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Coatings, Volume 6, Issue 2 (June 2016)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) This paper provides a semi-comprehensive current review of developments in automotive coatings. The [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview
Evolution of the Automotive Body Coating Process—A Review
Coatings 2016, 6(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings6020024 - 13 Jun 2016
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 5883
Abstract
Automotive coatings and the processes used to coat automobile surfaces exemplify the avant-garde of technologies that are capable of producing durable surfaces, exceeding customers’ expectations of appearance, maximizing efficiency, and meeting environmental regulations. These accomplishments are rooted in 100 years of experience, trial-and-error [...] Read more.
Automotive coatings and the processes used to coat automobile surfaces exemplify the avant-garde of technologies that are capable of producing durable surfaces, exceeding customers’ expectations of appearance, maximizing efficiency, and meeting environmental regulations. These accomplishments are rooted in 100 years of experience, trial-and-error approaches, technique and technology advancements, and theoretical assessments. Because of advancements directed at understanding the how, why, when, and where of automobile coatings, the progress in controlling droplets and their deposition attributes, and the development of new technologies and paint chemistries, a comprehensive and up-to-date review of automobile coatings and coating technologies was considered to be of value to industrial practitioners and researchers. Overall, the critical performance factors driving the development and use of advanced automotive coatings and coating technologies are (a) aesthetic characteristics; (b) corrosion protection; (c) mass production; (d) cost and environmental requirements; and (e) appearance and durability. Although the relative importance of each of these factors is debatable, the perfection of any one at the expense of another would be unacceptable. Hence, new developments in automotive coatings are described and discussed in the following review, and then related to improvements in production technologies and paints. Modern automotive coating procedures are also discussed in detail. Finally, an extrapolation into the future of automotive coating is offered with a view of the developments and technologies needed for an increasingly efficient and more sustainable coatings industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Coatings for Automotive Industry)
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Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Bastarrachea, L.J., et al. Active Packaging Coatings. Coatings 2015, 5, 771–791
Coatings 2016, 6(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings6020023 - 08 Jun 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1563
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following correction to this paper [1]:[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Beverage Packaging Coatings)
Open AccessArticle
Thermal Protection of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Composites by Ceramic Particles
Coatings 2016, 6(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings6020022 - 01 Jun 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2702
Abstract
The thermal barrier efficiency of two types of ceramic particle, glass flakes and aluminum titanate, dispersed on the surface of carbon-fiber epoxy composites, has been evaluated using a cone calorimeter at 35 and 50 kW/m2, in addition to temperature gradients through [...] Read more.
The thermal barrier efficiency of two types of ceramic particle, glass flakes and aluminum titanate, dispersed on the surface of carbon-fiber epoxy composites, has been evaluated using a cone calorimeter at 35 and 50 kW/m2, in addition to temperature gradients through the samples’ thicknesses, measured by inserting thermocouples on the exposed and back surfaces during the cone tests. Two techniques of dispersing ceramic particles on the surface have been employed, one where particles were dispersed on semi-cured laminate and the other where their dispersion in a phenolic resin was applied on the laminate surface, using the same method as used previously for glass fiber composites. The morphology and durability of the coatings to water absorption, peeling, impact and flexural tension were also studied and compared with those previously reported for glass-fiber epoxy composites. With both methods, uniform coatings could be achieved, which were durable to peeling or water absorption with a minimal adverse effect on the mechanical properties of composites. While all these properties were comparable to those previously observed for glass fiber composites, the ceramic particles have seen to be more effective on this less flammable, carbon fiber composite substrate. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Acoustical Durability of Thin Noise Reducing Asphalt Layers
Coatings 2016, 6(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings6020021 - 23 May 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1994
Abstract
Within the context of the European Noise Directive, traffic noise action plans have been established. One of those actions is to deepen the knowledge about low noise roads, as they are considered the most cost-efficient measure for traffic noise abatement. Therefore, ten test [...] Read more.
Within the context of the European Noise Directive, traffic noise action plans have been established. One of those actions is to deepen the knowledge about low noise roads, as they are considered the most cost-efficient measure for traffic noise abatement. Therefore, ten test sections were installed in May 2012 in Belgium, with the objective of integrating Thin noise-reducing Asphalt Layers (TAL) in the Flemish road surface policy in a later stage. Eight test sections are paved with TAL with a thickness of a maximum of 30 mm and a maximum content of accessible voids of 18%. The other two sections consist of a Double-layer Porous Asphalt Concrete (DPAC) and a Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA-10 as a reference section). The acoustical quality of the asphalt surfaces has been monitored in time using Statistical Pass-By (SPB) and Close-ProXimity (CPX) measurements up to 34 months after construction. Texture measurements performed with a laser profilometer are linked to the noise measurement results. Very promising initial noise reductions were found, up to 6 dB(A), but higher than expected acoustic deterioration rates and the presence of raveling led to noise reductions of a max. of 1 dB(A) after almost three years. It is shown that the construction process itself has a large influence on the acoustical quality over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low-Noise Road Surfaces)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Single-Layer and Double-Layer Anti-Reflection Coatings Using Laser-Induced Damage Threshold and Photothermal Common-Path Interferometry
Coatings 2016, 6(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings6020020 - 10 May 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2343
Abstract
The dielectric thin-film coating on high-power optical components is often the weakest region and will fail at elevated optical fluences. A comparison of single-layer coatings of ZrO2, LiF, Ta2O5, SiN, and SiO2 along with anti-reflection (AR) coatings optimized at 1064 nm comprised of [...] Read more.
The dielectric thin-film coating on high-power optical components is often the weakest region and will fail at elevated optical fluences. A comparison of single-layer coatings of ZrO2, LiF, Ta2O5, SiN, and SiO2 along with anti-reflection (AR) coatings optimized at 1064 nm comprised of ZrO2 and Ta2O5 was made, and the results of photothermal common-path interferometry (PCI) and a laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) are presented here. The coatings were grown by radio frequency (RF) sputtering, pulsed direct-current (DC) sputtering, ion-assisted electron beam evaporation (IAD), and thermal evaporation. Test regimes for LIDT used pulse durations of 9.6 ns at 100 Hz for 1000-on-1 and 1-on-1 regimes at 1064 nm for single-layer and AR coatings, and 20 ns at 20 Hz for a 200-on-1 regime to compare the //ZrO2/SiO2 AR coating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Optical Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
Sputter-Deposited Indium–Tin Oxide Thin Films for Acetaldehyde Gas Sensing
Coatings 2016, 6(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings6020019 - 14 Apr 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2679
Abstract
Reactive dual-target DC magnetron sputtering was used to prepare In–Sn oxide thin films with a wide range of compositions. The films were subjected to annealing post-treatment at 400 °C or 500 °C for different periods of time. Compositional and structural characterizations were performed [...] Read more.
Reactive dual-target DC magnetron sputtering was used to prepare In–Sn oxide thin films with a wide range of compositions. The films were subjected to annealing post-treatment at 400 °C or 500 °C for different periods of time. Compositional and structural characterizations were performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering and scanning electron microscopy. Films were investigated for gas sensing at 200 °C by measuring their resistance response upon exposure to acetaldehyde mixed with synthetic air. We found that the relative indium-to-tin content was very important and that measurable sensor responses could be recorded at acetaldehyde concentrations down to 200 ppb, with small resistance drift between repeated exposures, for both crystalline SnO2-like films and for amorphous films consisting of about equal amounts of In and Sn. We also demonstrated that it is not possible to prepare crystalline sensors with intermediate indium-to-tin compositions by sputter deposition and post-annealing up to 500 °C. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ultra Low Noise Poroelastic Road Surfaces
Coatings 2016, 6(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings6020018 - 08 Apr 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2112
Abstract
Noise is one of the most important environmental problems related to road traffic. During the last decades, the noise emitted by the engines and powertrains of vehicles was greatly reduced and tires became a clearly dominant noise source. The article describes the concept [...] Read more.
Noise is one of the most important environmental problems related to road traffic. During the last decades, the noise emitted by the engines and powertrains of vehicles was greatly reduced and tires became a clearly dominant noise source. The article describes the concept of low noise poroelastic road surfaces that are composed of mineral and rubber aggregate bound by polyurethane resin. Those surfaces have a porous structure and are much more flexible than standard asphalt or cement concrete pavements due to high content of rubber aggregate and elastic binder. Measurements performed in several European countries indicate that such surfaces decrease tire/road noise between 7 dB and 12 dB with respect to reference surfaces such as dense asphalt concrete or stone matrix asphalt. Furthermore, poroelastic road surfaces ascertain the rolling resistance of car tires, which is comparable to classic pavements. One of the unforeseen properties of the poroelastic road surfaces is their ability to decrease the risks related to car fires with fuel spills. The article presents the road and laboratory results of noise, rolling resistance, and fire tests performed on a few types of poroelastic road surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low-Noise Road Surfaces)
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Open AccessArticle
Novel Thiol-Ene Hybrid Coating for Metal Protection
Coatings 2016, 6(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings6020017 - 07 Apr 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2601
Abstract
A novel hybrid anticorrosion coating with dual network of inorganic (Si–O–Si) and organic bonds (C–S–C) was prepared on metal through an in situ sol-gel and thiol-ene click reaction. This novel interfacial thin film coating incorporates (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxysilane (MPTS) and 1,4-di(vinylimidazolium) butane bisbromide based [...] Read more.
A novel hybrid anticorrosion coating with dual network of inorganic (Si–O–Si) and organic bonds (C–S–C) was prepared on metal through an in situ sol-gel and thiol-ene click reaction. This novel interfacial thin film coating incorporates (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxysilane (MPTS) and 1,4-di(vinylimidazolium) butane bisbromide based polymerizable ionic liquid (PIL) to form a thiol-ene based photo-polymerized film, which on subsequent sol-gel reaction forms a thin hybrid interfacial layer on metal surface. On top of this PIL hybrid film, a self-assembled nanophase particle (SNAP) coating was employed to prepare a multilayer thin film coating for better corrosion protection and barrier performance. The novel PIL hybrid film was characterised for structure and properties using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The corrosion protection performance of the multilayer coating was examined using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results reveal that this novel double layer coating on metal offers excellent protection against corrosion and has remarkably improved the barrier effect of the coating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Thin Films and Coatings)
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Open AccessArticle
A Comparative Study of Corrosion Resistance for HVAF-Sprayed Fe- and Co-Based Coatings
Coatings 2016, 6(2), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings6020016 - 31 Mar 2016
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2095
Abstract
There is an increasing demand to replace Co-based coatings with cheap and environmentally friendly Fe-based coatings in corrosive environments. The main objective of this work was to evaluate whether Fe-based coatings could present a better corrosion performance than Co-based coatings. Therefore, two types [...] Read more.
There is an increasing demand to replace Co-based coatings with cheap and environmentally friendly Fe-based coatings in corrosive environments. The main objective of this work was to evaluate whether Fe-based coatings could present a better corrosion performance than Co-based coatings. Therefore, two types of Fe-based and one type of Co-based coatings with chemical compositions (in wt %) of Fe-28Cr-16Ni-1.85C (FeNiCrC), Fe-17Cr-12Ni (FeNiCr), and Co-28Cr-1C (CoCrC) were produced by High Velocity Air Fuel (HVAF) spraying. The corrosion behavior of the coatings was studied comparatively by electrochemical tests in 3.5 wt % NaCl solution at 25 °C. The polarization test results showed that the FeCrNiC coating protected the underlying substrate better than the CoCrC coating, while the FeCrNi coating failed to hinder the penetration of corrosive ions. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements revealed that the solution penetrated into the coating through defects, however the corrosion process slowed down due to clogging of the interconnected defects by corrosion products. Increasing the in-flight average particle temperature from 1400 °C to 1500 °C led to a denser coating with fewer defects which seemed to improve the corrosion resistance of the FeCrNiC coating. The high-alloyed Fe-based coatings had the best corrosion protection performance and can thus be recommended as a potential alternative to Co-based coatings. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Noisiness of the Surfaces on Low-Speed Roads
Coatings 2016, 6(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings6020015 - 25 Mar 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2086
Abstract
Traffic noise is a particular threat to the environment in the vicinity of roads. The level of the noise is influenced by traffic density and traffic composition, as well as vehicle speed and the type of surface. The article presents the results of [...] Read more.
Traffic noise is a particular threat to the environment in the vicinity of roads. The level of the noise is influenced by traffic density and traffic composition, as well as vehicle speed and the type of surface. The article presents the results of studies on tire/road noise from passing vehicles at a speed of 40–80 kph, carried out by using the statistical pass-by method (SPB), on seven surfaces with different characteristics. It has been shown that increasing the speed from 40 kph to 50 kph contributes to the increase in the maximum A-weighted sound pressure level by about 3 dB, regardless of the type of surface. For larger differences in speed (30 kph–40 kph) increase in noise levels reaches values about 10 dB. In the case of higher speeds, this increase is slightly lower. In this article, special attention is paid to the noisiness from surfaces made of porous asphalt concrete (PAC), BBTM (thin asphalt layer), and stone mastic asphalt (SMA) with a maximum aggregate size of 8 mm and 5 mm. It has also been proved that surfaces of porous asphalt concrete, within two years after the commissioning, significantly contribute to a reduction of the maximum level of noise in the streets and roads with lower speed of passing cars. Reduction of the maximum A-weighted sound pressure level of a statistical car traveling at 60 kph reaches values of up to about 6 dB, as compared with the SMA11. Along with the exploitation of the road, air voids in the low-noise surface becomes clogged and acoustic properties of the road decrease to a level similar to standard asphalt. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low-Noise Road Surfaces)
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Open AccessArticle
New Method of Pulsed Electrodeposition of Nanostructure of ZnS Films
Coatings 2016, 6(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings6020014 - 25 Mar 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1786
Abstract
The voltammetry method of analysis is used to investigate the electrochemical behavior of zinc(II) and thiosulfate (\(\text{S}_{2}\text{O}_{3}^{2-}\)) ions in acidic solutions and their electrochemical deposition onto glass coated with a conductive layer of tin oxide. It is found that electrodeposition conducted according to [...] Read more.
The voltammetry method of analysis is used to investigate the electrochemical behavior of zinc(II) and thiosulfate (\(\text{S}_{2}\text{O}_{3}^{2-}\)) ions in acidic solutions and their electrochemical deposition onto glass coated with a conductive layer of tin oxide. It is found that electrodeposition conducted according to the two-electrode scheme using the pulse current generated by the industrial alternating current produces sound zinc sulfide deposits. Physical and chemical properties of obtained zinc sulfide films have been characterized by using scanning electron microscope and UV spectroscopy. The "cross-section" method is used to determine the thickness of zinc sulfide film, which is equal to 140–160 nm. The obtained films have n-type conductivity. Full article
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