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Cosmetics, Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2015) , Pages 313-408

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Open AccessReview
The Interest in Nanomaterials for Topical Photoprotection
Cosmetics 2015, 2(4), 394-408; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics2040394 - 08 Dec 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3003
Abstract
Wearing clothes and using sun protection products are effective ways of preventing non-melanocytic skin cancer. Sun protection products are classified as cosmetics in Europe. The number of filters authorized by Regulation (EC) No 1223/2009 amended by Regulation (EU) No 344/2013 stands at a [...] Read more.
Wearing clothes and using sun protection products are effective ways of preventing non-melanocytic skin cancer. Sun protection products are classified as cosmetics in Europe. The number of filters authorized by Regulation (EC) No 1223/2009 amended by Regulation (EU) No 344/2013 stands at a total of 27 (26 organic filters and one inorganic filter-titanium dioxide). After the development of methods for determining the efficacy of sun protection products (both in vivo and in vitro), a certain number of authors took an interest in the parameters involved in the efficacy of this category of products. The nature of the filter, the concentration used and the influence of certain ingredients in the formula are all criteria to be taken into account. Concerning titanium dioxide, considerable progress has been made in order to increase its efficacy and to facilitate its implementation. The reduction of the size of the particles used has allowed the products to be more transparent (the pale clown’s mask of days passed is just a bad memory) and above all, to be more effective. The study of a large number of commercial forms of titanium dioxide enables to conclude that nanoparticular titanium dioxide is far superior to pigmentary titanium dioxide. An emulsion composed of 25% pigmentary titanium dioxide only enables Sun Protection Factor (SPF) 5 to be obtained. The same emulsion but with 25% coated nanoparticular titanium dioxide (Tayca MT-100TV) enables a Sun Protection Factor of around 40 to be reached. The reduction of the size of the filtering particles thus proves to be indispensable for the development of highly protective sun protection products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies in Cosmetics)
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Open AccessArticle
The Scalp Has a Lower Stratum Corneum Function with a Lower Sensory Input than Other Areas of the Skin Evaluated by the Electrical Current Perception Threshold
Cosmetics 2015, 2(4), 384-393; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics2040384 - 20 Nov 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2682
Abstract
Many people feel frequent prickling or itching sensations on their scalp. The scalp is an atypical area of the skin since it is normally covered with thick hair and has many sebaceous glands and sweat glands. The scalp often has skin problems that [...] Read more.
Many people feel frequent prickling or itching sensations on their scalp. The scalp is an atypical area of the skin since it is normally covered with thick hair and has many sebaceous glands and sweat glands. The scalp often has skin problems that can affect its sensitivity and functions. However, not much is known about stratum corneum function and the neural sensitivity of the scalp. Here we evaluated stratum corneum function and the neural sensitivity of the scalp of 47 normal male individuals in various skin conditions and compared the results to that to the forehead. The neural sensitivity was evaluated by measuring the electrical current perception threshold (CPT). The cutaneous barrier function and stratum corneum moisture-retention ability (MRA) of the scalp were significantly lower than on the forehead, even if there were some scalp problems. Depending on the increase in severity of scalp skin problems, both these skin functional properties and the CPT decreased significantly. However, regardless of its lower functional properties, scalp skin was not significantly lower than that of the forehead. Although the scalp has a low stratum corneum function compared with the forehead and has easily induced skin problems, the scalp skin has less sensitive sensory nerves, resulting in experiencing a worsening of scalp symptoms more easily. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Cassia fistula (L.)-Based Emulsion Elicits Skin Anti-Aging Benefits in Humans
Cosmetics 2015, 2(4), 368-383; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics2040368 - 06 Nov 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3032
Abstract
Cassia fistula, a flowering plant in the family of Caesalpinaceae (Fabaceae), is used in traditional medicine for several indications. Nevertheless, too little is known about its effects on skin conditions and skin aging. Therefore, in this pioneering study, the extracts [...] Read more.
Cassia fistula, a flowering plant in the family of Caesalpinaceae (Fabaceae), is used in traditional medicine for several indications. Nevertheless, too little is known about its effects on skin conditions and skin aging. Therefore, in this pioneering study, the extracts of oil-in-water macro-emulsions containing 5% C. fistula (L.) crude pods (i.e., phyto-active formulation) were optimally developed and compared to the placebo (i.e., emulsions without the crude extract) for assessment of their effects on human skin aging. Healthy adult male volunteers (n = 13) with a mean age of 31 ± 5.5 years (range: 24–47 years) were enrolled after informed written consent. For 12 consecutive weeks, the subjects were directed to use a patch containing the active emulsion on one of their forearms as well as a patch containing the placebo on their other forearm. Biometrological measurements of skin hydration (SH) and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) were performed on both sides of their respective cheeks at time 0 (baseline values), 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12th weeks. Surface evaluation of living skin (SELS) was taken at time 0 (baseline values) or after 1, 2 and 3 months. Topical application of C. fistula extracts showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in stratum corneum hydration level, a significant enhancement in its water-holding function as well as in its barrier function. Further, significant (p < 0.005) ameliorations of skin aspects were observed (i.e., less roughness, less dryness, less wrinkles). Taken together, our results strongly suggest therapeutic and esthetic potential of C. fistula pod’s extracts to prevent or delay human skin aging. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Under Persistent Assault: Understanding the Factors that Deteriorate Human Skin and Clinical Efficacy of Topical Antioxidants in Treating Aging Skin
Cosmetics 2015, 2(4), 355-367; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics2040355 - 05 Nov 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3255
Abstract
Recent studies contend that the skin is subject to far more damage than just ultraviolet (UV) light, with infrared radiation and pollution now clearly demonstrated to degrade cutaneous tissue. While consumers continue to strive for new ways to augment the aesthetic appeal and [...] Read more.
Recent studies contend that the skin is subject to far more damage than just ultraviolet (UV) light, with infrared radiation and pollution now clearly demonstrated to degrade cutaneous tissue. While consumers continue to strive for new ways to augment the aesthetic appeal and improve the health of their skin, awareness regarding environmental insults and effective ways to protect the skin remains low. New advances in dermatologic science have exponentially increased the available information on the underlying mechanism of cutaneous damage and potential of topical antioxidants to treat aging skin. Combining antioxidants that can work through multiple pathways holds great potential for a cumulative and synergistic way to treat aging skin. Our goal is to provide a comprehensive review on environmental factors that damage human skin, discuss scientifically proven benefits of topical antioxidants, understand challenges of formulating and administering topical antioxidants, evaluate novel mechanisms of antioxidant activity, and suggest practical ways of integrating topical antioxidants with aesthetic procedures to complement clinical outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Antioxidant Potential of the Skin)
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Open AccessReview
Nanocarriers for Delivery of Antioxidants on the Skin
Cosmetics 2015, 2(4), 342-354; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics2040342 - 10 Oct 2015
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4132
Abstract
Skin is protected from the harmful effects of free radicals by the presence of an endogenous antioxidant system. However, when exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, there is an imbalance between pro-oxidants and antioxidants, leading to oxidative stress and photoaging of the skin. It [...] Read more.
Skin is protected from the harmful effects of free radicals by the presence of an endogenous antioxidant system. However, when exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, there is an imbalance between pro-oxidants and antioxidants, leading to oxidative stress and photoaging of the skin. It has been described that free radicals and other reactive species can cause severe damage to cells and cell components of the skin, which results in skin aging and cancer. To prevent these actions on skin, the use of topical antioxidant supplementation is a strategy used in the cosmetics industry and these antioxidants act on quenching free radicals. There are many studies that demonstrated the antioxidant activity of many phytochemicals or bioactive compounds by free radical scavenging. However, many bioactive substances are unstable when exposed to light or lose activity during storage. The potential sensitivity of these substances to light exposure is of importance in cosmetic formulations applied to skin because photo-degradation might occur, reducing their activity. One strategy to reduce this effect on the skin is the preparation of different types of nanomaterials that allow the encapsulation of the antioxidant substances. Another problem related to some antioxidants is their inefficient percutaneous penetration, which limits the amount of the active ingredient able to reach the site of action in viable epidermis and dermis. In this sense, the encapsulation in polymeric nanoparticles could enhance the permeation of these substances. Nanocarriers offers several advantages over conventional passive delivery, such as increased surface area, higher solubility, improved stability, controlled release, reduced skin irritancy, and protection from degradation. The different nanocarrier systems used in cosmetics include nanolipid delivery systems such as solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC), nanoemulsions (NEs), nanoparticles (NP) suspension, and polymer NPs, among others. In this review, we present the different types of nanomaterials used in cosmetic formulations to obtain the best effect of antioxidants applied onto the skin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Antioxidant Potential of the Skin)
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Open AccessArticle
Green Cosmetic Surfactant from Rice: Characterization and Application
Cosmetics 2015, 2(4), 322-341; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics2040322 - 10 Oct 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3600
Abstract
During recent years, microwave irradiation has been extensively used for performing green organic synthesis. The aim of this study was to synthesize, through a microwave-assisted irradiation process, a natural surfactant with O/W emulsifying properties. Our attention was focused on polyglycerol esters of fatty [...] Read more.
During recent years, microwave irradiation has been extensively used for performing green organic synthesis. The aim of this study was to synthesize, through a microwave-assisted irradiation process, a natural surfactant with O/W emulsifying properties. Our attention was focused on polyglycerol esters of fatty acids that are biocompatible and biodegradable non-ionic surfactants widely used in food and cosmetic products. The emulsifier was obtained using vegetable raw material from renewable sources: polyglycerol derived from vegetable glycerol and rice bran oil fatty acids. The natural emulsifier obtained was then characterized and evaluated for its emulsifying properties using different doses, oil phases, rheological additives, waxes, etc. The potential application in solar products, in comparison with other natural emulsifiers, was also evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Cosmetic Ingredients)
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Open AccessArticle
Hair Dye–DNA Interaction: Plausible Cause of Mutation
Cosmetics 2015, 2(4), 313-321; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics2040313 - 25 Sep 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3853
Abstract
Hair dye is one of the most popular cosmetic products which are used more widely and frequently to improve an individual’s appearance. Although the genotoxic effects of dye ingredients are widely reported, hair dye in its usable form is not reported extensively. In [...] Read more.
Hair dye is one of the most popular cosmetic products which are used more widely and frequently to improve an individual’s appearance. Although the genotoxic effects of dye ingredients are widely reported, hair dye in its usable form is not reported extensively. In this contribution, we report the possible mode of interaction of hair dye with DNA which leads to genotoxicity. The effect of dye DNA interaction was studied on the most popular and globally used hair dye with Calf Thymus DNA and plasmid DNA. This interaction of dye DNA was studied by spectroscopic analyses and gel electrophoresis. The result had shown positive interaction of dye with DNA. Gel electrophoresis study confirms the binding of dye with DNA which results in linearization and fragmentation of the plasmid DNA. Dye–DNA interaction causes fragmentation and oxidation of DNA in absence of any catalyst, implies high toxicity of commercial hair dyes. Thus, it can be deduced from the present studies that hair dye in its usable form may lead to its penetration through skin affecting genomic DNA possesses genotoxic property and can be treated as one of the most common mutagen. Full article
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