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Under Persistent Assault: Understanding the Factors that Deteriorate Human Skin and Clinical Efficacy of Topical Antioxidants in Treating Aging Skin

School of Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
Skinceuticals, New York, NY 10017, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Martina Meinke
Cosmetics 2015, 2(4), 355-367;
Received: 12 August 2015 / Revised: 29 October 2015 / Accepted: 29 October 2015 / Published: 5 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Antioxidant Potential of the Skin)
PDF [749 KB, uploaded 5 November 2015]


Recent studies contend that the skin is subject to far more damage than just ultraviolet (UV) light, with infrared radiation and pollution now clearly demonstrated to degrade cutaneous tissue. While consumers continue to strive for new ways to augment the aesthetic appeal and improve the health of their skin, awareness regarding environmental insults and effective ways to protect the skin remains low. New advances in dermatologic science have exponentially increased the available information on the underlying mechanism of cutaneous damage and potential of topical antioxidants to treat aging skin. Combining antioxidants that can work through multiple pathways holds great potential for a cumulative and synergistic way to treat aging skin. Our goal is to provide a comprehensive review on environmental factors that damage human skin, discuss scientifically proven benefits of topical antioxidants, understand challenges of formulating and administering topical antioxidants, evaluate novel mechanisms of antioxidant activity, and suggest practical ways of integrating topical antioxidants with aesthetic procedures to complement clinical outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidants; topical; formulation; environmental insults antioxidants; topical; formulation; environmental insults

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Farris, P.K.; Krol, Y. Under Persistent Assault: Understanding the Factors that Deteriorate Human Skin and Clinical Efficacy of Topical Antioxidants in Treating Aging Skin. Cosmetics 2015, 2, 355-367.

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