Next Issue
Volume 7, January
Previous Issue
Volume 7, November

Table of Contents

Fibers, Volume 7, Issue 12 (December 2019) – 12 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Basalt Textile Reinforced Mortar (B_TRM) composites represent an efficient solution for the [...] Read more.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Durability of Recycled Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete in Chloride Environment
Fibers 2019, 7(12), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib7120111 - 16 Dec 2019
Viewed by 421
Abstract
For structural elements exposed to chloride environments, an important aspect of Recycled Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete (RSFRC) durability is the corrosion resistance. In the present work, an experimental program was carried out to evaluate the long-term effects of chloride attack on the post-cracking [...] Read more.
For structural elements exposed to chloride environments, an important aspect of Recycled Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete (RSFRC) durability is the corrosion resistance. In the present work, an experimental program was carried out to evaluate the long-term effects of chloride attack on the post-cracking behavior of RSFRC by performing splitting tensile tests and round panel tests. Two RSFRC mixtures defined based on the packing density optimization were produced with a fiber content of 0.8% and 1% per volume of concrete. The influence of different periods of chloride immersion was investigated, as well as the influence of fiber dispersion at crack surfaces of the specimens. Additionally, a simplified prediction of the long-term chloride penetration depth into uncracked RSFRC under immersion aggressive chloride exposure conditions was estimated. The RSFRC revealed high susceptibility to surface corrosion under the chloride exposure conditions adopted. However, the post-cracking resistance of RSFRC was not significant affected. The addition of RSF had a negligible effect in the diffusion of chloride ions into concrete, and the critical chloride content was higher than that found in conventional reinforced concrete structures. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effect of Temperature Exposition of Casting Solution on Properties of Polysulfone Hollow Fiber Membranes
Fibers 2019, 7(12), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib7120110 - 14 Dec 2019
Viewed by 426
Abstract
It was shown for the first time that the conditions of thermal treatment of the casting solution significantly affect the morphology and transport properties of porous, flat, and hollow fiber polysulfone (PSf) membranes. It is ascertained that the main solution components that are [...] Read more.
It was shown for the first time that the conditions of thermal treatment of the casting solution significantly affect the morphology and transport properties of porous, flat, and hollow fiber polysulfone (PSf) membranes. It is ascertained that the main solution components that are subjected to thermo-oxidative destruction are the pore-forming agent polyethylene glycol (PEG) and solvent N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). It is proved that hydroxyl groups of PEG actively react in the process of the casting solution thermo-oxidative destruction. It is shown that despite the chemical conversion taking place in the casting solution, their stability towards coagulation virtually does not change. The differences in the membrane morphology associated with the increase of thermal treatment time at 120 °C are not connected to the thermodynamic properties of the casting solutions, but with the kinetics of the phase separation. It is revealed that the change of morphology and transport properties of membranes is connected with the increase of the casting solution viscosity. The rise of solution viscosity resulted in the slowdown of the phase separation and formation of a more densely packed membrane structure with less pronounced macropores. It is determined experimentally that with the increase of casting solution thermal treatment time, the membrane selective layer thickness increases. This leads to the decrease of gas permeance and the rise of the He/CO2 selectivity for flat and hollow fiber membranes. In the case of hollow fibers, the fall of gas permeance is also connected with the appearance of the sponge-like layer at the outer surface of membranes. The increase of selectivity and decline of permeance indicates the reduction of selective layer pore size and its densification, which agrees well with the calculation results of the average membrane density. The results obtained are relevant to any polymeric casting solution containing NMP and/or PEG and treated at temperatures above 60 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Hollow Fiber Membrane 2019)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessLetter
A Dual Hollow Core Antiresonant Optical Fiber Coupler Based on a Highly Birefringent Structure-Numerical Design and Analysis
Fibers 2019, 7(12), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib7120109 - 07 Dec 2019
Viewed by 500
Abstract
With the growing interest in hollow-core antiresonant fibers (HC-ARF), attributed to the development of their fabrication technology, the appearance of more sophisticated structures is understandable. One of the recently advancing concepts is that of dual hollow-core antiresonant fibers, which have the potential to [...] Read more.
With the growing interest in hollow-core antiresonant fibers (HC-ARF), attributed to the development of their fabrication technology, the appearance of more sophisticated structures is understandable. One of the recently advancing concepts is that of dual hollow-core antiresonant fibers, which have the potential to be used as optical fiber couplers. In the following paper, a design of a dual hollow-core antiresonant fiber (DHC-ARF) acting as a polarization fiber coupler is presented. The structure is based on a highly birefringent hollow-core fiber design, which is proven to be a promising solution for the purpose of propagation of polarized signals. The design of an optimized DHC-ARF with asymmetrical cores is proposed, together with analysis of its essential coupling parameters, such as the extinction ratio, coupling length ratio, and coupling strength. The latter two for the x- and y-polarized signals were ~2 and 1, respectively, while the optical losses were below 0.3 dB/cm in the 1500–1700 nm transmission band. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microstructured Optical Fibers and Applications)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
A Comparative Study of the Effect of Field Retting Time on the Properties of Hemp Fibres Harvested at Different Growth Stages
Fibers 2019, 7(12), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib7120108 - 07 Dec 2019
Viewed by 453
Abstract
In this study, the comparison of field retting of hemp fibres harvested at different growth stages (beginning and end of flowering, seed maturity) was studied. Regardless of the harvest period, identical evolution of the fibres’ properties was observed during retting. The main difference [...] Read more.
In this study, the comparison of field retting of hemp fibres harvested at different growth stages (beginning and end of flowering, seed maturity) was studied. Regardless of the harvest period, identical evolution of the fibres’ properties was observed during retting. The main difference is the kinetics of this transformation, which depend on weather conditions and the initial state of the fibres after harvesting. Retting leads to a change in colour of the stems and fibres, an increase of the cellulose fraction and a gradual improvement of the fibres’ thermal stability, in relation with a decrease in the non-cellulosic materials. This process induces fibre bundle separation into elementary fibres. A long period (5 weeks) is required for getting the highest mechanical properties of fibres harvested at the beginning and the end of flowering. However, the retting of fibres harvested at seed maturity has to be performed in a short period (1 week) in order to avoid over-retting treatment. If the fibres are over-retted, their quality decreases in terms of structure and mechanical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Fibers and Composites: Science and Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Zero Stress Aging of Glass and Carbon Fibers in Water and Oil—Strength Reduction Explained by Dissolution Kinetics
Fibers 2019, 7(12), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib7120107 - 06 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 484
Abstract
Understanding the strength degradation of glass and carbon fibers due to exposure to liquids over time is important for structural applications. A model has been developed for glass fibers that links the strength reduction in water to the increase of the Griffith flaw [...] Read more.
Understanding the strength degradation of glass and carbon fibers due to exposure to liquids over time is important for structural applications. A model has been developed for glass fibers that links the strength reduction in water to the increase of the Griffith flaw size of the fibers. The speed of the increase is determined by regular chemical dissolution kinetics of glass in water. Crack growth and strength reduction can be predicted for several water temperatures and pH, based on the corresponding dissolution constants. Agreement with experimental results for the case of water at 60 °C with a pH of 5.8 is reasonably good. Carbon fibers in water and toluene and glass fibers in toluene do not chemically react with the liquid. Subsequently no strength degradation is expected and will be confirmed experimentally. All fiber strength measurements are carried out on bundles. The glass fibers are R-glass. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Industrial Hemp Fibers: An Overview
Fibers 2019, 7(12), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib7120106 - 02 Dec 2019
Viewed by 609
Abstract
Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) is one of the most available and widely produced bast fibers with high cellulose content. Interest in these fibers is warranted due to environmental protection challenges as well as their inherent properties such as low density, high [...] Read more.
Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) is one of the most available and widely produced bast fibers with high cellulose content. Interest in these fibers is warranted due to environmental protection challenges as well as their inherent properties such as low density, high specific strength, and stiffness. In addition, advanced research and progress have gone into increasing their mechanical performance through surface treatments and in the development of new materials. The most promising application for hemp fibers is as reinforcement in polymeric composites or through hybridization. Nonetheless, more research is needed to improve their properties and expand their range of applications. The biodegradability issue is one problem that must be addressed when considering long life-cycle applications as the reproducibility of these composites’ final properties. This review is a comprehensive literature review on hemp fibers. It includes hemp fibers’ chemical and mechanical properties, surface modifications, hybrid composites, as well as current and future applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Fibers)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Nano-Structured Optical Fibers Made of Glass-Ceramics, and Phase Separated and Metallic Particle-Containing Glasses
Fibers 2019, 7(12), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib7120105 - 30 Nov 2019
Viewed by 632
Abstract
For years, scientists have been looking for different techniques to make glasses perfect: fully amorphous and ideally homogeneous. Meanwhile, recent advances in the development of particle-containing glasses (PCG), defined in this paper as glass-ceramics, glasses doped with metallic nanoparticles, and phase-separated glasses show [...] Read more.
For years, scientists have been looking for different techniques to make glasses perfect: fully amorphous and ideally homogeneous. Meanwhile, recent advances in the development of particle-containing glasses (PCG), defined in this paper as glass-ceramics, glasses doped with metallic nanoparticles, and phase-separated glasses show that these “imperfect” glasses can result in better optical materials if particles of desired chemistry, size, and shape are present in the glass. It has been shown that PCGs can be used for the fabrication of nanostructured fibers—a novel class of media for fiber optics. These unique optical fibers are able to outperform their traditional glass counterparts in terms of available emission spectral range, quantum efficiency, non-linear properties, fabricated sensors sensitivity, and other parameters. Being rather special, nanostructured fibers require new, unconventional solutions on the materials used, fabrication, and characterization techniques, limiting the use of these novel materials. This work overviews practical aspects and progress in the fabrication and characterization methods of the particle-containing glasses with particular attention to nanostructured fibers made of these materials. A review of the recent achievements shows that current technologies allow producing high-optical quality PCG-fibers of different types, and the unique optical properties of these nanostructured fibers make them prospective for applications in lasers, optical communications, medicine, lighting, and other areas of science and industry. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Ytterbium Silicate Fibers: Fabrication, Microstructure and Strength
Fibers 2019, 7(12), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib7120104 - 29 Nov 2019
Viewed by 498
Abstract
High temperature ceramic and metal matrix composites, which are to be used under complicated loading conditions in a severe atmosphere, have to satisfy a large number of the requirements. Hence, development of such composites calls for a large variety of fibers, matrices and [...] Read more.
High temperature ceramic and metal matrix composites, which are to be used under complicated loading conditions in a severe atmosphere, have to satisfy a large number of the requirements. Hence, development of such composites calls for a large variety of fibers, matrices and interface materials to make an appropriate choice in designing a particular composite. The fiber is definitely the most important component of a composite. The family of oxide fibers is the most important among possible reinforcements for metal and oxide matrices. In this work, a family of potential oxide reinforcements containing ytterbium monosilicate Yb2SiO5 and disilicate Yb2Si2O7, and ytterbia-ytterbium monosilicate eutectic, was obtained and studied. The interest in those silicates was aroused because (i) they are highly resistant to hot corrosion in the presence of water vapor and (ii) their CTE varies from 8 × 10−6 K−1 for monosilicate to 4 × 10−6 K−1 for disilicate. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Experimental Study on the Adhesion of Basalt Textile Reinforced Mortars (TRM) to Clay Brick Masonry: The Influence of Textile Density
Fibers 2019, 7(12), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib7120103 - 29 Nov 2019
Viewed by 500
Abstract
Textile Reinforced Mortar (TRM) composite systems are gaining consensus within the scientific and technical communities as a viable and advantageous alternative to the most conventional Fibre-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites. Due to the good compatibility both in terms of stiffness and vapor permeability between [...] Read more.
Textile Reinforced Mortar (TRM) composite systems are gaining consensus within the scientific and technical communities as a viable and advantageous alternative to the most conventional Fibre-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites. Due to the good compatibility both in terms of stiffness and vapor permeability between the inorganic matrix and the substrate, the TRMs appear to be particularly well suited for strengthening masonry members and enhancing their capacity to withstand tensile and shear stresses, such as those induced by seismic shakings. This paper aims to investigate the mechanical response of a TRM system featuring an internal reinforcement made of basalt fiber textile. Therefore, the paper reports the results of an experimental campaign carried out by single-lap shear bond tests on masonry substrate reinforced by TRM strips. Three different kinds of TRM have been taken into account, each one characterized by a variable number of fabric plies. The results show that, in all cases, TRMs fail prematurely due to debonding between fabric and matrix. However, the aforementioned premature failure is the main concern emerging from these test results, and further work is requested in reformulating the matrix composition towards enhancing their tensile strength and, hence, restraining the occurrence of fabric-to-matrix debonding. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Influence of Fiber Content on Shear Capacity of Steel Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Beams
Fibers 2019, 7(12), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib7120102 - 28 Nov 2019
Viewed by 537
Abstract
For shear-critical structural elements where the use of stirrups is not desirable, such as slabs or beams with reinforcement congestion, steel fibers can be used as shear reinforcement. The contribution of the steel fibers to the shear capacity lies in the action of [...] Read more.
For shear-critical structural elements where the use of stirrups is not desirable, such as slabs or beams with reinforcement congestion, steel fibers can be used as shear reinforcement. The contribution of the steel fibers to the shear capacity lies in the action of the steel fibers bridging the shear crack, which increases the shear capacity and prevents a brittle failure mode. This study evaluates the effect of the amount of fibers in a concrete mix on the shear capacity of steel fiber-reinforced concrete beams with mild steel tension reinforcement and without stirrups. For this purpose, 10 beams were tested. Five different fiber volume fractions were studied: 0.0%, 0.3%, 0.6%, 0.9%, and 1.2%. For each different steel fiber concrete mix, the concrete compressive strength was determined on cylinders and the tensile strength was determined in a flexural test on beam specimens. Additionally, the influence of fibers on the shear capacity was analyzed based on results reported in the literature, as well as based on the expressions derived for estimating the shear capacity of steel fiber-reinforced concrete beams. The outcome of these experiments is that a fiber percentage of 1.2% or fiber factor of 0.96 can be used to replace minimum stirrups according to ACI 318-14 and a 0.6% fiber volume fraction or fiber factor of 0.48 to replace minimum stirrups according to Eurocode 2. A fiber percentage of 1.2% or fiber factor of 0.96 was observed to change the failure mode from shear failure to flexural failure. The results of this study support the inclusion of provisions for steel fiber-reinforced concrete in building codes and provides recommendations for inclusion in ACI 318-14 and Eurocode 2, so that a wider adoption of steel fiber reinforced concrete can be achieved in the construction industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete Behaviour)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Cotton and Other Natural Fibers for Textile Applications
Fibers 2019, 7(12), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib7120101 - 25 Nov 2019
Viewed by 572
Abstract
Among natural fibers, such as cotton, silk, wool, flax, hemp, etc., cotton is the one that takes up the highest percentage in the textile market. Nevertheless, there are obstacles associated with its cultivation; it is restricted to sub-tropical climates, and it is dependent [...] Read more.
Among natural fibers, such as cotton, silk, wool, flax, hemp, etc., cotton is the one that takes up the highest percentage in the textile market. Nevertheless, there are obstacles associated with its cultivation; it is restricted to sub-tropical climates, and it is dependent upon high amounts of water, as well as the use of agrochemicals to ensure good yields. The use of pesticides and other types of chemical products give a negative impact on the environment. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is used in the present study in order to evaluate the environmental impacts of cotton cultivation and fibers production for textiles. Comparisons among traditional and organic cropping have been carried out. Further comparisons are described with other natural fibers, such as jute, hemp and kenaf, in order to identify the strong and weak points of each product. Weak (e.g., lack of supply, transportation and storage of biomass, infancy of the value chain, lack of production/distribution chains, etc.) and strong aspects (e.g., market potential, rural development, environmental benefits, etc.) are considered for the production of each type of fiber. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Fibers and Composites: Science and Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effect of High Temperature on the Mechanical Properties of Steel Fiber-Reinforced Concrete
Fibers 2019, 7(12), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib7120100 - 21 Nov 2019
Viewed by 545
Abstract
The effect of high temperature on the mechanical properties of concrete reinforced by steel fibers with various aspect ratios has been investigated in this study. Concrete specimens were fabricated from four different concrete mixtures and cured for 28 days. After curing and natural [...] Read more.
The effect of high temperature on the mechanical properties of concrete reinforced by steel fibers with various aspect ratios has been investigated in this study. Concrete specimens were fabricated from four different concrete mixtures and cured for 28 days. After curing and natural drying, the specimens were annealed at a temperature of 500 °C for 3 h in an electric furnace. The compressive and tensile strengths as well as the elastic moduli of the produced specimens were determined. It was found that the mechanical properties (especially flexural toughness) of steel fiber-reinforced concrete were less affected by high temperature as compared to those of control concrete specimens. The flexural tensile strength of fiber-reinforced concrete measured after high-temperature treatment was almost equal to the value obtained for the reference concrete specimen at room temperature. It should be noted that the addition of steel fibers to concrete preserves its mechanical properties after exposure to a temperature of 500 °C due to fire for a period of up to 3 h, and thus is able to improve its high-temperature structural stability. The test results of this study indicate that the use of steel fibers in concrete-based materials significantly enhances their fire and hear-resistant characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete Behaviour)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop