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Nanomaterials, Volume 12, Issue 8 (April-2 2022) – 146 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Droplets exist widely in nature and play an extremely important role in a broad variety of industrial processes. Typical droplets, including water and oil droplets, have received extensive attention and research, whereas their single properties still cannot meet diverse needs. Fortunately, liquid metal droplets emerging in recent years possess outstanding properties, including large surface tension, excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, convenient chemical processing, easy transition between liquid and solid phase state, large-scale deformability, etc. More interestingly, liquid metal droplets with unique features can respond to external factors including electronic field, magnetic field, acoustic field, chemical field, temperature, and light, exhibiting extraordinary intelligent response characteristics. View this paper
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Review
Recent Progress Regarding Materials and Structures of Triboelectric Nanogenerators for AR and VR
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(8), 1385; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12081385 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 863
Abstract
With the continuous advancement in technology, electronic products used in augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) have gradually entered the public eye. As a result, the power supplies of these electronic devices have attracted more attention from scientists. Compared to traditional power [...] Read more.
With the continuous advancement in technology, electronic products used in augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) have gradually entered the public eye. As a result, the power supplies of these electronic devices have attracted more attention from scientists. Compared to traditional power sources, triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) are gradually being used for energy harvesting in self-powered sensing technology such as wearable flexible electronics, including AR and VR devices due to their small size, high conversion efficiency, and low energy consumption. As a result, TENGs are the most popular power supplies for AR and VR products. This article first summarizes the working mode and basic theory of TENGs, then reviews the TENG modules used in AR and VR devices, and finally summarizes the material selection and design methods used for TENG preparation. The friction layer of the TENG can be made of a variety of materials such as polymers, metals, and inorganic materials, and among these, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) are the most popular materials. To improve TENG performance, the friction layer material must be suitable. Therefore, for different application scenarios, the design methods of the TENG play an important role in its performance, and a reasonable selection of preparation materials and design methods can greatly improve the work efficiency of the TENG. Lastly, we summarize the current research status of nanogenerators, analyze and suggest future application fields, and summarize the main points of material selection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials and Technologies in Nanogenerators)
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Article
Adsorption of Chromate Ions by Layered Double Hydroxide–Bentonite Nanocomposite for Groundwater Remediation
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(8), 1384; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12081384 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 703
Abstract
Herein, magnesium/aluminum-layered double hydroxide (MgAl-LDH) and bentonite (BT) nanocomposites (LDH–BT) were prepared by co-precipitation (CP), exfoliation–reassembly (ER), and simple solid-phase hybridization (SP). The prepared LDH–BT nanocomposites were preliminarily characterized by using powder X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, and zeta-potentiometry. The chromate adsorption efficacies [...] Read more.
Herein, magnesium/aluminum-layered double hydroxide (MgAl-LDH) and bentonite (BT) nanocomposites (LDH–BT) were prepared by co-precipitation (CP), exfoliation–reassembly (ER), and simple solid-phase hybridization (SP). The prepared LDH–BT nanocomposites were preliminarily characterized by using powder X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, and zeta-potentiometry. The chromate adsorption efficacies of the pristine materials (LDH and bentonite) and the as-prepared nanocomposites were investigated. Among the composites, the LDH–BT_SP was found to exhibit the highest chromate removal efficiency of 65.7%. The effect of varying the LDH amount in the LDH–BT composite was further investigated, and a positive relationship between the LDH ratio and chromate removal efficiency was identified. The chromate adsorption by the LDH–BT_SP was performed under various concentrations (isotherm) and contact times (kinetic). The results of the isotherm experiments were well fitted with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm model and demonstrate multilayer chromate adsorption by the heterogeneous LDH–BT_SP, with a homogenous distribution of LDH nanoparticles. The mobility of the as-prepared LDH–BT_SP was investigated on a silica sand-filled column to demonstrate that the mobility of the bentonite is dramatically decreased after hybridization with LDH. Furthermore, when the LDH–BT_SP was injected into a box container filled with silica sand to simulate subsurface soil conditions, the chromate removal efficacy was around 43% in 170 min. Thus, it was confirmed that the LDH–BT prepared by solid-phase hybridization is a practical clay-based nanocomposite for in situ soil and groundwater remediation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis, Characteristics, and Applications of Nanocomposites)
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Article
Mesoporous Nano-Sized BiFeVOx.y Phases for Removal of Organic Dyes from Wastewaters by Visible Light Photocatalytic Degradation
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(8), 1383; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12081383 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 604
Abstract
With an increasing demand for industrial dyes in our daily lives, water conditions have become worse. Recently, the removal of such environmentally hazardous pollutants from wastewaters through photocatalytic degradation has been drawing increased attention. Three mesoporous nanophases of BiFeVOx.y as (Bi2Fe [...] Read more.
With an increasing demand for industrial dyes in our daily lives, water conditions have become worse. Recently, the removal of such environmentally hazardous pollutants from wastewaters through photocatalytic degradation has been drawing increased attention. Three mesoporous nanophases of BiFeVOx.y as (Bi2FeIIIV1−yO5.5−y) visible light photocatalysts were synthesized in this study using ethylene glycol-citrate sol-gel synthesis combined with microwave- assisted calcination. X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS), nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry (UV-Vis/DRS) were used to characterize the BiFeVOx.y photocatalysts. The visible light-induced photocatalytic activities of the BiFeVOx.y phases were evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye in aqueous solution at pH ~10.0. The results of this study show that the combination of doping strategy with the utilization of advanced synthesis methods plays an important role in improving the structure and surface properties of BiFeVOx.y phases, and thereby enhancing their adsorption and photocatalytic efficiencies. The synthesized mesoporous tetragonal γ-BiFeVOx.y nanophase has been proven to be a potential visible-light photocatalyst for the degradation of organic dyes. Full article
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Article
Electron-Level Mechanistic Insights into Ce Doping for Enhanced Efficiency Degradation of Bisphenol A under Visible Light Irradiation
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(8), 1382; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12081382 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 526
Abstract
Bismuth oxybromide (BiOBr), with its special layered structure, is known to have potential as a visible-light-driven photocatalyst. However, the rapid recombination and short lifetime of the photogenerated carriers of BiOBr restrict its photocatalytic efficiency for the degradation of organic pollutants. Given the similar [...] Read more.
Bismuth oxybromide (BiOBr), with its special layered structure, is known to have potential as a visible-light-driven photocatalyst. However, the rapid recombination and short lifetime of the photogenerated carriers of BiOBr restrict its photocatalytic efficiency for the degradation of organic pollutants. Given the similar ionic size of Ce and Bi, Ce atoms might be easily introduced into the crystal of BiOBr to tailor its band structure. In this study, Ce doped BiOBr (Ce-BiOBr) samples with different percentages of Ce contents were prepared via a hydrothermal method. The intrinsic photocatalytic efficiency of Ce0.2-BiOBr for the degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) was 3.66 times higher than that of pristine BiOBr under visible light irradiation. The mechanism of Ce-doping modification for the enhanced photocatalytic performance was demonstrated based on a series of experiments and DFT calculation. The narrowed bandgap, the enhanced charge separation efficiency and Ce-doping energy level contributed to the remarkable photocatalytic performance of Ce-BiOBr. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances and Applications of 2D Materials)
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Article
Antimicrobial PMMA Bone Cement Containing Long Releasing Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(8), 1381; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12081381 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 642
Abstract
Prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) ensued from total joint replacement (TJR) pose a severe threat to patients that involve poor health outcomes, severe pain, death (in severe cases), and negative influence patients’ quality of life. Antibiotic-loaded bone cement (ALBC) is frequently used for the [...] Read more.
Prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) ensued from total joint replacement (TJR) pose a severe threat to patients that involve poor health outcomes, severe pain, death (in severe cases), and negative influence patients’ quality of life. Antibiotic-loaded bone cement (ALBC) is frequently used for the prevention and treatment of PJI. This work aims to study gentamicin release from carbon nanotubes (CNTs) incorporated in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cement to prolong release over several weeks to provide prophylaxis from PJIs after surgery. Different CNT concentrations were tested with the presence of gentamicin as a powder or preloaded onto carboxyl functionalized CNTs. The different types of bone cement were tested for drug release, mechanical properties, water uptake, antimicrobial properties, and cytocompatibility with human osteoblast cells (MTT, LDH, alizarin red, and morphology). Results showed prolonged release of gentamicin from CNT-loaded bone cements over several weeks compared to gentamicin-containing bone cement. Additionally, the presence of CNT enhanced the percentage of gentamicin released without adversely affecting the nanocomposite mechanical and antimicrobial properties needed for performance. Cytotoxicity testing showed non-inferior performance of the CNT-containing bone cement to the equivalent powder containing cement. Therefore, the developed nanocomposites may serve as a novel PMMA bone cement to prevent PJIs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Functional Materials for Regenerative Medicine)
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Article
Oxide Derived Copper for Electrochemical Reduction of CO2 to C2+ Products
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(8), 1380; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12081380 - 18 Apr 2022
Viewed by 790
Abstract
The electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) on copper electrode derived from cupric oxide (CuO), named oxide derived copper (ODCu), was studied thoroughly in the potential range of −1.0 V to −1.5 V versus RHE. The CuO nanoparticles were prepared by [...] Read more.
The electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) on copper electrode derived from cupric oxide (CuO), named oxide derived copper (ODCu), was studied thoroughly in the potential range of −1.0 V to −1.5 V versus RHE. The CuO nanoparticles were prepared by the hydrothermal method. The ODCu electrode was used for carbon dioxide reduction and the results revealed that this electrode is highly selective for C2+ products with enhanced current density at significantly less overpotential. This catalyst shifts the selectivity towards C2+ products with the highest Faradaic efficiency up to 58% at −0.95 V. In addition, C2 product formation at the lowest onset potential of −0.1 V is achieved with the proposed catalyst. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy revealed the reduction of CuO to Cu (111) nanoparticles during the CO2 RR. The intrinsic property of the synthesized catalyst and its surface reduction are suggested to induce sites or edges for facilitating the dimerization and coupling of intermediates to ethanol and ethylene. Full article
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Article
Reaction Sintering of Machinable TiB2-BN-C Ceramics with In-Situ Formed h-BN Nanostructure
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(8), 1379; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12081379 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 569
Abstract
Soft TiB2-BN-C hetero-modulus ceramics were sintered with the assistance of in-situ reactions during the hot pressing of TiN-B4C precursors. TiB2 formation was observed already after the hot pressing at 1100 °C, remaining the only phase identifiable by XRD [...] Read more.
Soft TiB2-BN-C hetero-modulus ceramics were sintered with the assistance of in-situ reactions during the hot pressing of TiN-B4C precursors. TiB2 formation was observed already after the hot pressing at 1100 °C, remaining the only phase identifiable by XRD even after sintering at 1500 °C. Analysis of reaction kinetics allows us to assume that the most probable reaction controlling stage is boron atoms sublimation and gas phase transfer from B4C to TiN. Reactive sintering route allows almost full densification of TiB2-BN-C composite ceramics at 1900 °C. The processes enable the formation of multilayer h-BN nanosheets inside the TiB2 matrix. The manufactured TiB2-33BN-13C ceramic with K1C = 5.3 MPa·m1/2 and HV = 1.6 GPa is extremely thermal shock-resistant at least up to quenching temperature differential of 800 °C. The sintered UHTC composite can be machined into complex geometry components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nanocomposite Materials)
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Article
Realizing Broadband NIR Photodetection and Ultrahigh Responsivity with Ternary Blend Organic Photodetector
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(8), 1378; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12081378 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 804
Abstract
With the advancement of portable optoelectronics, organic semiconductors have been attracting attention for their use in the sensing of white and near-infrared light. Ideally, an organic photodiode (OPD) should simultaneously display high responsivity and a high response frequency. In this study we used [...] Read more.
With the advancement of portable optoelectronics, organic semiconductors have been attracting attention for their use in the sensing of white and near-infrared light. Ideally, an organic photodiode (OPD) should simultaneously display high responsivity and a high response frequency. In this study we used a ternary blend strategy to prepare PM6: BTP-eC9: PCBM–based OPDs with a broad bandwidth (350–950 nm), ultrahigh responsivity, and a high response frequency. We monitored the dark currents of the OPDs prepared at various PC71BM blend ratios and evaluated their blend film morphologies using optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering. Optimization of the morphology and energy level alignment of the blend films resulted in the OPD prepared with a PM6:BTP-eC9:PC71BM ternary blend weight ratio of 1:1.2:0.5 displaying an extremely low dark current (3.27 × 10−9 A cm−2) under reverse bias at −1 V, with an ultrahigh cut-off frequency (610 kHz, at 530 nm), high responsivity (0.59 A W–1, at −1.5 V), and high detectivity (1.10 × 1013 Jones, under a reverse bias of −1 V at 860 nm). Furthermore, the rise and fall times of this OPD were rapid (114 and 110 ns), respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Nanomaterials for Soft and Wearable Electronics)
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Review
Static and Dynamic Biomaterial Engineering for Cell Modulation
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(8), 1377; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12081377 - 17 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1129
Abstract
In the biological microenvironment, cells are surrounded by an extracellular matrix (ECM), with which they dynamically interact during various biological processes. Specifically, the physical and chemical properties of the ECM work cooperatively to influence the behavior and fate of cells directly and indirectly, [...] Read more.
In the biological microenvironment, cells are surrounded by an extracellular matrix (ECM), with which they dynamically interact during various biological processes. Specifically, the physical and chemical properties of the ECM work cooperatively to influence the behavior and fate of cells directly and indirectly, which invokes various physiological responses in the body. Hence, efficient strategies to modulate cellular responses for a specific purpose have become important for various scientific fields such as biology, pharmacy, and medicine. Among many approaches, the utilization of biomaterials has been studied the most because they can be meticulously engineered to mimic cellular modulatory behavior. For such careful engineering, studies on physical modulation (e.g., ECM topography, stiffness, and wettability) and chemical manipulation (e.g., composition and soluble and surface biosignals) have been actively conducted. At present, the scope of research is being shifted from static (considering only the initial environment and the effects of each element) to biomimetic dynamic (including the concepts of time and gradient) modulation in both physical and chemical manipulations. This review provides an overall perspective on how the static and dynamic biomaterials are actively engineered to modulate targeted cellular responses while highlighting the importance and advance from static modulation to biomimetic dynamic modulation for biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nanostructured Surfaces for Cell Adhesion Control)
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Review
Nanocarriers for Drug Delivery: An Overview with Emphasis on Vitamin D and K Transportation
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(8), 1376; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12081376 - 17 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 963
Abstract
Mounting evidence shows that supplementation with vitamin D and K or their analogs induces beneficial effects in various diseases, e.g., osteoarticular, cardiovascular, or carcinogenesis. The use of drugs delivery systems via organic and inorganic nanocarriers increases the bioavailability of vitamins and analogs, enhancing [...] Read more.
Mounting evidence shows that supplementation with vitamin D and K or their analogs induces beneficial effects in various diseases, e.g., osteoarticular, cardiovascular, or carcinogenesis. The use of drugs delivery systems via organic and inorganic nanocarriers increases the bioavailability of vitamins and analogs, enhancing their cellular delivery and effects. The nanotechnology-based dietary supplements and drugs produced by the food and pharmaceutical industries overcome the issues associated with vitamin administration, such as stability, absorption or low bioavailability. Consequently, there is a continuous interest in optimizing the carriers’ systems in order to make them more efficient and specific for the targeted tissue. In this pioneer review, we try to circumscribe the most relevant aspects related to nanocarriers for drug delivery, compare different types of nanoparticles for vitamin D and K transportation, and critically address their benefits and disadvantages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles Drug Delivery)
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Article
Ultra-Narrowband Anisotropic Perfect Absorber Based on α-MoO3 Metamaterials in the Visible Light Region
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(8), 1375; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12081375 - 17 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 652
Abstract
Optically anisotropic materials show important advantages in constructing polarization-dependent optical devices. Very recently, a new type of two-dimensional van der Waals (vdW) material, known as α-phase molybdenum trioxide (α-MoO3), has sparked considerable interest owing to its highly anisotropic characteristics. In this [...] Read more.
Optically anisotropic materials show important advantages in constructing polarization-dependent optical devices. Very recently, a new type of two-dimensional van der Waals (vdW) material, known as α-phase molybdenum trioxide (α-MoO3), has sparked considerable interest owing to its highly anisotropic characteristics. In this work, we theoretically present an anisotropic metamaterial absorber composed of α-MoO3 rings and dielectric layer stacking on a metallic mirror. The designed absorber can exhibit ultra-narrowband perfect absorption for polarizations along [100] and [001] crystalline directions in the visible light region. Plus, the influences of some geometric parameters on the optical absorption spectra are discussed. Meanwhile, the proposed ultra-narrowband anisotropic perfect absorber has an excellent angular tolerance for the case of oblique incidence. Interestingly, the single-band perfect absorption in our proposed metamaterials can be arbitrarily extended to multi-band perfect absorption by adjusting the thickness of dielectric layer. The physical mechanism can be explained by the interference theory in Fabry–Pérot cavity, which is consistent with the numerical simulation. Our research results have some potential applications in designs of anisotropic optical devices with tunable spectrum and selective polarization in the visible light region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances and Applications of 2D Materials)
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Article
Aptamer-Adjusted Carbon Dot Catalysis-Silver Nanosol SERS Spectrometry for Bisphenol A Detection
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(8), 1374; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12081374 - 17 Apr 2022
Viewed by 774
Abstract
Carbon dots (CDs) can be prepared from various organic (abundant) compounds that are rich in surfaces with –OH, –COOH, and –NH2 groups. Therefore, CDs exhibit good biocompatibility and electron transfer ability, allowing flexible surface modification and accelerated electron transfer during catalysis. Herein, [...] Read more.
Carbon dots (CDs) can be prepared from various organic (abundant) compounds that are rich in surfaces with –OH, –COOH, and –NH2 groups. Therefore, CDs exhibit good biocompatibility and electron transfer ability, allowing flexible surface modification and accelerated electron transfer during catalysis. Herein, CDs were prepared using a hydrothermal method with fructose, saccharose, and citric acid as C sources and urea as an N dopant. The as-prepared CDs were used to catalyze AgNO3–trisodium citrate (TSC) to produce Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs). The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) intensity increased with the increasing CDs concentration with Victoria blue B (VBB) as a signal molecule. The CDs exhibited a strong catalytic activity, with the highest activity shown by fructose-based CDs. After N doping, catalytic performance improved; with the passivation of a wrapped aptamer, the electron transfer was effectively disrupted (retarded). This resulted in the inhibition of the reaction and a decrease in the SERS intensity. When bisphenol A (BPA) was added, it specifically bound to the aptamer and CDs were released, recovering catalytical activity. The SERS intensity increased with BPA over the concentration range of 0.33–66.67 nmol/L. Thus, the aptamer-adjusted nanocatalytic SERS method can be applied for BPA detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Nanomaterials for Sensing Applications)
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Article
Advanced Functionalized CeO2/Al2O3 Nanocomposite Sensor for Determination of Opioid Medication Tramadol Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Formulations
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(8), 1373; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12081373 - 16 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 501
Abstract
Background: The exceptional characteristics of cerium oxide (CeO2) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nanoscales have inspired significant attention to those nanocomposites as possible electroactive resources for applications of sensing and biosensing. Methods: In this research, an innovative new [...] Read more.
Background: The exceptional characteristics of cerium oxide (CeO2) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nanoscales have inspired significant attention to those nanocomposites as possible electroactive resources for applications of sensing and biosensing. Methods: In this research, an innovative new factionalized CeO2/Al2O3 nanocomposite membrane sensor was presented to assess tramadol hydrochloride (TRD) in marketable products. Results: Tramadol-phosphomolybdate (TRD-PM) was formed by mixing tramadol hydrochloride and phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) in the attendance of polymeric matrix and o-nitrophenyloctyl ether solvent mediator. With 1.0 × 10−10–1.0 × 10−2 mol L−1 as a range of linearity and EmV = (57.567 ± 0.2) log [TRD] + 676.29 as a regression equation, the functionalized sensor using TRD-PM-CeO2/Al2O3 nanocomposite showed great selectivity and sensitivity for the discriminating and measurement of TRD. Using the regression equation EmV = (52.143 ± 0.4) log [TRD] + 431.45, the unmodified coated wire sensor of TRD-PM, on the other hand, showed a Nernstian response between 1.0 × 10−6 and 1.0 × 10−2 mol L−1, Using the methodology’s specified guidelines, the proposed improved potentiometric system was validated against several criteria. Conclusion: The suggested method is suitable for the determination of TRD in its products. Full article
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Article
Smart and Rapid Design of Nanophotonic Structures by an Adaptive and Regularized Deep Neural Network
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(8), 1372; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12081372 - 16 Apr 2022
Viewed by 863
Abstract
The design of nanophotonic structures based on deep learning is emerging rapidly in the research community. Design methods using Deep Neural Networks (DNN) are outperforming conventional physics-based simulations performed iteratively by human experts. Here, a self-adaptive and regularized DNN based on Convolutional Neural [...] Read more.
The design of nanophotonic structures based on deep learning is emerging rapidly in the research community. Design methods using Deep Neural Networks (DNN) are outperforming conventional physics-based simulations performed iteratively by human experts. Here, a self-adaptive and regularized DNN based on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) for the smart and fast characterization of nanophotonic structures in high-dimensional design parameter space is presented. This proposed CNN model, named LRS-RCNN, utilizes dynamic learning rate scheduling and L2 regularization techniques to overcome overfitting and speed up training convergence and is shown to surpass the performance of all previous algorithms, with the exception of two metrics where it achieves a comparable level relative to prior works. We applied the model to two challenging types of photonic structures: 2D photonic crystals (e.g., L3 nanocavity) and 1D photonic crystals (e.g., nanobeam) and results show that LRS-RCNN achieves record-high prediction accuracies, strong generalizibility, and substantially faster convergence speed compared to prior works. Although still a proof-of-concept model, the proposed smart LRS-RCNN has been proven to greatly accelerate the design of photonic crystal structures as a state-of-the-art predictor for both Q-factor and V. It can also be modified and generalized to predict any type of optical properties for designing a wide range of different nanophotonic structures. The complete dataset and code will be released to aid the development of related research endeavors. Full article
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Article
Dipolar Noise in Fluorinated Molecular Wires
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(8), 1371; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12081371 - 16 Apr 2022
Viewed by 579
Abstract
We demonstrate a strategy to directly map and quantify the effects of dipole formation on electrical transports and noises in the self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of molecular wires. In this method, the SAM patterns of fluorinated molecules with dipole moments were prepared on conducting [...] Read more.
We demonstrate a strategy to directly map and quantify the effects of dipole formation on electrical transports and noises in the self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of molecular wires. In this method, the SAM patterns of fluorinated molecules with dipole moments were prepared on conducting substrates, and a conducting probe in contact-mode atomic force microscopy was utilized to map currents and noises through the probe on the molecular patterns. The maps were analyzed to extract the characteristic parameters of dipolar noises in SAMs, and the results were compared with those of hydrogenated molecular patterns without dipole moments. At rather low bias conditions, the fluorinated molecular junctions exhibited a tunneling conduction and a resistance value comparable to that of the hydrogenated molecules with a six-times-longer length, which was attributed to stronger dipoles formation in fluorinated molecules. Interestingly, conductance (G) in different regions of fluorinated molecular patterns exhibited a strong correlation with a noise power spectral density of SI/I2 like SI/I2G−2, which can be explained by enhanced barrier fluctuations produced by the dipoles of fluorinated molecules. Furthermore, we observed that the noise power spectral density of fluorinated molecules showed an anomalous frequency (f) dependence like SI/I2 ∝ 1/f1.7, possibly due to the slowing down of the tunneling of carriers from increased barrier fluctuations. In rather high bias conditions, conductions in both hydrogenated and fluorinated molecules showed a transition from tunneling to thermionic charge transports. Our results provide important insights into the effects of dipoles on mesoscopic transport and resistance-fluctuation in molecules and could have a significant impact on the fundamental understanding and applications in this area. Full article
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Article
Facile Synthesis of Multifunctional Magnetoplasmonic Au-MnO Hybrid Nanocomposites for Cancer Theranostics
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(8), 1370; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12081370 - 16 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 636
Abstract
Significant attention is paid to the design of magnetoplasmonic nanohybrids, which exploit synergistic properties for biomedical applications. Here, a facile method was employed to prepare plasmonic magnetic Au-MnO heterostructured hybrid nanoparticles for imaging-guided photothermal therapy of cancers in vitro, with the view to [...] Read more.
Significant attention is paid to the design of magnetoplasmonic nanohybrids, which exploit synergistic properties for biomedical applications. Here, a facile method was employed to prepare plasmonic magnetic Au-MnO heterostructured hybrid nanoparticles for imaging-guided photothermal therapy of cancers in vitro, with the view to reducing the serious drawbacks of chemotherapy and gadolinium-based contrast agents. The biocompatibility of the prepared Au-MnO nanocomposites was further enhanced by Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved triblock copolymers Pluronic® F-127 and chitosan oligosaccharide (COS), with complementary support to enhance the absorption in the near-infrared (NIR) region. In addition, synthesized [email protected] nanocomposites exhibited promising contrast enhancement in T1 MR imaging with a good r1 relaxivity value (1.2 mM−1 s−1), demonstrating a capable substitute to Gd-based toxic contrast agents. In addition, prepared [email protected] hybrid nanoparticles (HNPs) produced sufficient heat (62 °C at 200 μg/mL) to ablate cancerous cells upon 808 nm laser irradiation, inducing cell toxicity, and apoptosis. The promising diagnostic and photothermal therapeutic performance demonstrated the appropriateness of the [email protected] HNPs as a potential theranostic agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Nanomaterials for Bioimaging)
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Article
Interaction of Mg Alloy with PLA Electrospun Nanofibers Coating in Understanding Changes of Corrosion, Wettability, and pH
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(8), 1369; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12081369 - 16 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 587
Abstract
A modified biodegradable magnesium alloy (AZ31, 96 wt% Mg, 3 wt% Al, and 1 wt% Zn) with polylactic acid (PLA) nanofibers was obtained by the electrospinning technique. The presence of PLA nanofibers was evidenced using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and using an [...] Read more.
A modified biodegradable magnesium alloy (AZ31, 96 wt% Mg, 3 wt% Al, and 1 wt% Zn) with polylactic acid (PLA) nanofibers was obtained by the electrospinning technique. The presence of PLA nanofibers was evidenced using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and using an scanning electronic microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) module. The degradation behavior of an uncoated Mg alloy and a Mg alloy coated with PLA was evaluated through hydrogen evolution, pH, and electrochemical measurements in simulated body fluid. Contact angle measurements showed a shift from hydrophilic towards the hydrophobic character of the alloy after its coating with PLA nanofibers. Furthermore, the electrochemical measurement results show that the Mg based alloy coated with PLA inhibits hydrogen evolution, thus being less prone to degradation. The aim of this research is not only to reduce the corrosion rate of Mg alloy and to improve its properties with the help of polylactic acid coating, but also to provide a study to understand the hydrophilic–hydrophobic balance of biodegradable magnesium based on surface energy investigations. Taking into account corrosion rate, wettability, and pH changes, an empiric model of the interaction of Mg alloy with PLA nanofibers is proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis, Characterization and Application of Nanofibers)
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Article
Suppressing the Effect of the Wetting Layer through AlAs Capping in InAs/GaAs QD Structures for Solar Cells Applications
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(8), 1368; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12081368 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 741
Abstract
Recently, thin AlAs capping layers (CLs) on InAs quantum dot solar cells (QDSCs) have been shown to yield better photovoltaic efficiency compared to traditional QDSCs. Although it has been proposed that this improvement is due to the suppression of the capture of photogenerated [...] Read more.
Recently, thin AlAs capping layers (CLs) on InAs quantum dot solar cells (QDSCs) have been shown to yield better photovoltaic efficiency compared to traditional QDSCs. Although it has been proposed that this improvement is due to the suppression of the capture of photogenerated carriers through the wetting layer (WL) states by a de-wetting process, the mechanisms that operate during this process are not clear. In this work, a structural analysis of the WL characteristics in the AlAs/InAs QD system with different CL-thickness has been made by scanning transmission electron microscopy techniques. First, an exponential decline of the amount of InAs in the WL with the CL thickness increase has been found, far from a complete elimination of the WL. Instead, this reduction is linked to a higher shield effect against QD decomposition. Second, there is no compositional separation between the WL and CL, but rather single layer with a variable content of InAlGaAs. Both effects, the high intermixing and WL reduction cause a drastic change in electronic levels, with the CL making up of 1–2 monolayers being the most effective configuration to reduce the radiative-recombination and minimize the potential barriers for carrier transport. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanomaterials for Photovoltaic Applications)
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Review
Superconducting Materials and Devices Grown by Focused Ion and Electron Beam Induced Deposition
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(8), 1367; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12081367 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 724
Abstract
Since its discovery in 1911, superconductivity has represented an equally inciting and fascinating field of study in several areas of physics and materials science, ranging from its most fundamental theoretical understanding, to its practical application in different areas of engineering. The fabrication of [...] Read more.
Since its discovery in 1911, superconductivity has represented an equally inciting and fascinating field of study in several areas of physics and materials science, ranging from its most fundamental theoretical understanding, to its practical application in different areas of engineering. The fabrication of superconducting materials can be downsized to the nanoscale by means of Focused Ion/Electron Beam Induced Deposition: nanopatterning techniques that make use of a focused beam of ions or electrons to decompose a gaseous precursor in a single step. Overcoming the need to use a resist, these approaches allow for targeted, highly-flexible nanopatterning of nanostructures with lateral resolution in the range of 10 nm to 30 nm. In this review, the fundamentals of these nanofabrication techniques are presented, followed by a literature revision on the published work that makes use of them to grow superconducting materials, the most remarkable of which are based on tungsten, niobium, molybdenum, carbon, and lead. Several examples of the application of these materials to functional devices are presented, related to the superconducting proximity effect, vortex dynamics, electric-field effect, and to the nanofabrication of Josephson junctions and nanoSQUIDs. Owing to the patterning flexibility they offer, both of these techniques represent a powerful and convenient approach towards both fundamental and applied research in superconductivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Review in Synthesis, Interfaces, and Nanostructures)
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Review
Advanced Implantable Biomedical Devices Enabled by Triboelectric Nanogenerators
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(8), 1366; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12081366 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1119
Abstract
Implantable biomedical devices (IMDs) play essential roles in healthcare. Subject to the limited battery life, IMDs cannot achieve long-term in situ monitoring, diagnosis, and treatment. The proposal and rapid development of triboelectric nanogenerators free IMDs from the shackles of batteries and spawn a [...] Read more.
Implantable biomedical devices (IMDs) play essential roles in healthcare. Subject to the limited battery life, IMDs cannot achieve long-term in situ monitoring, diagnosis, and treatment. The proposal and rapid development of triboelectric nanogenerators free IMDs from the shackles of batteries and spawn a self-powered healthcare system. This review aims to overview the development of IMDs based on triboelectric nanogenerators, divided into self-powered biosensors, in vivo energy harvesting devices, and direct electrical stimulation therapy devices. Meanwhile, future challenges and opportunities are discussed according to the development requirements of current-level self-powered IMDs to enhance output performance, develop advanced triboelectric nanogenerators with multifunctional materials, and self-driven close-looped diagnosis and treatment systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Energy Harvesters/Nanogenerators and Self-Powered Sensors)
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Article
Improved Temporal Response of MoS2 Photodetectors by Mild Oxygen Plasma Treatment
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(8), 1365; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12081365 - 15 Apr 2022
Viewed by 509
Abstract
Temporal response is an important factor limiting the performance of two-dimensional (2D) material photodetectors. The deep trap states caused by intrinsic defects are the main factor to prolong the response time. In this work, it is demonstrated that the trap states in 2D [...] Read more.
Temporal response is an important factor limiting the performance of two-dimensional (2D) material photodetectors. The deep trap states caused by intrinsic defects are the main factor to prolong the response time. In this work, it is demonstrated that the trap states in 2D molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) can be efficiently modulated by defect engineering through mild oxygen plasma treatment. The response time of the few-layer MoS2 photodetector is accelerated by 2–3 orders of magnitude, which is mainly attributed to the deep trap states that can be easily filled when O2 or oxygen ions are chemically bonded with MoS2 at sulfur vacancies (SV) sites. We characterized the defect engineering of plasma-exposed MoS2 by Raman, PL and electric properties. Under the optimal processing conditions of 30 W, 50 Pa and 30 s, we found 30-fold enhancements in photoluminescence (PL) intensity and a nearly 2-fold enhancement in carrier field-effect mobility, while the rise and fall response times reached 110 ms and 55 ms, respectively, at the illumination wavelength of 532 nm. This work would, therefore, offer a practical route to improve the performance of 2D dichalcogenide-based devices for future consideration in optoelectronics research. Full article
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Article
Efficacy of Nanofiber Sheets Incorporating Lenvatinib in a Hepatocellular Carcinoma Xenograft Model
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(8), 1364; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12081364 - 15 Apr 2022
Viewed by 704
Abstract
Lenvatinib has a high response rate in unresectable advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we investigated whether lenvatinib-incorporating poly(ε-caprolactone) sheets (lenvatinib sheets) as a drug delivery system (DDS) exerted antitumor effects in a murine HCC model. The lenvatinib sheets were designed for [...] Read more.
Lenvatinib has a high response rate in unresectable advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we investigated whether lenvatinib-incorporating poly(ε-caprolactone) sheets (lenvatinib sheets) as a drug delivery system (DDS) exerted antitumor effects in a murine HCC model. The lenvatinib sheets were designed for sustained release of approximately 1 mg lenvatinib for 14 days. For 14 days, 1 mg lenvatinib was orally administered to mice. Then, we compared the antitumor effects of lenvatinib sheets with those of oral lenvatinib. The tumor volume, body weight, and serum lenvatinib level were measured for 14 days. A peritoneal dissemination model was established to examine the survival prolongation effect of the lenvatinib sheets. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited in the lenvatinib sheet group compared with that in the no treatment and oral groups. The antitumor effect was significantly higher in the lenvatinib sheet group. Regardless of the insertion site, the serum lenvatinib levels were maintained and showed similar antitumor effects. The mitotic index was significantly inhibited in the lenvatinib sheet group compared with that in the control group. Furthermore, lenvatinib sheets improved the 30-day survival. Lenvatinib sheets showed sufficient antitumor effects and may serve as an effective novel DDS for advanced HCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Functional Materials for Regenerative Medicine)
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Review
X-ray Diffraction Imaging of Deformations in Thin Films and Nano-Objects
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(8), 1363; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12081363 - 15 Apr 2022
Viewed by 651
Abstract
The quantification and localization of elastic strains and defects in crystals are necessary to control and predict the functioning of materials. The X-ray imaging of strains has made very impressive progress in recent years. On the one hand, progress in optical elements for [...] Read more.
The quantification and localization of elastic strains and defects in crystals are necessary to control and predict the functioning of materials. The X-ray imaging of strains has made very impressive progress in recent years. On the one hand, progress in optical elements for focusing X-rays now makes it possible to carry out X-ray diffraction mapping with a resolution in the 50–100 nm range, while lensless imaging techniques reach a typical resolution of 5–10 nm. This continuous evolution is also a consequence of the development of new two-dimensional detectors with hybrid pixels whose dynamics, reading speed and low noise level have revolutionized measurement strategies. In addition, a new accelerator ring concept (HMBA network: hybrid multi-bend achromat lattice) is allowing a very significant increase (a factor of 100) in the brilliance and coherent flux of synchrotron radiation facilities, thanks to the reduction in the horizontal size of the source. This review is intended as a progress report in a rapidly evolving field. The next ten years should allow the emergence of three-dimensional imaging methods of strains that are fast enough to follow, in situ, the evolution of a material under stress or during a transition. Handling massive amounts of data will not be the least of the challenges. Full article
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Article
Aerosol–Cell Exposure System Applied to Semi-Adherent Cells for Aerosolization of Lung Surfactant and Nanoparticles Followed by High Quality RNA Extraction
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(8), 1362; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12081362 - 15 Apr 2022
Viewed by 802
Abstract
Nanoparticle toxicity assessments have moved closer to physiological conditions while trying to avoid the use of animal models. An example of new in vitro exposure techniques developed is the exposure of cultured cells at the air–liquid interface (ALI), particularly in the case of [...] Read more.
Nanoparticle toxicity assessments have moved closer to physiological conditions while trying to avoid the use of animal models. An example of new in vitro exposure techniques developed is the exposure of cultured cells at the air–liquid interface (ALI), particularly in the case of respiratory airways. While the commercially available VITROCELL® Cloud System has been applied for the delivery of aerosolized substances to adherent cells under ALI conditions, it has not yet been tested on lung surfactant and semi-adherent cells such as alveolar macrophages, which are playing a pivotal role in the nanoparticle-induced immune response. Objectives: In this work, we developed a comprehensive methodology for coating semi-adherent lung cells cultured at the ALI with aerosolized surfactant and subsequent dose-controlled exposure to nanoparticles (NPs). This protocol is optimized for subsequent transcriptomic studies. Methods: Semi-adherent rat alveolar macrophages NR8383 were grown at the ALI and coated with lung surfactant through nebulization using the VITROCELL® Cloud 6 System before being exposed to TiO2 NM105 NPs. After NP exposures, RNA was extracted and its quantity and quality were measured. Results: The VITROCELL® Cloud system allowed for uniform and ultrathin coating of cells with aerosolized surfactant mimicking physiological conditions in the lung. While nebulization of 57 μL of 30 mg/mL TiO2 and 114 μL of 15 mg/mL TiO2 nanoparticles yielded identical cell delivered dose, the reproducibility of dose as well as the quality of RNA extracted were better for 114 μL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological and Toxicological Studies of Nanoparticles)
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Article
Atomic Simulations of (8,0)CNT-Graphene by SCC-DFTB Algorithm
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(8), 1361; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12081361 - 15 Apr 2022
Viewed by 413
Abstract
Self-consistent density functional tight binding (SCC-DFTB) approaches were used to study optimized structures, energy, differential charge density, and Mülliken populations for the (8,0) carbon nanotubes (CNTs) connected to the graphene having different topology defects. Based on the calculations, nine seamless (8,0)CNT-graphenes were selected. [...] Read more.
Self-consistent density functional tight binding (SCC-DFTB) approaches were used to study optimized structures, energy, differential charge density, and Mülliken populations for the (8,0) carbon nanotubes (CNTs) connected to the graphene having different topology defects. Based on the calculations, nine seamless (8,0)CNT-graphenes were selected. For these connected systems, geometric configurations of the graphene and nanotubes were characterized, and the nearest neighbor length of C-C atoms and average length were obtained. The intrinsic energy, energy gap, and chemical potential were analyzed, and they presented apparent differences for different connection modes. Differential charge densities of these connection modes were analyzed to present covalent bonds between the atoms. We have also thoroughly analyzed the Mülliken charge transfer among the C atoms at the junctions. Full article
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Article
Scalable Preparation and Improved Discharge Properties of FeS2@CoS2 Cathode Materials for High-Temperature Thermal Battery
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(8), 1360; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12081360 - 15 Apr 2022
Viewed by 678
Abstract
Long-time thermal batteries with high specific energy are crucial for improving the fast response ability of long-range weapons. Due to its high capacity, safety, and stability, the new sulfide cathode has attracted extensive attention. In this study, an FeS2@CoS2 composite [...] Read more.
Long-time thermal batteries with high specific energy are crucial for improving the fast response ability of long-range weapons. Due to its high capacity, safety, and stability, the new sulfide cathode has attracted extensive attention. In this study, an FeS2@CoS2 composite cathode with a core–shell structure was prepared via a combination of hydrothermal and high-temperature vulcanization processes. The novel FeS2@CoS2 cathode not only delivers a high discharge voltage and output capacity, but also has high thermal stability and excellent conductivity. Benefiting from the synergistic effect of FeS2 and CoS2, the as-synthesized cathode yields a high specific capacity. At a large current density of 1 A/cm2, the utilization rate of FeS2@CoS2 cathode material can reach 72.33%, which is 8.23% higher than that of FeS2. Moreover, the maximum output capacity is up to 902 As/g, with a utilization rate of 79.02% at 500 mA/cm2. This novel design strategy holds great promise for the development and application of high-performance thermal batteries in the future. Full article
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Review
Insights on Shear Transfer Efficiency in “Brick-and-Mortar” Composites Made of 2D Carbon Nanoparticles
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(8), 1359; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12081359 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 546
Abstract
Achieving high mechanical performances in nanocomposites reinforced with lamellar fillers has been a great challenge in the last decade. Many efforts have been made to fabricate synthetic materials whose properties resemble those of the reinforcement. To achieve this, special architectures have been considered [...] Read more.
Achieving high mechanical performances in nanocomposites reinforced with lamellar fillers has been a great challenge in the last decade. Many efforts have been made to fabricate synthetic materials whose properties resemble those of the reinforcement. To achieve this, special architectures have been considered mimicking existing materials, such as nacre. However, achieving the desired performances is challenging since the mechanical response of the material is influenced by many factors, such as the filler content, the matrix molecular mobility and the compatibility between the two phases. Most importantly, the properties of a macroscopic bulk material strongly depend on the interaction at atomic levels and on their synergetic effect. In particular, the formation of highly-ordered brick-and-mortar structures depends on the interaction forces between the two phases. Consequently, poor mechanical performances of the material are associated with interface issues and low stress transfer from the matrix to the nanoparticles. Therefore, improvement of the interface at the chemical level enhances the mechanical response of the material. The purpose of this review is to give insight into the stress transfer mechanism in high filler content composites reinforced with 2D carbon nanoparticles and to describe the parameters that influence the efficiency of stress transfer and the strategies to improve it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials Science and Nanoengineering (ICMSN-2022))
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Article
Influence of Parameters on Photodynamic Therapy of [email protected]2–HMME Core-Shell Nanostructures
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(8), 1358; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12081358 - 15 Apr 2022
Viewed by 546
Abstract
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising tumor therapy and has been proven to be an effective, safe and minimally invasive technique. Hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME) mediated PDT has been used in clinical treatment of port wine stain (PWS) due to its single component, [...] Read more.
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising tumor therapy and has been proven to be an effective, safe and minimally invasive technique. Hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME) mediated PDT has been used in clinical treatment of port wine stain (PWS) due to its single component, high yield of singlet oxygen and short light-sensitive period. However, as an amphiphilic photosensitizer, HMME is easy to aggregate due to the presence of a hydrophobic group, which undesirably reduced its generation of singlet oxygen and bioavailability. In this study, we synthesized the stable conjugate of [email protected]2 core-shell nanostructure with HMME, and the influence of different factors on PTD efficiency were studied. The results showed that the nanostructure had higher PTD efficiency for KB cells than that of HMME. The irradiation wavelength, gold nanoparticle shape and the shell thickness are all important factors for KB cell PDT. Full article
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Article
In Vitro Degradability, Microstructural Evaluation, and Biocompatibility of Zn-Ti-Cu-Ca-P Alloy
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(8), 1357; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12081357 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 590
Abstract
According to the modern era, zinc is one of the best replacements for human bio-implants due to its acceptable degradation, nominal degradable rate, and biocompatibility. However, alloying zinc with other nutrient metals is mandatory to improve the mechanical properties. In this research, Zn-4Ti-4Cu [...] Read more.
According to the modern era, zinc is one of the best replacements for human bio-implants due to its acceptable degradation, nominal degradable rate, and biocompatibility. However, alloying zinc with other nutrient metals is mandatory to improve the mechanical properties. In this research, Zn-4Ti-4Cu was alloyed with calcium and phosphorous through a powder metallurgical process to make guided bone regeneration (GBR). First, the sintering temperature of the alloy was found with the usage of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Tensile and compression tests showed the suitability of the alloy in strength. The microstructural characteristics were provided with EDS and SEM. The different phases of the alloy were detected with X-ray diffraction (XRD). We can clearly depict the precipitates formed and the strengthening mechanism due to titanium addition. An electrochemical corrosion (ECM) test was carried out with simulated body fluid (Hank’s solution) as the electrolyte. Cytotoxicity, biocompatibility, mechanical properties, and corrosion resistance properties were studied and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal-Matrix Nanocomposites and Their Applications)
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Article
Scaled-Up Multi-Needle Electrospinning Process Using Parallel Plate Auxiliary Electrodes
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(8), 1356; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12081356 - 15 Apr 2022
Viewed by 627
Abstract
Electrospinning has gained much attention in recent years due to its ability to easily produce high-quality polymeric nanofibers. However, electrospinning suffers from limited production capacity and a method to readily scale up this process is needed. One obvious approach includes the use of [...] Read more.
Electrospinning has gained much attention in recent years due to its ability to easily produce high-quality polymeric nanofibers. However, electrospinning suffers from limited production capacity and a method to readily scale up this process is needed. One obvious approach includes the use of multiple electrospinning needles operating in parallel. Nonetheless, such an implementation has remained elusive, partly due to the uneven electric field distribution resulting from the Coulombic repulsion between the charged jets and needles. In this work, the uniformization of the electric field was performed for a linear array of twenty electrospinning needles using lateral charged plates as auxiliary electrodes. The effect of the auxiliary electrodes was characterized by investigating the semi-vertical angle of the spun jets, the deposition area and diameter of the fibers, as well as the thickness of the produced membranes. Finite element simulation was also used to analyze the impact of the auxiliary electrodes on the electric field intensity below each needle. Implementing parallel lateral plates as auxiliary electrodes was shown to help achieve uniformization of the electric field, the semi-vertical angle of the spun jet, and the deposition area of the fibers for the multi-needle electrospinning process. The high-quality morphology of the polymer nanofibers obtained by this improved process was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These findings help resolve one of the primary challenges that have plagued the large-scale industrial adoption of this exciting polymer processing technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis, Characterization and Application of Nanofibers)
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