rate of curcumin by about 1.89 times compared with non-piperine contained membrane. Bacterially-derived cellulose containing curcumin and piperine may have the potential for transdermal curcumin delivery in order to improve curcumin’s bioavailability. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Determination of Eudragit® L100 in an Enteric-Coated Tablet Formulation Using Size-Exclusion Chromatography with Charged-Aerosol Detection
Sci. Pharm. 2018, 86(3), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm86030038
Received: 7 August 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
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Abstract
Eudragit® L100 is a commonly used polymer in a coating layer of modified-release drug formulation to prevent drug release in the stomach. The amount of Eudragit® L100 in the formula determines the dissolution profile of drug at its release medium. Hence,
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Eudragit® L100 is a commonly used polymer in a coating layer of modified-release drug formulation to prevent drug release in the stomach. The amount of Eudragit® L100 in the formula determines the dissolution profile of drug at its release medium. Hence, its quantification in reference product will facilitate the formulation of a bioequivalent drug product. Some analytical methods including size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) have been reported for characterization of Eudragit® L100 either as single component or its conjugate with the enzyme, but none for its quantification in drug formulation. In this work, an SEC method with charged-aerosol detection (CAD) was developed for determination of Eudragit® L100 in an enteric-coated tablet formulation using Waters Ultrahydrogel 1000 and Waters Ultrahydrogel 120 columns in series. The mobile phase was a mixture of 90:10 (v/v) 44.75 mM aqueous ammonium acetate buffer, pH 6.6 and acetonitrile pumped at a constant flow rate of 0.8 mL/min in isocratic mode. The method was validated for specificity, working range, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), accuracy and precision. The method was shown to be specific for Eudragit® L100 against the diluent (mobile phase) and placebo of a coating layer for the tablet. A good correlation coefficient (r = 0.9997) of CAD response against Eudragit® L100 concentration from 0.1–1.0 mg/mL was obtained using polynomial regression. LOD and LOQ concentrations were 0.0015 and 0.0040 mg/mL, respectively. The mean recovery of Eudragit® L100 was in the range of 88.0–91.1% at three levels of working concentration: 50%, 100% and 150%. Six replicated preparations of samples showed good precision of the peak area with % relative standard deviation (RSD) 2.7. In conclusion, the method was suitable for quantification of Eudragit® L100 in an enteric-coated tablet formulation. Full article
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Open AccessReview Thai Fermented Foods as a Versatile Source of Bioactive Microorganisms—A Comprehensive Review
Sci. Pharm. 2018, 86(3), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm86030037
Received: 25 July 2018 / Revised: 8 September 2018 / Accepted: 9 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
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Abstract
Fermented foods are known for several health benefits, and they are generally used among the Asian people. Microorganisms involved in the fermentation process are most responsible for the final quality of the food. Traditional fermented (spontaneous fermentation) foods are a versatile source of
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Fermented foods are known for several health benefits, and they are generally used among the Asian people. Microorganisms involved in the fermentation process are most responsible for the final quality of the food. Traditional fermented (spontaneous fermentation) foods are a versatile source of bioactive molecules and bioactive microbes. Several reports are available regarding the isolation and characterization of potent strains from traditional fermented foods. A collection of information for easy literature analysis of bioactive microbes derived from Thai fermented food is not yet available. The current manuscript compiled information on bioactive (antimicrobial- and enzyme-producing probiotic) microbes isolated from naturally fermented Thai foods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The In Vitro Anti-Proliferative Interaction of Flavonoid Quercetin and Toxic Metal Cadmium in the 1321N1 Human Astrocytoma Cell Line
Sci. Pharm. 2018, 86(3), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm86030036
Received: 12 June 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 10 September 2018
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Abstract
Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal occurring in the environment as an industrial pollutant. The systematic accumulation of Cd in the human body may lead to major health problems. Quercetin (QE) is a natural flavonoid widely distributed in plants and is a
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Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal occurring in the environment as an industrial pollutant. The systematic accumulation of Cd in the human body may lead to major health problems. Quercetin (QE) is a natural flavonoid widely distributed in plants and is a part of human diet. Many studies have demonstrated the multiple benefits of QE to humans in protecting cells of our bodies. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of QE and Cd on the proliferation of astrocytoma 1321N1 cells. Results indicated that the simultaneous exposure of the cells to 200 µM QE and 16 μM Cd significantly reduced cell viability to 6.9 ± 1.6% with respect to vehicle-treated cells. Other experiments of QE pre-treatment followed by the exposure to Cd alone or with QE indicated significant but decreased ability of QE or Cd to reduce proliferation of the cells compared to their co-incubation. Our study suggested a synergetic anti-proliferative interaction of Cd and QE in malignantly transformed cells. This adds new information regarding the biological effects of QE. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Potential Gastroprotective Activity of Rice Bran (Oryza sativa L.) Extracted by Ionic Liquid-Microwave-Assisted Extraction against Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Ulcers in Rat Model
Sci. Pharm. 2018, 86(3), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm86030035
Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 29 August 2018 / Published: 7 September 2018
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Abstract
The presence of gamma-oryzanol in rice bran oil can be 10–20-fold higher than tocopherol and tocotrienol. Gamma-oryzanol has various pharmacological properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of rice bran extract as a gastroprotective in reducing lesions in ethanol-induced
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The presence of gamma-oryzanol in rice bran oil can be 10–20-fold higher than tocopherol and tocotrienol. Gamma-oryzanol has various pharmacological properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of rice bran extract as a gastroprotective in reducing lesions in ethanol-induced acute gastric ulcer models in rat, using the ionic liquid-microwave-assisted extraction (IL-MAE) method. Rice bran extract was obtained using the IL-MAE method with ionic liquid (IL), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [BMIM]BF4 (concentration 0.7 M), and a ratio of solid/liquid of 15 g/mL, 15 min extraction time, and 10% microwave power. The rats were pretreated with rice bran extract at different doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight; BW) for seven days and subsequently exposed to acute gastric lesions induced by 80% ethanol. Omeprazole (36 mg/kg BW) was used as a standard anti-ulcer drug. The ulcer index, gastric juice acidity, and mucus levels were measured to assess the degree of gastroprotection. The results showed that the oral administration of rice bran extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg BW significantly inhibited the development of ulcer formation by 66.75% and reduced gastric acid levels. Moreover, gamma oryzanol and omeprazole protected the gastric mucosa from ethanol-induced gastric lesions by increasing the level of gastric mucus. Rice bran extract is effective as a gastroprotective therapy sourced from natural ingredients in treating the incidence of gastric ulcers. Most likely, this is related to gamma oryzanol as a bioactive compound contained in rice bran (Oryza sativa L.). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Subchronic Toxicity Evaluation of Ethanol Extract of Picria fel-terrae Lour. Leaf in Wistar Rats
Sci. Pharm. 2018, 86(3), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm86030034
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 26 August 2018 / Accepted: 30 August 2018 / Published: 4 September 2018
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Abstract
Picria fel-terrae extract has been investigated for its hepatoprotective activity. This current study was conducted to evaluate the subchronic toxic effect of Picria fel-terrae Lour. leaf extract. The subchronic toxicity of ethanol extract of P. fel-terrae leaf was evaluated by OECD (Organization for
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Picria fel-terrae extract has been investigated for its hepatoprotective activity. This current study was conducted to evaluate the subchronic toxic effect of Picria fel-terrae Lour. leaf extract. The subchronic toxicity of ethanol extract of P. fel-terrae leaf was evaluated by OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) guidelines. The extract at doses of 125, 250, 500, 1000 mg/kg body weight (BW) were orally administered to the test animals for 90 days. Signs of toxicity and mortality were observed for 90 days and 118 days. The biochemistry, hematology, macropathology, relative organ weight and histopathology examination was also performed. The macroscopic and microscopic examinations of liver, lung, kidney, spleen and heart displayed normal color and texture after treatment, with ethanol extract P. fel-terrae leaf at doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg BW. The signs of toxicity, mortality, macroscopic and microscopic changes, as well as increasing biochemistry parameters were observed after treatment, with extract at the dose of 500 and 1000 mg/kg BW. However, the abnormal value of biochemistry parameters was returned to normal when the treatment was stopped. There was no effect on hematological parameters at all doses of extract. The ethanol extract P. fel-terrae leaf is untoxic for long-term use at dose 125 and 250 mg/kg BW. The toxic effect of P. fel-terrae at 500 and 1000 mg/kg BW was reversible. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Skin Penetration and Stability Enhancement of Celastrus paniculatus Seed Oil by 2-Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex for Cosmeceutical Applications
Sci. Pharm. 2018, 86(3), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm86030033
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 23 August 2018 / Accepted: 30 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
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Abstract
This study aimed to encapsulate Celastrus paniculatus seed oil (CPSO) in 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) cavities and investigate their biological activity, physicochemical stability, and skin penetration by vertical Franz diffusion cells of the CPSO-HPβCD inclusion complex formulations. For biological activity studies—including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging,
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This study aimed to encapsulate Celastrus paniculatus seed oil (CPSO) in 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) cavities and investigate their biological activity, physicochemical stability, and skin penetration by vertical Franz diffusion cells of the CPSO-HPβCD inclusion complex formulations. For biological activity studies—including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging, metal ion chelating, and inhibition of lipid and tyrosinase inhibition activities—the CPSO-HPβCD inclusion complex exhibited lower inhibition activity than free CPSO. CPSO-HPβCD dispersion, serum, and gel formulations were prepared. All formulations containing the CPSO-HPβCD inclusion complex showed no significant changes in physical characteristics after three months’ storage. The percentages of oleic acid remaining in all formulations were over 80% of the initial amount during a three-month stability study. For the skin-penetration study, compared to other formulations, the CPSO-HPβCD serum formulation exhibited the highest cumulative amount of oleic acid in the whole skin and flux through receptor fluid, after six hours, of 32.75 ± 1.25 µg/cm2 and 1.02 ± 0.15 µg/cm2/h, respectively. The CPSO-HPβCD serum formulation also showed the proper viscosity. Hence, the CPSO-HPβCD inclusion complex will be beneficial for the further development of cosmeceutical products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmeceuticals from Natural Sources)
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Open AccessArticle Cytotoxic Desulfated Saponin from Holothuria atra Predicted to Have High Binding Affinity to the Oncogenic Kinase PAK1: A Combined In Vitro and In Silico Study
Sci. Pharm. 2018, 86(3), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm86030032
Received: 3 July 2018 / Revised: 23 August 2018 / Accepted: 23 August 2018 / Published: 31 August 2018
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Abstract
Sea cucumbers have long been utilized in foods and Asiatic folk medicines for their nutritive and health benefits. Herein, three sea cucumber species were investigated and Holothuria atra showed the highest cytotoxicity among these. Next, a desulfated saponin, desulfated echinoside B (DEB), was
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Sea cucumbers have long been utilized in foods and Asiatic folk medicines for their nutritive and health benefits. Herein, three sea cucumber species were investigated and Holothuria atra showed the highest cytotoxicity among these. Next, a desulfated saponin, desulfated echinoside B (DEB), was purified from H. atra through bioassay-guided fractionation. LC-ESI-MS (Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry) analysis also showed H. atra to be a rich source of saponins. DEB showed cytotoxicity on cancer cells with IC50 values of 0.5–2.5 µM, and on brine shrimps with an IC50 value of 9.2 µM. In molecular docking studies, DEB was found to bind strongly with the catalytic domain of PAK1 (p21-activated kinase 1) and it showed binding energy of −8.2 kcal/mol compared to binding energy of −7.7 kcal/mol for frondoside A (FRA). Both of them bind to the novel allosteric site close to the ATP-binding cleft. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation demonstrated that DEB can form a more stable complex with PAK1, remaining inside the allosteric binding pocket and forming the maximum number of hydrogen bonds with the surrounding residues. Moreover, important ligand binding residues were found to be less fluctuating in the DEB-PAK1 complex than in the FRA-PAK1 complex throughout MD simulation. Our experimental and computational studies showed that both DEB and FRA can act as natural allosteric PAK1 inhibitors and DEB appeared to be more promising than FRA. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Study of the Structure—Diuretic Activity Relationship in a Series of New N-(Arylalkyl)-6-hydroxy-2-methyl-4-oxo-2,4-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo-[3,2,1-ij]quinoline-5-carboxamides
Sci. Pharm. 2018, 86(3), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm86030031
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 23 August 2018 / Accepted: 24 August 2018 / Published: 29 August 2018
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Abstract
In accordance with the principles of “me-too” technique, the preparative method for obtaining has been proposed, and the synthesis of a large series of new N-(arylalkyl)-6-hydroxy-2-methyl-4-oxo-2,4-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[3,2,1-ij]quinoline-5-carboxamides as structurally close analogs of tricyclic pyrrolo- and pyridoquinoline diuretics has been
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In accordance with the principles of “me-too” technique, the preparative method for obtaining has been proposed, and the synthesis of a large series of new N-(arylalkyl)-6-hydroxy-2-methyl-4-oxo-2,4-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[3,2,1-ij]quinoline-5-carboxamides as structurally close analogs of tricyclic pyrrolo- and pyridoquinoline diuretics has been carried out. All target compounds were obtained with high yields and purity by amidation of ethyl ester of the corresponding 2-methyl-pyrroloquinoline-5-carboxylic acid with arylalkylamines in boiling ethanol. Their structure was confirmed by the data of elemental analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and polarimetry. Moreover, interpretations of their 1H and 13C-NMR spectra, their mass spectrometric behavior, as well as peculiarities of the polarimetric studies were discussed. The effect of N-(arylalkyl)-6-hydroxy-2-methyl-4-oxo-2,4-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[3,2,1-ij]quinoline-5-carboxamides on the urinary function of the kidneys was studied in white rats by the standard method of oral administration in the dose of 10 mg/kg compared to hydrochlorothiazide. According to the results of the primary pharmacological screening, the structural and biological regularities that were unexpected, but interesting for further studies were revealed. Among the substances studied, the samples, which by their diuretic effect are not inferior and even superior to both the known hydrochlorothiazide and the lead structure of the pyrroloquinoline group, have been found. On this basis, it can be argued that the introduction of the methyl group made by us in position 2 of pyrrolo[3,2,1-ij]quinoline nucleus can be considered as a successful and promising implementation of the “me-too” cloning of tricyclic 4-hydroxyquinoline-2-one diuretics. Full article
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Open AccessReview The Structure and Activity of Double-Nitroimidazoles. A Mini-Review
Sci. Pharm. 2018, 86(3), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm86030030
Received: 10 June 2018 / Revised: 14 July 2018 / Accepted: 16 July 2018 / Published: 25 July 2018
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Abstract
Many interesting applications have been found for nitroimidazoles as therapeutic agents. Among others, some of these compounds can radiosensitize hypoxic tumor cells. The introduction of a second nitroimidazole ring to the molecule can improve the level of its pharmacological effect. The aim of
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Many interesting applications have been found for nitroimidazoles as therapeutic agents. Among others, some of these compounds can radiosensitize hypoxic tumor cells. The introduction of a second nitroimidazole ring to the molecule can improve the level of its pharmacological effect. The aim of this article is to overview the literature concerning active compounds that contain two nitroimidazole moieties in their structures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Inhibitory Effects and Killing Kinetics of Lactic Acid Rice Gel Against Pathogenic Bacteria Causing Bovine Mastitis
Sci. Pharm. 2018, 86(3), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm86030029
Received: 13 June 2018 / Revised: 9 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 16 July 2018
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Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis are the major teat skin bacteria and lead to severe bovine mastitis. Teat antiseptic is an important tool for controlling intramammary infection. The antibacterial activity of lactic acid (LA) against one reference strain of S. aureus ATCC 25923
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Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis are the major teat skin bacteria and lead to severe bovine mastitis. Teat antiseptic is an important tool for controlling intramammary infection. The antibacterial activity of lactic acid (LA) against one reference strain of S. aureus ATCC 25923 and two field strains including S. aureus and S. epidermidis was investigated using the broth microdilution method. Its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were 0.5% for strains belonging to both species. An antiseptic preparation containing 5% LA with modified rice gel (LA-RG) was successfully prepared. Rheological behavior of LA-RG was found to be a pseudoplastic flow with thixotropy with viscosity of approximately 0.007 Pas. LA-RG exhibited a sufficient adhesive property in the rolling ball test with a length of 9.67 ± 0.04 cm. Killing kinetic studies of LA-RG showed that the killing rate of LA-RG was significantly faster than that of LA. After 32 min of exposure to LA-RG, approximately 86% and 60% of S. aureus and S. epidermidis were reduced, respectively. Abnormal bacterial cell surface after exposure to LA-RG was observed by scanning electron microscopy. It is concluded that LA-RG is a promising preparation as an alternative product for preventing mastitis in dairy cattle. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Anticancer Activity Evaluation of New Thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-ones and Thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-one Derivatives
Sci. Pharm. 2018, 86(3), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm86030028
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 1 July 2018 / Accepted: 4 July 2018 / Published: 16 July 2018
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Abstract
Anticancer screening of several novel thienopyrimidines has been performed. The thienopyrimidine derivatives were synthesized from available starting materials according to the convenient synthetic procedures using a one-pot solvent-free reaction which gave a wide access to thienopyrimidine-derivative production. The synthesized compounds were preselected via
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Anticancer screening of several novel thienopyrimidines has been performed. The thienopyrimidine derivatives were synthesized from available starting materials according to the convenient synthetic procedures using a one-pot solvent-free reaction which gave a wide access to thienopyrimidine-derivative production. The synthesized compounds were preselected via molecular docking to be tested for their anticancer activity in NCI 60 cell lines. It was observed that some compounds showed remarkable anticancer activity. It was found that the most active compound among thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine-4(3H)-ones is 2-(benzylamino)-5,6-dimethylthieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-one, which possesses cytotoxic activity on almost all cancer cell lines with mean growth 51.01%, where the most sensitive was the melanoma cell line MDA-MB-435 with GP (Growth Percent) = −31.02%. The patterns of structure–activity that are important for further optimization of the structure and the creation of more selective and active anticancer agents were proposed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antidepressant-Like Effect of Lippia sidoides CHAM (Verbenaceae) Essential Oil and Its Major Compound Thymol in Mice
Sci. Pharm. 2018, 86(3), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm86030027
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 16 June 2018 / Accepted: 19 June 2018 / Published: 27 June 2018
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Abstract
Depression is a common disease affecting more than 300 million people worldwide. Since Lippia sidoides has shown central nervous system effects in previous works, we aimed to investigate the effect of L. sidoides essential oil and its major compound, thymol on a corticosterone-induced
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Depression is a common disease affecting more than 300 million people worldwide. Since Lippia sidoides has shown central nervous system effects in previous works, we aimed to investigate the effect of L. sidoides essential oil and its major compound, thymol on a corticosterone-induced depression model in mice. Male mice (20–25 g) received corticosterone (20 mg/kg, subcutaneously), once a day for 22 days. From the 16th day on, mice were grouped to receive either corticosterone or L. sidoides essential oil (100 and 200 mg/kg), or thymol (25 and 50 mg/kg) or fluoxetine (35 mg/kg) by gavage. The forced swimming test, tail suspension, open field, elevated plus maze and sucrose preference tests were performed from the 19th to 22nd day. Data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls as a post hoc test and the results were considered significant when p < 0.05. It was shown that L. sidoides essential oil, thymol and fluoxetine decreased the immobility time in the tail suspension and forced swimming tests and none of these altered locomotor activity in the open field test. However, the drugs increased the amount of grooming. In the elevated plus maze, all drugs increased the number of entries and the time of permanence in the open arms. In the sucrose preference test, the L. sidoides essential oil, thymol and fluoxetine reversed anhedonia. These results suggest that the thymol and L. sidoides essential oil have an antidepressant-like effect, similar to fluoxetine. However, future studies should be encouraged to enhance understanding of the effects of essential oil and thymol for the treatment of depression. Full article
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