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J. Clin. Med., Volume 12, Issue 15 (August-1 2023) – 287 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The diagnosis and treatment of myocarditis is still a major clinical challenge. Despite the development of new imaging techniques, endomyocardial biopsy remains the gold standard for the accurate diagnosis of inflammatory heart disease. With the introduction and continued development of inflammatory diagnostics in combination with viral nucleic acid testing, myocarditis diagnostics have improved significantly since its introduction. Together with new technologies such as miRNA and gene expression profiling, quantification of specific immune cell markers, and determination of viral activity, diagnostic accuracy and patient prognosis will continue to improve in the future. Here, we highlight the current state of knowledge on the pathogenesis and diagnosis of inflammatory myocardial diseases, and present future perspectives for more in-depth biopsy diagnostics and personalized therapy. View this paper
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9 pages, 441 KiB  
Article
Association between Serum Varicella-Zoster Virus IgM and IgG and Prognosis of Ramsay Hunt Syndrome
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(15), 5164; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12155164 - 07 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 949
Abstract
Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS) has a poor prognosis because of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection. This is most closely related to severe inflammation in the geniculate ganglion of the facial nerve due to VZV infection or reactivation. This study investigated whether there were differences [...] Read more.
Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS) has a poor prognosis because of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection. This is most closely related to severe inflammation in the geniculate ganglion of the facial nerve due to VZV infection or reactivation. This study investigated whether there were differences in the prognosis and accompanying symptoms of facial paralysis based on the presence or absence of VZV IgM and IgG antibodies. This study was conducted as a retrospective chart analysis of 105 patients with RHS who were admitted to our hospital between 2015 and 2021. The House–Brackmann (HB) grade and electroneurography (ENoG) was used to evaluate the degree of facial paralysis. Patients’ subjective symptoms were evaluated by dividing them into dizziness, tinnitus, hyperacusis, and hearing loss. No difference was observed in the initial HB grade with or without IgM; however, the final HB grade was significantly higher in IgM-positive patients than in IgM-negative patients (p < 0.05). Further, when IgM was positive, the value of the orbicularis oculi muscle in the ENoG test results was significantly higher (p < 0.05), and symptoms of tinnitus and hyperacusis occurred more frequently (p < 0.05). The initial and final HB grades were significantly higher in IgG-positive patients than in IgG-negative patients (p < 0.05). When IgG was positive, the values of nasalis and oris muscles in the ENoG test results were significantly higher (p < 0.05), and symptoms of dizziness occurred more frequently (p < 0.05). This study confirmed that the more active the immunological action of the VZV in the body, the greater the damage to the facial and vestibulocochlear nerves, which are associated with the degree of facial paralysis and the accompanying otologic symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Otolaryngology)
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13 pages, 1278 KiB  
Systematic Review
Between-Sex Differences in Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease among Patients with Myocardial Infarction—A Systematic Review
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(15), 5163; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12155163 - 07 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1426
Abstract
Between-sex differences in the presentation, risk factors, management, and outcomes of acute myocardial infarction (MI) are well documented. However, as such differences are highly sensitive to cultural and social changes, there is a need to continuously re-evaluate the evidence. The present contemporary systematic [...] Read more.
Between-sex differences in the presentation, risk factors, management, and outcomes of acute myocardial infarction (MI) are well documented. However, as such differences are highly sensitive to cultural and social changes, there is a need to continuously re-evaluate the evidence. The present contemporary systematic review assesses the baseline characteristics of men and women presenting to secondary, tertiary, and quaternary centres with acute myocardial infarction (MI). Over 1.4 million participants from 18 studies, including primary prospective, cross sectional and retrospective observational studies, as well as secondary analysis of registry data are included in the study. The study showed that women were more likely than men to have a previous diagnosis of diabetes, hypertension, cerebrovascular disease, and heart failure. They also had lower odds of presenting with previous ischaemic heart disease and angina, dyslipidaemia, or a smoking history. Further work is necessary to understand the reasons for these differences, and the role that gender-specific risk factors may have in this context. Moreover, how these between-gender differences are implicated in management and outcomes also requires further work. Full article
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12 pages, 301 KiB  
Article
Does Screening for Bipolar Disorders Identify a “Dysregulation of Mood, Energy, and Social Rhythms Syndrome” (DYMERS)? A Heuristic Working Hypothesis
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(15), 5162; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12155162 - 07 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 840
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to verify if people with a positive score on the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) without comorbidity of mood disorders showed a worse level of Health-related Quality of life (HRQol) compared to a control-matched sample of MDQ negatives, [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to verify if people with a positive score on the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) without comorbidity of mood disorders showed a worse level of Health-related Quality of life (HRQol) compared to a control-matched sample of MDQ negatives, identifying a specific syndrome. This is a case-control study based on a database from a community survey. Cases: MDQ-positive without mood disorders; Controls: MDQ negatives matched by sex, age, and psychiatric diagnosis according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM-IV) criteria. Tools: MDQ, the Advanced Neuropsychiatric Tools and Assessment Schedule (ANTAS) semi-structured interview for psychiatric diagnosis, and the Health Survey Short Form (SF-12) for measuring HRQol. People scoring positive on the MDQ without a diagnosis of mood disorders showed significantly lower scores on the SF-12 compared to people of the same age and of the same sex with an equal diagnosis of psychiatric disorders not related to mood disorders (35.21 ± 6.30 vs. 41.48 ± 3.39, p < 0.0001). In the debate whether a positive score on the MDQ selects an area of “malaise” due to the presence of disorders differing from Bipolar Disorders, or if a positive score on the MDQ may be considered a “subthreshold” form of bipolar disorder in people who may later develop bipolar disorder, a third hypothesis can be advanced, i.e., that a positive score on the MDQ identifies a specific “Dysregulation of Mood, Energy, and Social Rhythms Syndrome” (DYMERS), characterized by a considerable amount of suffering and not attributable to other disorders, and which might represent a trigger for the previously mentioned disorders with which a positive score on the MDQ is associated, probably including, in severe conditions, bipolar disorder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mental Health)
16 pages, 318 KiB  
Review
Endocrine Side Effects in Patients Treated with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: A Narrative Review
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(15), 5161; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12155161 - 07 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1253
Abstract
Checkpoint inhibitors are monoclonal antibodies that elicit an anti-tumor response by stimulating immune system. Their use has improved the treatment of different types of cancer such as melanoma, breast carcinoma, lung, stomach, colon, liver, renal cell carcinoma, and Hodgkin’s lymphoma, but several adverse [...] Read more.
Checkpoint inhibitors are monoclonal antibodies that elicit an anti-tumor response by stimulating immune system. Their use has improved the treatment of different types of cancer such as melanoma, breast carcinoma, lung, stomach, colon, liver, renal cell carcinoma, and Hodgkin’s lymphoma, but several adverse events have been reported. Although the etiology of these effects is not completely understood, an uncontrolled activation of the immune system has been postulated. Indeed, some studies showed a cross reactivity of T cells, which acted against tumor antigens as well as antigens in the tissues of patients who developed immune-related adverse events. Despite the known possibility of developing immune-related adverse events, early diagnosis, monitoring during therapy, and treatment are fundamental for the best supportive care and administration of immune checkpoint inhibitors. The aim of this review is to guide the clinician in early diagnosis, management, and treatment of the endocrinological adverse effects in the major endocrine glands (thyroid, pituitary, adrenal, endocrine pancreas, and parathyroid). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiology)
14 pages, 541 KiB  
Article
Genetic Characteristics of Latvian Patients with Familial Hypercholesterolemia: The First Analysis from Genome-Wide Sequencing
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(15), 5160; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12155160 - 07 Aug 2023
Viewed by 792
Abstract
Background: There is limited data on the genetic characteristics of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) in Latvia. We aim to describe monogenic variants in patients from the Latvian Registry of FH (LRFH). Methods: Whole genome sequencing with 30× coverage was performed in unrelated [...] Read more.
Background: There is limited data on the genetic characteristics of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) in Latvia. We aim to describe monogenic variants in patients from the Latvian Registry of FH (LRFH). Methods: Whole genome sequencing with 30× coverage was performed in unrelated index cases from the LRFH and the Genome Database of Latvian Population. LDLR, APOB, PCSK9, LDLRAP1, ABCG5, ABCG8, LIPA, LPA, CYP27A1, and APOE genes were analyzed. Only variants annotated as pathogenic (P) or likely pathogenic (LP) using the FH Variant Curation Expert Panel guidelines for LDLR and adaptations for APOB and PCSK9 were reported. Results: Among 163 patients, the mean highest documented LDL-cholesterol level was 7.47 ± 1.60 mmol/L, and 79.1% of patients had LDL-cholesterol ≥6.50 mmol/L. A total of 15 P/LP variants were found in 34 patients (diagnostic yield: 20.9%): 14 in the LDLR gene and 1 in the APOB gene. Additionally, 24, 54, and 13 VUS were detected in LDLR, APOB, and PCSK9, respectively. No P/LP variants were identified in the other tested genes. Conclusions: Despite the high clinical likelihood of FH, confirmed P/LP variants were detected in only 20.9% of patients in the Latvian cohort when assessed with genome-wide next generation sequencing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Possibilities for the Treatment of Dyslipidemias)
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2 pages, 178 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Pata et al. Sclerobanding (Combined Rubber Band Ligation with 3% Polidocanol Foam Sclerotherapy) for the Treatment of Second- and Third-Degree Hemorrhoidal Disease: Feasibility and Short-Term Outcomes. J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11, 218
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(15), 5159; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12155159 - 07 Aug 2023
Viewed by 447
Abstract
In the original publication [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Colorectal Surgery: Latest Advances and Prospects)
18 pages, 3123 KiB  
Review
Echocardiographic Evaluation of Atrial Remodelling for the Prognosis of Maintaining Sinus Rhythm after Electrical Cardioversion in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(15), 5158; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12155158 - 07 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1017
Abstract
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common atrial tachyarrhythmia. One of the methods of AF treatment is direct current cardioversion (DCCV), but in the long-term follow-up we observe quite a high percentage of AF recurrences after this procedure. In order to assess the [...] Read more.
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common atrial tachyarrhythmia. One of the methods of AF treatment is direct current cardioversion (DCCV), but in the long-term follow-up we observe quite a high percentage of AF recurrences after this procedure. In order to assess the prognosis of DCCV effectiveness, we use clinical, biochemical and echocardiographic parameters. The objective of this review is to systematise the current knowledge on echocardiographic measurements in patients with persistent AF used to assess the progress of remodelling of the atrial wall, which affects the likelihood of maintaining sinus rhythm after DCCV. In this article, echocardiographic parameters for the evaluation of remodelling of the atrial wall are divided into groups referring to structural, mechanical, and electrical remodelling, as well as parameters for the evaluation of left ventricular filling pressure. The article aims to draw attention to the clinical value of echocardiographic measurements, which is the selection of patients who will maintain sinus rhythm after DCCV in the long-term follow-up, which will allow to avoid unnecessary risks associated with the procedure and enable the selection of the appropriate treatment strategy. Full article
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17 pages, 1256 KiB  
Article
Massive Transfusion Increases Serum Magnesium Concentration
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(15), 5157; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12155157 - 07 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1236
Abstract
(1) Background: The massive transfusion of packed red blood cells (RBCs) is a lifesaving procedure, but it is associated with complications, e.g., dysmagnesemia. Since magnesium is an intracellular ion, the transfused RBCs can significantly influence the magnesium concentration in the recipient’s blood. (2) [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The massive transfusion of packed red blood cells (RBCs) is a lifesaving procedure, but it is associated with complications, e.g., dysmagnesemia. Since magnesium is an intracellular ion, the transfused RBCs can significantly influence the magnesium concentration in the recipient’s blood. (2) Methods: A retrospective study was performed among 49 patients hospitalized in the Central Clinical Hospital of the Medical University of Warsaw who received a massive blood transfusion (≥4 units/h). Data on laboratory results and patient history were collected from the hospital database. The intracellular RBCs magnesium concentration was measured in 231 samples using the colorimetric method. (3) Results: There were statistically significant changes in the mean serum magnesium concentration preoperatively and 24 h postoperatively (0.87 ± 0.13 vs. 1.03 ± 0.14, p < 0.00001) and 48 h postoperatively (0.87 ± 0.13 vs. 1.06 ± 0.15, p < 0.00001). Patients who died had significantly higher serum magnesium concentrations (p < 0.05). The median intracellular magnesium concentration in RBCs was 0.91 (0.55–1.8) mmol/L, which is below the reference values of 1.65–2.65 mmol/L. (4) Conclusions: Transfused RBCs significantly increased the serum magnesium concentration 24 h and 48 h postoperatively. It could be a result of mild hemolysis, as the median intracellular magnesium concentration in RBCs was below the reference values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Patient Blood Management: Advances and Perspectives)
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17 pages, 1155 KiB  
Article
Development and Initial Validation of the in-Session Patient Affective Reactions Questionnaire (SPARQ) and the Rift In-Session Questionnaire (RISQ)
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(15), 5156; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12155156 - 07 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1031
Abstract
This article discusses the development and preliminary validation of a self-report inventory of the patient’s perception of, and affective reaction to, their therapist during a psychotherapy session. First, we wrote a pool of 131 items, reviewed them based on subject matter experts’ review, [...] Read more.
This article discusses the development and preliminary validation of a self-report inventory of the patient’s perception of, and affective reaction to, their therapist during a psychotherapy session. First, we wrote a pool of 131 items, reviewed them based on subject matter experts’ review, and then collected validation data from a clinical sample of adult patients in individual therapy (N = 701). We used exploratory factor analysis and item response theory graded response models to select items, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test the factor structure, and k-fold cross-validation to verify model robustness. Multi-group CFA examined measurement invariance across patients with different diagnoses (unipolar depression, bipolar disorder, and neither of these). Three factors produced short scales retaining the strongest items. The in-Session Patient Affective Reactions Questionnaire (SPARQ) has a two-factor structure, yielding a four-item Negative affect scale and a four-item Positive affect scale. The Relationship In-Session Questionnaire (RISQ) is composed of four items from the third factor with dichotomized responses. Both scales showed excellent psychometric properties and evidence of metric invariance across the three diagnostic groups: unipolar depression, bipolar disorder, and neither of these. The SPARQ and the RISQ scale can be used in clinical or research settings, with particular value for capturing the patient’s perspectives about their therapist and session-level emotional processes. Full article
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15 pages, 1684 KiB  
Systematic Review
Patient-Reported Outcome Measures in Patients with Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura: A Systematic Review of the Literature
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(15), 5155; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12155155 - 07 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1211
Abstract
Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) impacts of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) have been captured in clinical studies using patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures (PROMs) that are validated for other diseases. However, the validity evidence to support the use of existing PROMs in patients with [...] Read more.
Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) impacts of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) have been captured in clinical studies using patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures (PROMs) that are validated for other diseases. However, the validity evidence to support the use of existing PROMs in patients with TTP is unknown. In a systematic review of the literature, including studies of adults and children with TTP, we assessed the validity evidence for use of PROMs in clinical research and clinical practice, characterized HRQoL, described the integration of PROMs in clinical practice and evaluated PRO scores for patients with TTP compared with reference populations. From an initial 4518 studies, we identified 14 studies using 16 PROMs to assess general HRQoL domains in patients in remission. No identified studies assessed the validity of PROMs for the context of use of TTP and no studies described PROM integration into TTP clinical practice or evaluated PROMs that were specific for patients with TTP. Moreover, PRO scores were worse in patients with TTP compared with reference populations and other chronic conditions. We conclude that, in patients with TTP, PROMs pick up on important patient experiences not captured by clinical outcomes at present. There is, therefore, a need for studies that assess the validity of existing PROMs in patients with TTP to determine if TTP-specific PROMs specific to patients with TTP should be developed. Full article
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9 pages, 2403 KiB  
Article
Three-Loop Technique for Pulley Reconstruction—A Retrospective Cohort Analysis of 23 Patients
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(15), 5154; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12155154 - 07 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1133
Abstract
Twenty-three patients with a mean age of 52.7 years underwent pulley reconstruction using the Okutsu double- or triple-loop technique after iatrogenic or traumatic rupture of at least two adjacent flexor tendon pulleys in the finger and distal palm; mean age of injury was [...] Read more.
Twenty-three patients with a mean age of 52.7 years underwent pulley reconstruction using the Okutsu double- or triple-loop technique after iatrogenic or traumatic rupture of at least two adjacent flexor tendon pulleys in the finger and distal palm; mean age of injury was 4.77 years. The mean follow-up was 4.66 years after reconstruction of mostly A2 pulleys in a single surgeon setting. Outcome measures included ROM, NRS pain, satisfaction, Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire (DASH) and Krimmer score, Buck–Gramcko score, Jamar grip strength, pinch grip, and vigorimetry compared to the uninjured side. The median patient satisfaction score was 6.6/10. Hand function using the DASH score was 9.5. Grip strength on the Jamar Dynamometer showed only a slight reduction of 13% compared to the uninjured side. The resultant force of the operated fingers on the vigorimeter is almost 60% of that of the contralateral side, and the finger-palm distance of the operated finger was reduced from 2.2 cm to 1.45 cm. Other functional scores, such as Krimmer (82.2) and Buck-Gramcko (10.9), support these good results. The follow-up of patients more than 4.5 years after reconstruction of the A2 and A3 flexor tendon pulley using the double- or triple-loop technique showed acceptable patient satisfaction and good function of the finger in everyday life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Rehabilitation)
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10 pages, 266 KiB  
Article
The Risk and Predictors of Malignancies in Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients in Israel—A Retrospective Electronic Data-Based Study
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(15), 5153; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12155153 - 07 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 921
Abstract
Background: Previous studies demonstrated unclear and vast variability in the association between Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) and the risk of cancer. Objectives: To assess the risk of overall and site-specific malignancies for AS patients in Israel, while examining the role of comorbidities and immunomodulatory [...] Read more.
Background: Previous studies demonstrated unclear and vast variability in the association between Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) and the risk of cancer. Objectives: To assess the risk of overall and site-specific malignancies for AS patients in Israel, while examining the role of comorbidities and immunomodulatory therapy. Methods: We conducted a retrospective electronic data-based study including all AS patients diagnosed between 2002 and 2018, with no history of cancer prior to enrollment, with 5:1 ratio matched-control by age, gender, and place of residence. The odds Ratios (OR) for site-specific malignancies, comparing AS patients and controls, were calculated using logistic regression. Risk factors for malignancies within the AS cohort were evaluated in the same manner. Results: This study comprised 5825 AS patients and 28,356 matched controls. There was a higher overall risk of cancer in AS patients compared to controls (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.24–1.6), specifically for solid malignancies (OR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.3–1.7), CNS (OR = 3.72, 95% CI 1.29–10.7), kidney (OR = 2.06, 95% CI 1.12–3.8), and malignancy of unknown primary (OR = 3.06, 95% CI 2.35–3.98). Regarding predictors for malignancy within AS patients, older age at diagnosis (OR = 1.31, 95%,CI 1.25–2.36), diabetes (OR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.18–1.97), IBD (OR = 2.61, 95% CI 1.75–3.89), and treatment with DMARDs (OR = 2.17, 95% CI 1.65–2.83) were associated with a higher risk of solid malignancies, while NSAIDs treatment alone had a protective effect for solid malignancies (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.61–0.99). No significant association was found between anti-TNF therapy and the risk of solid or hematologic malignancies within the AS group. Conclusion: AS is associated with an increased risk of overall and site-specific malignancies, with independently higher risk for older age, comorbidity of DM, IBD, and treatment with DMARDs. Full article
12 pages, 256 KiB  
Article
Cyanoacrylate in Colorectal Surgery: Is It Safe?
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(15), 5152; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12155152 - 07 Aug 2023
Viewed by 689
Abstract
Anastomotic leakage (AL) of a gastrointestinal (GI) anastomosis continues to be an important complication in GI surgery. Since its introduction more than 60 years ago, Cyanoacrylate (CA) has gained popularity in colorectal surgery to provide “prophylaxis” against AL. However, although in surgical practice [...] Read more.
Anastomotic leakage (AL) of a gastrointestinal (GI) anastomosis continues to be an important complication in GI surgery. Since its introduction more than 60 years ago, Cyanoacrylate (CA) has gained popularity in colorectal surgery to provide “prophylaxis” against AL. However, although in surgical practice it is increasingly used, evidence on humans is still lacking. The aim of this study is to analyze in humans the safety of CA to seal colorectal anastomosis. All consecutive patients from Jannuary 2022 through December 2022 who underwent minimally invasive colorectal surgery were retrospectively analyzed from a prospectively maintained database. Inclusion criteria were a histological diagnosis of cancer, a totally minimally invasive procedure, and the absence of intraoperative complications. 103 patients were included in the study; N-butyl cyanoacrylate with metacryloxisulfolane (Glubran 2®) was used to seal colorectal anastomosis, no adverse reactions to CA or postoperative complications related to inflammation and adhesions occurred; and only one case of AL (0.9%) was recorded. We can consider this study an important proof of concept on the safety of CA to seal colorectal anastomosis. It opens the possibility of starting prospective and comparative studies in humans to evaluate the effectiveness of CA in preventing colorectal AL. Full article
12 pages, 1735 KiB  
Article
Implementation and Assessment of a Laparotomy-Assisted Three-Port Fetoscopic Spina Bifida Repair Program
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(15), 5151; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12155151 - 07 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1210
Abstract
Open spina bifida (OSB) is a congenital, non-lethal malformation with multifactorial etiology. Fetal therapy can be offered under certain conditions to parents after accurate prenatal diagnostic and interdisciplinary counseling. Since the advent of prenatal OSB surgery, various modifications of the original surgical techniques [...] Read more.
Open spina bifida (OSB) is a congenital, non-lethal malformation with multifactorial etiology. Fetal therapy can be offered under certain conditions to parents after accurate prenatal diagnostic and interdisciplinary counseling. Since the advent of prenatal OSB surgery, various modifications of the original surgical techniques have evolved, including laparotomy-assisted fetoscopic repair. After a two-year preparation time, the team at the University of Giessen and Marburg (UKGM) became the first center to provide a three-port, three-layer fetoscopic repair of OSB via a laparotomy-assisted approach in the German-speaking area. We point out that under the guidance of experienced centers and by intensive multidisciplinary preparation and training, a previously described and applied technique could be transferred to a different setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Update on Prenatal Diagnosis and Maternal Fetal Medicine)
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10 pages, 562 KiB  
Article
Association of Helicobacter pylori Infection with Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in the Female Sex
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(15), 5150; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12155150 - 06 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2202
Abstract
Background. Helicobacter pylori infection has been associated with an increased risk of thyroid diseases (TDs), although scientific evidence is conflicting. In the present study the relationship between TDs, including both autoimmune (AI) and non-autoimmune TD, and H. pylori infection was investigated. Methods: Data [...] Read more.
Background. Helicobacter pylori infection has been associated with an increased risk of thyroid diseases (TDs), although scientific evidence is conflicting. In the present study the relationship between TDs, including both autoimmune (AI) and non-autoimmune TD, and H. pylori infection was investigated. Methods: Data from records of patients undergoing upper endoscopy and histologically evaluated for H. pylori infection were retrieved. In addition to demographic information, the features of gastritis based on non-targeted biopsies collected from the antrum, angulus, and corpus were analyzed. The presence of H. pylori infection and atrophy and/or metaplasia and/or dysplasia in at least one gastric specimen was defined as a long-lasting H. pylori infection and the presence of a chronic–active gastritis as a current infection. Hashimoto’s and Graves’ diseases were included in the AITD group, and thyroid nodules, goiter, iatrogenic thyroid hypo/hyper function, and thyroidectomy in the non-autoimmune TD group. Results: A total of 8322 records from adult patients from Northern Sardinia, characterized by a similar genetic background, was analyzed. Participants were aged 18–93 years (females 5339, 64.1%), and more specifically, 562 (6.7%) had a diagnosis of AITD and 448 (5.4%) of non-autoimmune TD. A significant association between long-lasting H. pylori and AITD (OR 1.34; 95%CI 1.13–1.60) was found, irrespective of age, sex, body mass index, and smoking status, while it was not associated with non-autoimmune TD. Current H. pylori infection did not show significant ORs for AITD (OR 0.99; 95%CI 0.64–1.57) and non-autoimmune TD (OR 0.86; 95%CI 0.66–1.15). The association with long-lasting H. pylori infection was confirmed to be significant for both Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and Graves’ disease by multivariable regression analysis. Stratification according to sex revealed a significant association only for females (OR 1.39; 95%CI 1.12–1.72). Conclusions. Our results indicate that long-lasting H. pylori infection is associated with AITD in the female adult population of Northern Sardinia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Extra-Gastric Autoimmune Disorders)
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14 pages, 3303 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Urinary Parameters and Double-J Stent Encrustation
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(15), 5149; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12155149 - 06 Aug 2023
Viewed by 901
Abstract
(1) Background: This study aimed to determine the relationship between metabolic urine conditions and the formation, severity, and composition of encrustations in ureteral stents. (2) Methods: Ninety stone-former patients requiring a double-J stent were prospectively enrolled. We collected 24 h metabolic urine samples [...] Read more.
(1) Background: This study aimed to determine the relationship between metabolic urine conditions and the formation, severity, and composition of encrustations in ureteral stents. (2) Methods: Ninety stone-former patients requiring a double-J stent were prospectively enrolled. We collected 24 h metabolic urine samples and demographic data, including indwelling time and previous stone composition. The total deposit weight was obtained, and a macroscopic classification according to the degree of encrustation (null, low, moderate, and high) was created, allowing for intergroup comparisons. Stereoscopic and scanning electron microscopy were performed to identify the type of embedded deposits (calcium oxalate, uric acid, and infectious and non-infectious phosphates). (3) Results: In total, 70% of stents were encrusted; thereof, 42% had a moderate degree of encrustation. The most common encrustation type was calcium oxalate, but infectious phosphates were predominant in the high-encrustation group (p < 0.05). A direct correlation was observed between the purpose-built macroscopic classification and the encrustation weights (p < 0.001). Greater calciuria, uricosuria, indwelling time, and decreased diuresis were observed in stents with a higher degree of encrustation (p < 0.05). The urinary pH values were lower in patients with uric acid encrustations and higher in those with infectious phosphate encrustations (p < 0.05). When compared to non-encrusted stents, patients with calcium-oxalate-encrusted stent showed greater calciuria, phosphaturia, indwelling time, and reduced diuresis; patients with uric-acid-encrusted stent showed greater uricosuria; and patients with infectious and non-infectious phosphate encrustation showed greater urinary pH (p < 0.05). (4) Conclusions: Metabolic urine conditions play a critical role in the formation, composition, and severity of double-J stent encrustation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urolithiasis: Recent Advances in Therapeutic Approaches)
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23 pages, 14470 KiB  
Perspective
Skeletal Class II Malocclusion: From Clinical Treatment Strategies to the Roadmap in Identifying the Genetic Bases of Development in Humans with the Support of the Collaborative Cross Mouse Population
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(15), 5148; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12155148 - 06 Aug 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3092
Abstract
Depending on how severe it is, malocclusion, which may involve misaligned teeth, jaws, or a combination of the two, can hurt a person’s overall facial aesthetics. The maxillary molar develops before the mandibular molar in class II malocclusion, which affects 15% of the [...] Read more.
Depending on how severe it is, malocclusion, which may involve misaligned teeth, jaws, or a combination of the two, can hurt a person’s overall facial aesthetics. The maxillary molar develops before the mandibular molar in class II malocclusion, which affects 15% of the population in the United States. With a retrusive mandible, patients typically have a convex profile. The goal of this study is to classify the skeletal and dental variability present in class II malocclusion, to reduce heterogeneity, present the current clinical treatment strategies, to summarize the previously published findings of genetic analysis, discuss these findings and their constraints, and finally, propose a comprehensive roadmap to facilitate investigations aimed at determining the genetic bases of malocclusion development using a variety of genomic approaches. To further comprehend the hereditary components involved in the onset and progression of class II malocclusion, a novel animal model for class II malocclusion should be developed while considering the variety of the human population. To overcome the constraints of the previous studies, here, we propose to conduct novel research on humans with the support of mouse models to produce contentious findings. We believe that carrying out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on a large human cohort to search for significant genes and their modifiers; an epigenetics-wide association study (EWAS); RNA-seq analysis; integrating GWAS and the expression of quantitative trait loci (eQTL); and the testing of microRNAs, small RNAs, and long noncoding RNAs in tissues related to the skeletal class II malocclusion (SCIIMO) phenotype, such as mandibular bone, gum, and jaw in humans and the collaborative cross (CC) mouse model, will identify novel genes and genetic factors affecting this phenotype. We anticipate discovering novel genetic elements to advance our knowledge of how this malocclusion phenotype develops and open the venue for the early identification of patients carrying the susceptible genetic factors so that we can offer early prevention treatment strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dentistry, Oral Surgery and Oral Medicine)
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12 pages, 1291 KiB  
Article
Correlation between Inflammatory Systemic Biomarkers and Surgical Trauma in Elderly Patients with Hip Fractures
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(15), 5147; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12155147 - 06 Aug 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1570
Abstract
The treatment for hip fractures consists of a wide variety of orthopedic implants ranging from prosthesis to intramedullary nails. The purpose of this study is to determine the correlation between blood-count-derived biomarkers such as the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), the [...] Read more.
The treatment for hip fractures consists of a wide variety of orthopedic implants ranging from prosthesis to intramedullary nails. The purpose of this study is to determine the correlation between blood-count-derived biomarkers such as the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), the monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) and the systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) and the level of aggression sustained by elderly patients during these surgical procedures. A total of 129 patients aged over 70 and diagnosed with acute hip fractures who underwent surgical treatment between November 2021 and February 2023 were included in our observational retrospective cohort study. Two groups were formed depending on the anatomic location of the fracture for statistical comparison: group 1 with extracapsular fractures, who received a closed reduction internal fixation (CRIF) with a gamma nail (GN) as treatment, and group 2 with intracapsular fractures, who received a bipolar hemiarthroplasty (BHA) as treatment. The length of hospital stay (LHS), duration of surgery, preoperative days, pre- and postoperative red blood count (RBC) and hemoglobin (HGB) levels and postoperative NLR, PLR and SII were significantly different between the two groups (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the multivariate analysis indicated that the postoperative NLR (p = 0.029), PLR (p = 0.009), SII (p = 0.001) and duration of surgery (p < 0.0001) were independently related to the invasiveness of the procedures. The ROC curve analysis demonstrated that a postoperative SII > 1564.74 is a more reliable predictor of surgical trauma in terms of specificity (58.1%) and sensitivity (56.7%). Postoperative SII as a biomarker appears to be closely correlated with surgical trauma sustained by an older population with hip fractures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Factors, Prevention and Management of Frailty in Elderly)
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16 pages, 1832 KiB  
Article
Impact of Optimal Medical Therapy on Reintervention and Survival Rates after Endovascular Infrapopliteal Revascularization
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(15), 5146; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12155146 - 06 Aug 2023
Viewed by 780
Abstract
Within this single-center cohort study, we investigated the impact of optimal medical therapy on all-cause mortality, major amputation-free survival and clinically driven target lesion revascularization (CD TLR) in 552 patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) undergoing endovascular infrapopliteal revascularization. From the overall cohort, [...] Read more.
Within this single-center cohort study, we investigated the impact of optimal medical therapy on all-cause mortality, major amputation-free survival and clinically driven target lesion revascularization (CD TLR) in 552 patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) undergoing endovascular infrapopliteal revascularization. From the overall cohort, 145 patients were treated for intermittent claudication (IC) and 407 were treated for critical limb ischemia (CLI). Optimal medical therapy (OMT) was defined as the presence of at least one antiplatelet agent, statin and ACE inhibitor or AT-2 antagonist based on guideline recommendations. About half (55.5%) of all patients were prescribed OMT at discharge, with a higher proportion in claudicants (62.1%) versus CLI patients (53.2%). Over three years of follow-up, survival was significantly better in patients with IC (80.6 ± 3.8% vs. 59.9 ± 2.9%; p < 0.001). There was a signal towards better survival in those patients receiving OMT (log-rank p = 0.09). Similarly, amputation-free survival (AFS) was significantly better in patients with IC (p = 0.004) and also in patients receiving OMT (78.8 ± 3.6%) compared to that in those without OMT (71.5 ± 4.2%; p = 0.046). Freedom from CD TLR within three years was significantly better in the IC group (p = 0.002), but there were no statistically significant differences for CD TLR dependent on the presence of OMT (p = 0.79). In conclusion, there is still an important underuse of OMT in patients undergoing infrapopliteal interventions, which is even more pronounced in CLI despite a signal for its benefit regarding all-cause mortality and major amputation-free survival. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Management of Limb Ischemia)
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8 pages, 1304 KiB  
Article
Short-Term Outcomes of Faricimab Treatment in Aflibercept-Refractory Eyes with Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(15), 5145; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12155145 - 06 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1505
Abstract
To evaluate the functional and anatomical effects of switching to faricimab for patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) refractory to intravitreal aflibercept, this retrospective study evaluated patients with nAMD who received intravitreal injections of aflibercept (IVA) every <8 weeks and were switched [...] Read more.
To evaluate the functional and anatomical effects of switching to faricimab for patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) refractory to intravitreal aflibercept, this retrospective study evaluated patients with nAMD who received intravitreal injections of aflibercept (IVA) every <8 weeks and were switched to faricimab. After switching, the patients were treated with a treatment and extended regimen that started with the interval just before switching and received at least three injections. We evaluated changes in the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central retinal thickness (CRT), central choroidal thickness (CCT), treatment interval, and presence of retinal fluid. Overall, 55 eyes from 55 patients were examined. After three injections of faricimab, the BCVA and CCT did not change significantly. However, the CRT decreased significantly (p < 0.05), the injection interval was significantly extended (7.5 ± 2.3 vs. 5.9 ± 1.5 weeks, p < 0.01), and the rates of the presence of intraretinal fluid and subretinal fluid decreased significantly to 16.4% and 40% of eyes, respectively (both p < 0.01). An ocular adverse event (retinal pigment epithelium tear) developed in one eye. Switching to faricimab was effective for anatomic changes. It may be an additional treatment option for some eyes refractory to IVA. Full article
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12 pages, 323 KiB  
Article
Burnout and Professional Engagement during the COVID-19 Pandemic among Nursing Students without Clinical Experience: A Cross-Sectional Study
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(15), 5144; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12155144 - 06 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1101
Abstract
Burnout affects many healthcare professionals, especially nurses, causing serious health problems and disrupting the work environment. Academic burnout may also be experienced, leading students to feel unable to cope with their education. As a result, they may lose interest and even consider abandoning [...] Read more.
Burnout affects many healthcare professionals, especially nurses, causing serious health problems and disrupting the work environment. Academic burnout may also be experienced, leading students to feel unable to cope with their education. As a result, they may lose interest and even consider abandoning their studies. Hence, burnout syndrome can affect both the mental health and the professional future of those affected. To evaluate academic burnout in nursing students who had no clinical experience before starting their practical training, a cross-sectional study involving 212 third-year nursing students at the University of Granada was conducted. Data were collected using the Granada Burnout Questionnaire, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Fear of CoronaVirus-19 Scale. High levels of burnout were present in 37.8% of the students. Moreover, 21.5% and 8.7% had borderline cases of anxiety or depression, respectively. Another 30.8% and 9.2%, respectively, were considered likely to present these conditions. According to the predictive models of burnout dimensions obtained, neuroticism is a predictor of all three burnout dimensions. Furthermore, anxiety, depression, extraversion, responsibility and engagement are predictors of some dimensions of the syndrome. Many nursing students present high levels of burnout, which is related to certain personality variables and to the presence of anxiety and/or depression. The level of professional engagement is inversely associated with the impact of burnout. The participants in this study have normalised their return to the pre-pandemic study routine (in-person classes), and fear of COVID-19 was not a significant predictor of any dimension of burnout. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychotherapy and Clinical Psychology during COVID-19)
9 pages, 975 KiB  
Review
Use of Artificial Intelligence in the Advancement of Breast Surgery and Implications for Breast Reconstruction: A Narrative Review
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(15), 5143; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12155143 - 06 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1209
Abstract
Background: Breast reconstruction is a pivotal part of the recuperation process following a mastectomy and aims to restore both the physical aesthetic and emotional well-being of breast cancer survivors. In recent years, artificial intelligence (AI) has emerged as a revolutionary technology across numerous [...] Read more.
Background: Breast reconstruction is a pivotal part of the recuperation process following a mastectomy and aims to restore both the physical aesthetic and emotional well-being of breast cancer survivors. In recent years, artificial intelligence (AI) has emerged as a revolutionary technology across numerous medical disciplines. This narrative review of the current literature and evidence analysis explores the role of AI in the domain of breast reconstruction, outlining its potential to refine surgical procedures, enhance outcomes, and streamline decision making. Methods: A systematic search on Medline (via PubMed), Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Clinical Trials, and Embase databases from January 1901 to June 2023 was conducted. Results: By meticulously evaluating a selection of recent studies and engaging with inherent challenges and prospective trajectories, this review spotlights the promising role AI plays in advancing the techniques of breast reconstruction. However, issues concerning data quality, privacy, and ethical considerations pose hurdles to the seamless integration of AI in the medical field. Conclusion: The future research agenda comprises dataset standardization, AI algorithm refinement, and the implementation of prospective clinical trials and fosters cross-disciplinary partnerships. The fusion of AI with other emergent technologies like augmented reality and 3D printing could further propel progress in breast surgery. Full article
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11 pages, 1747 KiB  
Article
Global Epidemiology and Burden of Elderly-Onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Decade in Review
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(15), 5142; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12155142 - 06 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1162
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), once thought to impact younger individuals, now manifests in approximately 10% of patients over 65, characterized by a heightened vulnerability to complications and greater diagnostic intricacies than conventional cases. However, comprehensive global epidemiological data regarding elderly-onset IBD are currently [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), once thought to impact younger individuals, now manifests in approximately 10% of patients over 65, characterized by a heightened vulnerability to complications and greater diagnostic intricacies than conventional cases. However, comprehensive global epidemiological data regarding elderly-onset IBD are currently insufficient. Our study addresses this critical gap by analyzing trends in elderly-onset IBD over a decade, encompassing the estimation of annual frequencies and age-standardized rates of elderly-onset IBD burden for both genders, stratifying the data by geographical and sociodemographic factors. Our research highlights a notable increase in the proportion of elderly-onset IBD, constituting around 13% of all IBD cases. We observed a rising incidence in males, contrasted by a decreasing trend in females. The highest surge in incidence rates was seen in the Western Pacific region in both genders, but the highest burden was observed in America. Countries with high sociodemographic index (SDI) carried the greatest burden of elderly-onset IBD, while countries with low SDI had the least. The mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) rates trend downward in most regions. This study underscores an increasing incidence and proportion of IBD, particularly in elderly-onset IBD, particularly in males. While mortality and DALYs are decreasing in most regions, the overall burden remains highest in America and high-SDI countries. Effective public health interventions and comprehensive studies are required to tackle this mounting burden. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastroenterology & Hepatopancreatobiliary Medicine)
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14 pages, 4416 KiB  
Review
Renal Perfusion, Oxygenation and Metabolism: The Role of Imaging
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(15), 5141; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12155141 - 06 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1277
Abstract
Thanks to technical advances in the field of medical imaging, it is now possible to study key features of renal anatomy and physiology, but so far poorly explored due to the inherent difficulties in studying both the metabolism and vasculature of the human [...] Read more.
Thanks to technical advances in the field of medical imaging, it is now possible to study key features of renal anatomy and physiology, but so far poorly explored due to the inherent difficulties in studying both the metabolism and vasculature of the human kidney. In this narrative review, we provide an overview of recent research findings on renal perfusion, oxygenation, and substrate uptake. Most studies evaluating renal perfusion with positron emission tomography (PET) have been performed in healthy controls, and specific target populations like obese individuals or patients with renovascular disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD) have rarely been assessed. Functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) has also been used to study renal perfusion in CKD patients, and recent studies have addressed the kidney hemodynamic effects of therapeutic agents such as glucagon-like receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) and sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2-i) in an attempt to characterise the mechanisms leading to their nephroprotective effects. The few available studies on renal substrate uptake are discussed. In the near future, these imaging modalities will hopefully become widely available with researchers more acquainted with them, gaining insights into the complex renal pathophysiology in acute and chronic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Kidney Disease Imaging)
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13 pages, 447 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between Hypertension and Periodontitis: A Cross-Sectional Study
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(15), 5140; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12155140 - 05 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1539
Abstract
Recent evidence suggests an association between hypertension and periodontitis, although the pathways and implications underlying both chronic conditions are still poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between hypertension and periodontitis through an observational clinical study using [...] Read more.
Recent evidence suggests an association between hypertension and periodontitis, although the pathways and implications underlying both chronic conditions are still poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between hypertension and periodontitis through an observational clinical study using periodontal, physical, and biochemical analyses in hypertensive and non-hypertensive individuals with periodontitis. A total of one hundred patients were divided into two groups. The first group was hypertensive patients with periodontitis. The second group was non-hypertensive patients with periodontitis. Periodontal parameters of probing depth, bleeding on probing, and clinical attachment level were evaluated. The systolic, diastolic, mean, and differential blood pressure were measured in the physical examination. In addition, body mass index and waist–hip ratio were verified. Biochemical tests for glycated hemoglobin, fasting blood glucose, estimated blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, creatinine, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, and C-reactive protein were evaluated. The data were submitted for statistical analysis (α = 0.05%). The results of this study demonstrated that patients with cardiovascular disease did not present with worse periodontal clinical parameters in the conditions studied. However, it is important to bear in mind that this cross-sectional study has some inherent limitations to its design; therefore, to study the relationship between hypertension and periodontitis further, an interventional randomized clinical trial should be conducted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Research in Periodontology and Implantology)
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21 pages, 2299 KiB  
Systematic Review
Influence of Physical Activity during Pregnancy on Type and Duration of Delivery, and Epidural Use: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(15), 5139; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12155139 - 05 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1298
Abstract
Cesarean delivery may increase the need for anesthesia administration, thereby causing potential risks to both maternal and fetal health. This article aimed to investigate the effect of physical activity during pregnancy on the type of delivery, the duration of labor, and the use [...] Read more.
Cesarean delivery may increase the need for anesthesia administration, thereby causing potential risks to both maternal and fetal health. This article aimed to investigate the effect of physical activity during pregnancy on the type of delivery, the duration of labor, and the use of epidurals (registration No.: CRD42022370646). Furthermore, 57 RCTs (n = 15301) were included showing that physical activity could decrease the risk of cesarean section (z = 3.22, p = 0.001; RR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.79, 0.95, I2 = 37%, Pheterogeneity = 0.004), and 32 RCTs (n = 9468) showed significant decreases in instrumental delivery through performing physical activity (z = 3.48, p < 0.001; RR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.76, 0.93, I2 = 0%, Pheterogeneity = 0.63). A significant decrease in the 15 RCTs’ (n = 4797) duration of first stage labor was found in physically active pregnant women (z = 2.09, p = 0.04; MD = −62.26, 95% CI = −120.66, −3.85, I2 = 93%, Pheterogeneity < 0.001) compared to those not active. Prenatal physical activity could decrease the risk of cesarean section and instrumental delivery and the duration of first stage labor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Obstetrics & Gynecology)
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34 pages, 3729 KiB  
Review
A Comprehensive Review on Neuroendocrine Neoplasms: Presentation, Pathophysiology and Management
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(15), 5138; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12155138 - 05 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3364
Abstract
Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are a group of heterogeneous tumors with neuroendocrine differentiation that can arise from any organ. They account for 2% of all malignancies in the United States. A significant proportion of NEN patients experience endocrine imbalances consequent to increased amine or [...] Read more.
Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are a group of heterogeneous tumors with neuroendocrine differentiation that can arise from any organ. They account for 2% of all malignancies in the United States. A significant proportion of NEN patients experience endocrine imbalances consequent to increased amine or peptide hormone secretion, impacting their quality of life and prognosis. Over the last decade, pathologic categorization, diagnostic techniques and therapeutic choices for NENs—both well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs)—have appreciably evolved. Diagnosis of NEN mostly follows a suspicion from clinical features or incidental imaging findings. Hormonal or non-hormonal biomarkers (like serum serotonin, urine 5-HIAA, gastrin and VIP) and histology of a suspected NEN is, therefore, critical for both confirmation of the diagnosis and classification as an NET or NEC. Therapy for NENs has progressed recently based on a better molecular understanding, including the involvement of mTOR, VEGF and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT), which add to the growing evidence supporting the possibility of treatment beyond complete resection. As the incidence of NENs is on the rise in the United States and several other countries, physicians are more likely to see these cases, and their better understanding may support earlier diagnosis and tailoring treatment to the patient. We have compiled clinically significant evidence for NENs, including relevant changes to clinical practice that have greatly updated our diagnostic and therapeutic approach for NEN patients. Full article
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10 pages, 980 KiB  
Article
Predictive Factors for Decreasing Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction and Progression to the Dilated Phase of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(15), 5137; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12155137 - 05 Aug 2023
Viewed by 778
Abstract
Patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) may progress to the dilated phase (DHCM). This study aimed to identify the predictive factors for DHCM progression, including left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF < 50%) or decreased LV contraction (LVEF < 60%). The study included 291 [...] Read more.
Patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) may progress to the dilated phase (DHCM). This study aimed to identify the predictive factors for DHCM progression, including left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF < 50%) or decreased LV contraction (LVEF < 60%). The study included 291 patients enrolled in our hospital’s HCM registry who were grouped based on their poststudy LVEF (LVEF of ≥60%, 50–59%, and <50%). Predictive factors of an LVEF of <50% or <60% were determined. Further, the effects of percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation (PTSMA) on long-term systolic LV function and DHCM development were investigated. LVEF was ≥60%, 50–59%, and <50% in 239, 33, and 19 patients, respectively, during the follow-up period (mean: 64.9 months). Multivariate analyses indicated baseline atrial fibrillation (AF), nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT), and left ventricular diameter at end-systole (LVDs) as significant predictors of DHCM. Using a scoring method based on AF, NSVT, and LVDs, patients with 2 and 3 points had a significantly higher risk of developing DHCM. PTSMA in 78 HCM patients demonstrated no significant effect on long-term LVEF changes or DHCM development. We concluded that AF, NSVT, and LVDs are significant predictors of DHCM development. However, a validation study with a larger population is required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiomyopathy: Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment)
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14 pages, 1725 KiB  
Article
MRI and Pulmonary Function Tests’ Results as Ventilation Inhomogeneity Markers in Children and Adolescents with Cystic Fibrosis
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(15), 5136; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12155136 - 05 Aug 2023
Viewed by 699
Abstract
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the chest is becoming more available in the detection and monitoring of early changes in lung function and structure in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between pulmonary function [...] Read more.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the chest is becoming more available in the detection and monitoring of early changes in lung function and structure in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between pulmonary function tests (PFT) and perfusion deficits in CF children measured by MRI. We performed a retrospective analysis of the perfusion lung MRI scans and the results of spirometry, oscillometry, body plethysmography, single-breath carbon monoxide uptake, and multiple-breath washout technique (MBW). There were statistically significant correlations between the MRI perfusion scores and MBW parameters (2.5% LCI, M1/M0, M2/M0), spirometry parameters (FEV1, FVC, FEF25/75), reactance indices in impulse oscillometry (X5Hz, X10Hz), total lung capacity (TLC) measured in single breath carbon monoxide uptake, markers of air-trapping in body plethysmography (RV, RV/TLC), and the diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide. We also observed significant differences in the aforementioned PFT variables between the patient groups divided based on perfusion scores. We noted a correlation between markers of functional lung deficits measured by the MRI and PFTs in CF children. MRI perfusion abnormalities were reflected sooner in the course of the disease than PFT abnormalities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pulmonology)
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9 pages, 1580 KiB  
Article
Prevalence of Accommodative Microfluctuations in Eyes after Cataract Surgery
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(15), 5135; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12155135 - 05 Aug 2023
Viewed by 720
Abstract
Background: We aimed to evaluate the existence of accommodative microfluctuations in eyes after cataract surgery. Methods: This retrospective observational cohort study included 1160 eyes of 713 patients (mean age: 72.5 ± 8.3 years) who underwent phacoemulsification, intraocular lens insertion, and an evaluation of [...] Read more.
Background: We aimed to evaluate the existence of accommodative microfluctuations in eyes after cataract surgery. Methods: This retrospective observational cohort study included 1160 eyes of 713 patients (mean age: 72.5 ± 8.3 years) who underwent phacoemulsification, intraocular lens insertion, and an evaluation of accommodative microfluctuations with an autorefractometer. Patients with posterior segment disorders resulting in visual acuity impairment and those with unavailable medical information were excluded. High-frequency components (HFCs), between 1.0–2.3 Hz, based on fast Fourier transform analysis of the accommodative microfluctuation data were examined at postoperative 2–3 (2 M) and 6 months (6 M). The relationships between the HFCs and patient age, manifest refraction, and axial length were analyzed. Results: Increased HFC values (>65) were observed at a constant rate after cataract surgery, with prevalence rates of 33.4% at 2 M and 34.7% at 6 M. Postoperatively, at 2 M, increased HFC values were significantly more common for eyes with axial length ≥26 mm than for those with axial length <26 mm (p = 0.0056). However, they were not significantly correlated to age or postoperative manifest refraction. Conclusions: At 2 M postoperatively, increased HFC values presented more frequently in eyes with a greater axial length; hence, the precise detection and understanding of postoperative accommodative spasms in high myopia patients is important. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ophthalmology)
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