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J. Clin. Med., Volume 11, Issue 4 (February-2 2022) – 252 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Sickle cell retinopathy is characterized by peripheral vascular changes which have been classified by Goldberg. This classification is used for prognosis and therapeutic management. Currently, the optimal imaging technique for the staging of these patients remains unclear. Recently, ultrawide field imaging has improved visualization of the peripheral retina and has become a useful tool for the screening of sickle cell retinopathy. This study then sought to compare ultrawide field fundus photography alone with ultrawide field fluorescein angiography to improve sickle cell retinopathy staging. View this paper
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Article
Controversies in Choledochal Malformation in Children: An International Survey among Pediatric Hepatobiliary Surgeons and Gastroenterologists
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(4), 1148; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11041148 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 644
Abstract
Background: While congenital choledochal malformation (CCM) is relatively well known within the pediatric surgical and pediatric gastroenterological communities, many controversies and questions remain. Methods: In this paper, we will discuss the results of an international Delphi survey among members of the European Reference [...] Read more.
Background: While congenital choledochal malformation (CCM) is relatively well known within the pediatric surgical and pediatric gastroenterological communities, many controversies and questions remain. Methods: In this paper, we will discuss the results of an international Delphi survey among members of the European Reference Network RARE-LIVER and of the faculty of the Biliary Atresia and Related Diseases (BARD) network to identify the most common practices as well as controversies regarding diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of this still enigmatic disease. Results: Twenty-two individual respondents completed the survey. While there seems to be agreement on the definitions of CCM, preoperative workup, surgical approach and follow-up still vary considerably. The mainstay of treatment remains the removal of the entire extrahepatic biliary tract, clearance of debris both proximally and distally, followed by reconstruction with (according to 86% of respondents) a Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. Nonetheless, both laparoscopic and robotic-assisted resections are gaining ground with the suggestion that this might be facilitated by concentration of care and resources in specialized centers. However, long-term outcomes are still lacking. Conclusions: As even post-surgical CCM has to be considered as having premalignant potential, follow-up should be well-organized and continued into adulthood. This seems to be lacking in many centers. International cooperation for both benchmarking and research is paramount to improving care for this rare disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Biliary Atresia: Aetiology, Diagnosis and Treatment)
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Review
Ayahuasca as a Decoction Applied to Human: Analytical Methods, Pharmacology and Potential Toxic Effects
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(4), 1147; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11041147 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1012
Abstract
Ahyahuasca is a term commonly used to describe a decoction prepared by cooking the bark or crushed stems of the liana Banisteriopsis caapi (contains β-carbolines) alone or in combination with other plants, most commonly leaves of the shrub Psychotria viridis (contains N,N-dimethyltryptamine-DMT). [...] Read more.
Ahyahuasca is a term commonly used to describe a decoction prepared by cooking the bark or crushed stems of the liana Banisteriopsis caapi (contains β-carbolines) alone or in combination with other plants, most commonly leaves of the shrub Psychotria viridis (contains N,N-dimethyltryptamine-DMT). More than 100 different plants can serve as sources of β-carbolines and DMT, which are the active alkaloids of this decoction, and therefore it is important to know the most accurate composition of the decoction, especially when studying the pharmacology of this plant. The aim was to summarize the latest sensitive methods used in the analysis of the composition of the beverage itself and the analysis of various biological matrices. We compared pharmacokinetic parameters in all of the studies where decoction of ayahuasca was administered and where its composition was known, whereby minimal adverse effects were observed. The therapeutic benefit of this plant is still unclear in the scientific literature, and side effects occur probably on the basis of pre-existing psychiatric disorder. We also described toxicological risks and clinical benefits of ayahuasca intake, which meant that the concentrations of active alkaloids in the decoction or in the organism, often not determined in publications, were required for sufficient evaluation of its effect on the organism. We did not find any post-mortem study, in which the toxicological examination of biological materials together with the autopsy findings would suggest potential lethality of this plant. Full article
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Article
Against All Odds? Addiction History Associated with Better Viral Hepatitis Care: A Dutch Nationwide Claims Data Study
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(4), 1146; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11041146 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 493
Abstract
The elimination of viral hepatitis in target populations is crucial in reaching WHO viral hepatitis elimination goals. Several barriers for the treatment of viral hepatitis in people with addictive disorders have been identified, yet nationwide data on hepatitis healthcare utilization (HCU) in these [...] Read more.
The elimination of viral hepatitis in target populations is crucial in reaching WHO viral hepatitis elimination goals. Several barriers for the treatment of viral hepatitis in people with addictive disorders have been identified, yet nationwide data on hepatitis healthcare utilization (HCU) in these patients are limited. We investigated whether a history of addictive disorder is associated with suboptimal hepatitis HCU, indicating failure to receive diagnostic care or treatment. We identified all newly referred viral hepatitis patients in the Netherlands between 2014 and 2019 by query of the Dutch national hospital claims database. Each patient’s first year of HBV or HCV care activities was collected and clustered in two categories, ‘optimal’ or ‘suboptimal’ hepatitis HCU. Optimal HCU includes antiviral therapy. We tested the association between addiction history and HCU, adjusted for sex, age, migrant status, and comorbidity. In secondary analyses, we explored additional factors affecting hepatitis HCU. We included 10,513 incident HBV and HCV patients, with 13% having an addiction history. Only 47% of all patients achieved optimal hepatitis HCU. Addiction history was associated with less suboptimal HCU (adjusted OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.64–0.82). Migration background was associated with suboptimal HCU (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.50–1.76). This study shows that addiction history is associated with higher viral hepatitis HCU; thus, this population performs better compared to non-addicted patients. However, less than 50% of all patients received optimal hepatitis care. This study highlights the need to improve hepatitis HCU in all patients, with a focus on migrant populations. Linkage to care in the addicted patients is not studied here and may be a remaining obstacle to be studied and improved to reach WHO viral hepatitis elimination goals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro-Elimination of HCV—The David's Strategy against Goliath)
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Brief Report
Dynamic Features of Herd Immunity: Similarities in Age-Specific Anti-Measles Seroprevalence Data between Two Countries of Different Epidemiological History
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(4), 1145; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11041145 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 577
Abstract
(1) Background: Measles immunization gap(s) raise the concern of potential outbreaks. Both Croatia and Hungary are situated in the vicinity of measles-endemic countries. Potentially compromised immunization activities due to the COVID-19 surge is a ground for concern. Our aim was to compare age-stratified [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Measles immunization gap(s) raise the concern of potential outbreaks. Both Croatia and Hungary are situated in the vicinity of measles-endemic countries. Potentially compromised immunization activities due to the COVID-19 surge is a ground for concern. Our aim was to compare age-stratified seroprevalence results in the cross-border region. (2) Methods: Anti-MMR specific antibody levels (IgG) of 950 anonymous Croatian samples were compared with previous Hungarian results (n > 3500 samples), and former Croatian seroprevalence data (n = 1205). Seropositivity ratios were determined using our self-developed anti-MMR indirect ELISA (Euroimmun IgG ELISA kits were used as control). (3) Results: Measured seropositivity ratios of the Croatian samples were largely overlapping with our earlier published Hungarian data (the lowest seropositivity ratios were measured among individuals of 34–43 years of age with 78% of seropositivity) and are in accordance with earlier published data of Croatian researchers. (4) Conclusion: Although the epidemiological histories of the two countries are different, analogies in age-specific measles susceptibility have been discovered. We suggest that besides the potential coincidence in vaccination ineffectiveness, the inherent biological dynamics of vaccination-based humoral protection might have also contributed to the experienced similarities. Our findings may also serve as a lesson regarding the current anti-COVID-19 vaccination strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA))
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Article
Clinical Utility of Plasma Cell-Free DNA EGFR Mutation Analysis in Treatment-Naïve Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(4), 1144; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11041144 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 643
Abstract
Background: Plasma cell-free Deoxyribo nucleic acid epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation tests are widely used at initial diagnosis and at progression in stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We analyzed the factors associated with plasma EGFR mutation detection and the effect [...] Read more.
Background: Plasma cell-free Deoxyribo nucleic acid epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation tests are widely used at initial diagnosis and at progression in stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We analyzed the factors associated with plasma EGFR mutation detection and the effect of plasma EGFR genotyping on the clinical outcomes of the patients with treatment-naïve stage IV NSCLC. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we included subjects with treatment-naïve stage IV NSCLC who underwent plasma EGFR genotyping between 2018 and 2020. The presence of plasma EGFR mutation was determined by real-time polymeric chain reaction. Results: The prevalence of EGFR mutation in this cohort was 52.7% (164/311). Among 164 EGFR mutant subjects, 34 (20.7%) were positive for the plasma EGFR mutation assay only. In multivariable analysis, the detection of plasma EGFR mutation was significantly related to higher serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels, never-smoker status, N3 stage, and brain or intrathoracic metastasis. The time to treatment initiation (TTI) of the plasma EGFR mutation-positive group (14 days) was shorter than that of the plasma EGFR mutation-negative group (21 days, p < 0.001). More patients received the 1st line EGFR-TKI in the plasma positive group compared with the tissue positive group. Conclusion: Smoking status and the factors reflecting tumor burden were associated with the detection of plasma EGFR mutation. The plasma EGFR mutation assay can shorten the TTI, and facilitate the 1st line EGFR-TKI therapy for patients with treatment-naïve stage IV NSCLC, especially in the region of high-prevalence of EGFR mutation. Full article
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Article
A Comparison of the Anesthetic Methods for Recurrence Rates of Bladder Cancer after Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumors Using National Health Insurance Claims Data of South Korea
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(4), 1143; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11041143 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 807
Abstract
Bladder cancers have high recurrence rates and are usually removed via transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT). Recently, some reports showed that the anesthetic method may affect the recurrence rates of bladder cancers. The purpose of this population-based study was to compare the [...] Read more.
Bladder cancers have high recurrence rates and are usually removed via transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT). Recently, some reports showed that the anesthetic method may affect the recurrence rates of bladder cancers. The purpose of this population-based study was to compare the effect of anesthetic methods with the recurrence rates of bladder cancers in South Korea. A total of 4439 patients were reviewed retrospectively using the data of the Korean National Health Insurance (NHI) claims database from January 2007 to December 2011. Patients were divided into 2 groups who received general (n = 3767) and regional anesthesia (n = 582), and were followed up until September 2017. Propensity score matching was conducted to reduce the effect of confounding factors. After using propensity score matching with a multivariable Cox regression model, age (p < 0.001), sex (p < 0.001), hypertension (p = 0.003), diabetes mellitus (p = 0.001), and renal disease (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with bladder cancer recurrence. However, there were no significant differences in the recurrence rates of bladder cancers in patients who received general anesthesia and spinal anesthesia for TURBTs. This study revealed that there is no relationship between the anesthetic method and bladder cancer recurrence. Either general anesthesia or regional anesthesia can be used depending on the situation in patients receiving TURBT. Future prospective studies are warranted to confirm the association between the anesthetic method and the recurrence rates of bladder cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in General and Regional Anesthesia)
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Article
Healthcare Utilization and Costs in Sepsis Survivors in Germany–Secondary Analysis of a Prospective Cohort Study
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(4), 1142; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11041142 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 779
Abstract
Background: Survivors of sepsis often face long-term sequelae after intensive care treatment. Compared to the period of hospitalization, little is known about the ambulatory healthcare utilization in sepsis patients. The study evaluated healthcare utilization and associated costs of sepsis care including allied [...] Read more.
Background: Survivors of sepsis often face long-term sequelae after intensive care treatment. Compared to the period of hospitalization, little is known about the ambulatory healthcare utilization in sepsis patients. The study evaluated healthcare utilization and associated costs of sepsis care including allied health professions after initial hospitalization. Methods: Secondary analysis was performed on data in 210 sepsis patients prospectively enrolled from nine intensive care study centers across Germany. Data was collected via structured surveys among their Primary care (Family-) physicians (PCPs) within the first month after discharge from ICU (baseline) and again at 6, 12 and 24 months after discharge, each relating to the period following the last survey. Costs were assessed by standardized cost unit rates from a health care system’s perspective. Changes in healthcare utilization and costs over time were calculated using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results: Of the 210 patients enrolled, 146 (69.5%) patients completed the 24 months follow-up. In total, 109 patients were hospitalized within the first 6 months post-intensive care. Mean total direct costs per patient at 0–6 months were €17,531 (median: €6047), at 7–12 months €9029 (median: €3312), and at 13–24 months €18,703 (median: €12,828). The largest contributor to the total direct costs within the first 6 months was re-hospitalizations (€13,787 (median: €2965). After this first half year, we observed a significant decline in inpatient care costs for re-hospitalizations (p ≤ 0.001). PCPs were visited by more than 95% of patients over 24 months. Conclusions: Sepsis survivors have high health care utilization. Hospital readmissions are frequent and costly. Highest costs and hospitalizations were observed in more than half of patients within the first six months post-intensive care. Among all outpatient care providers, PCPs were consulted most frequently. Clinical impact: Sepsis survivors have a high healthcare utilization and related costs which persist after discharge from hospital. Within outpatient care, possible needs of sepsis survivors as physiotherapy or psychotherapy seem not to be met appropriately. Development of sepsis aftercare programs for early detection and treatment of complications should be prioritized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Chronic Critical Illness after Sepsis—Part II)
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Article
Carisoprodol Single and Multiple Dose PK-PD. Part II: Pharmacodynamics Evaluation Method for Central Muscle Relaxants. Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial in Healthy Volunteers
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(4), 1141; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11041141 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 487
Abstract
Centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxants (CMR) such as carisoprodol are used to treat acute, painful musculoskeletal conditions, though its precise mode of action has not been characterized. A double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial was designed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics–pharmacodynamics (PKPD) of CMR after [...] Read more.
Centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxants (CMR) such as carisoprodol are used to treat acute, painful musculoskeletal conditions, though its precise mode of action has not been characterized. A double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial was designed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics–pharmacodynamics (PKPD) of CMR after single (350 mg), double (700 mg), and multiple doses (up to 350 mg/8 h, 14 days) of carisoprodol. Muscular (Electromyogram–EMG, muscular strength dynamometry), central (sedation), and tolerability (psychomotor activity test, adverse events) parameters, as well as withdrawal symptoms, were evaluated. Thirteen healthy volunteers were enrolled. No evidence of direct muscle relaxation was evidenced, but some differences on sedation were evidenced throughout the study, suggesting that CMRs act, at least partly, through sedation. Most significant differences were detected at 1.5 h after dosing. The effect on psychomotor impairment was variable, most prominently after 1.5 h, too, suggesting that it is produced by carisoprodol rather than by meprobamate. No withdrawal symptoms were detected, so the risk of dependence following maximum doses and duration of treatment recommended, and under medical supervision, should be low. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Practice and Research in Clinical Pharmacology)
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Article
Symptom Severity and Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: Findings from the Observational ARENA Study
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(4), 1140; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11041140 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 619
Abstract
Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia and is associated with impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL), high symptom severity, and poor cardiovascular outcomes. Both clinical and psychological factors may contribute to symptom severity and HRQoL in AF. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia and is associated with impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL), high symptom severity, and poor cardiovascular outcomes. Both clinical and psychological factors may contribute to symptom severity and HRQoL in AF. Methods: Using data from the observational Atrial Fibrillation Rhine-Neckar Region (ARENA) trial, we identified medical and psychosocial factors associated with AF-related symptom severity using European Heart Rhythm Association symptom classification and HRQoL using 5-level EuroQoL- 5D. Results: In 1218 AF patients (mean age 71.1 ± 10.5 years, 34.5% female), female sex (OR 3.7, p < 0.001), preexisting coronary artery disease (CAD) (OR 1.7, p = 0.020), a history of cardioversion (OR 1.4, p = 0.041), cardiac anxiety (OR 1.2; p < 0.001), stress from noise (OR 1.4, p = 0.005), work-related stress (OR 1.3, p = 0.026), and sleep disturbance (OR 1.2, p = 0.016) were associated with higher AF-related symptom severity. CAD (β = −0.23, p = 0.001), diabetes mellitus (β = −0.25, p < 0.001), generalized anxiety (β = −0.30, p < 0.001), cardiac anxiety (β = −0.16, p < 0.001), financial stress (β = −0.11, p < 0.001), and sleep disturbance (β = 0.11, p < 0.001) were associated with impaired HRQoL. Conclusions: Psychological characteristics, preexisting CAD, and diabetes may play an important role in the identification of individuals at highest risk for impaired HRQoL and high symptom severity in patients with AF. Full article
Article
Melatonin in the Prophylaxis of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Healthcare Workers (MeCOVID): A Randomised Clinical Trial
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(4), 1139; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11041139 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1361
Abstract
We evaluated in this randomised, double-blind clinical trial the efficacy of melatonin as a prophylactic treatment for prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection among healthcare workers at high risk of SARS-CoV-2 exposure. Healthcare workers fulfilling inclusion criteria were recruited in five hospitals in Spain and [...] Read more.
We evaluated in this randomised, double-blind clinical trial the efficacy of melatonin as a prophylactic treatment for prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection among healthcare workers at high risk of SARS-CoV-2 exposure. Healthcare workers fulfilling inclusion criteria were recruited in five hospitals in Spain and were randomised 1:1 to receive melatonin 2 mg administered orally for 12 weeks or placebo. The main outcome was the number of SARS-CoV-2 infections. A total of 344 volunteers were screened, and 314 were randomised: 151 to placebo and 163 to melatonin; 308 received the study treatment (148 placebo; 160 melatonin). We detected 13 SARS-CoV-2 infections, 2.6% in the placebo arm and 5.5% in the melatonin arm (p = 0.200). A total of 294 adverse events were detected in 127 participants (139 in placebo; 155 in melatonin). We found a statistically significant difference in the incidence of adverse events related to treatment: 43 in the placebo arm and 67 in the melatonin arm (p = 0.040), and in the number of participants suffering from somnolence related to treatment: 8.8% (n = 14) in the melatonin versus 1.4% (n = 2) in the placebo arm (p = 0.008). No severe adverse events related to treatment were reported. We cannot confirm our hypothesis that administration of melatonin prevents the development of SARS-CoV-2 infection in healthcare workers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Practice and Research in Clinical Pharmacology)
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Article
Sex Differences in Baseline Characteristics Do Not Predict Early Outcomes after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Results from the Australian GenesisCare Cardiovascular Outcomes Registry (GCOR)
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(4), 1138; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11041138 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 554
Abstract
Objective: The effect of baseline differences between men and women on early outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Design, setting, participants: This is an observational study of all participants in the GenesisCare Cardiovascular Outcomes Registry, undergoing PCI. The registry holds data for both [...] Read more.
Objective: The effect of baseline differences between men and women on early outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Design, setting, participants: This is an observational study of all participants in the GenesisCare Cardiovascular Outcomes Registry, undergoing PCI. The registry holds data for both emergency and elective procedures. Data was collected on 10,989 consecutive patients from 12 Australian Private Hospitals, including baseline demographics, co-morbidities, risk factors, PCI procedures, and lesion characteristics. Main outcome measures: Outcome was measured for complications (in-hospital death, peri-procedural myocardial infarctions, and bleeding events), at discharge and at 30-days for death, myocardial infarction, target lesion revascularisation (TLR), major adverse cardiac events (MACE), and unplanned readmissions. Results: Women represented 23% of the study population, were significantly older, with a higher rate of hypertension and hyperlipidaemia. Heart failure was more common in women and was associated with a significantly higher average ejection fraction than in men. Women had a lower rate of pre-existing coronary artery disease (CAD), had less complex CAD, and needed fewer stents. Periprocedural complications were similar, but major bleeding was more common in women. The 30-day outcome was similar between men and women for death, myocardial infarction, target lesion revascularisation (TLR), major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), and unplanned readmissions. Conclusions: Although significant differences were observed between women and men in both clinical presentation and complexity of disease, the 30-day outcome was similar for death and MACE. Women had a higher rate of major bleeding events, and lower adherence to statins and dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiovascular Medicine)
Article
Relation between Serum Creatine Phosphokinase Levels and Acute Kidney Injury among ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(4), 1137; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11041137 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 501
Abstract
Background: Among patients with rhabdomyolysis, the leakage of intracellular skeletal muscle content such as creatine phosphokinase (CPK) into the bloodstream has been associated with an increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI). We evaluated the possible relationship between serum CPK levels and AKI [...] Read more.
Background: Among patients with rhabdomyolysis, the leakage of intracellular skeletal muscle content such as creatine phosphokinase (CPK) into the bloodstream has been associated with an increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI). We evaluated the possible relationship between serum CPK levels and AKI occurrence among patients with myocyte injury secondary to ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods: We retrospectively included 2794 patients with STEMI. Patients were stratified according to peak serum CPK levels into mild (<1000 U/L, n = 1603), moderate (1000–5000 U/L, n = 1111), and severe (>5000 U/L, n = 80) categories. The occurrence of AKI was defined by the KDIGO criteria as an increase in serum creatinine (sCR) ≥0.3 mg/dL within 48 h following PCI. The predictive value of CPK for the risk of AKI occurrence was assessed using multivariate logistic regression models. Results: The overall occurrence of AKI was 10.4%. Incidence of AKI showed a gradual increase between patients with mild, moderate, and severe serum CPK level elevations (7.8% vs. 11% vs. 26% respectively; p < 0.001). In multivariate logistic regression models, both moderate or higher (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.2; p = 0.01) and severe (OR 2.8 95% CI 1.4–5.6; p = 0.004) serum CPK level elevations were independently associated with AKI. Conclusions: Among STEMI patients, elevated CPK levels were associated with AKI. This association is presumably independent; however, it remains unclear whether it is due to direct toxic (myoglobin-related) or hemodynamic effects (poor left ventricular function). Further studies are required to reveal the underlying mechanism. Full article
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Editorial
Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Childhood and Adolescence
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(4), 1136; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11041136 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 475
Abstract
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death globally, taking an estimated amount of 17 [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Childhood and Adolescence)
Editorial
Quo Vadis Anesthesiologist? The Value Proposition of Future Anesthesiologists Lies in Preserving or Restoring Presurgical Health after Surgical Insult
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(4), 1135; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11041135 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 548
Abstract
This Special Issue of the Journal of Clinical Medicine is devoted to anesthesia and perioperative care [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Delivery of Anesthesia: Pre-operative and Post-operative)
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Article
Peripheral Coronary Artery Circulatory Dysfunction in Remote Stage Kawasaki Disease Patients Detected by Adenosine Stress 13N-Ammonia Myocardial Perfusion Positron Emission Tomography
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(4), 1134; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11041134 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 404
Abstract
Coronary peripheral circulatory disturbances in the remote stage of Kawasaki disease have been reported. In this study, of the 50 patients in the remote stage of Kawasaki disease who underwent coronary perfusion evaluation using adenosine-loaded 13N-ammonia positron emission tomography, 28 patients who [...] Read more.
Coronary peripheral circulatory disturbances in the remote stage of Kawasaki disease have been reported. In this study, of the 50 patients in the remote stage of Kawasaki disease who underwent coronary perfusion evaluation using adenosine-loaded 13N-ammonia positron emission tomography, 28 patients who did not have stenosis of ≥75% in the left coronary artery underwent an evaluation for myocardial flow reserve (MFR) of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) and left circumflex artery (LCx). Clinical findings were compared between patients with normal (≥2.0) and abnormal (<2.0) MFRs. In the group with an abnormal MFR in the LAD, the responsiveness of the coronary vascular resistance to adenosine stress decreased even in the LCx (3.50 ± 1.23 vs. 2.39 ± 0.25, p = 0.0100). In the group with an abnormal MFR in the LCx, the responsiveness of the coronary vascular resistance in the LAD also decreased (3.27 ± 1.39 vs. 2.03 ± 0.25, p = 0.0105), and the age of onset of Kawasaki disease tended to be younger in the group with abnormal MFR in the LAD and LCx. We found that the peripheral coronary circulation was extensively impaired in the remote stage of Kawasaki disease, suggesting that an early onset of Kawasaki disease may affect the peripheral coronary circulation in later years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Clinical Diagnosis and Management of Kawasaki Disease)
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Article
Burden of Endometriosis: Infertility, Comorbidities, and Healthcare Resource Utilization
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(4), 1133; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11041133 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 738
Abstract
The goal of our study was to evaluate the burden of endometriosis in the community by comparing healthcare resource utilization, total direct medical costs, infertility, and comorbidity rates of women with and without a diagnosis of endometriosis. A retrospective case–control study was performed [...] Read more.
The goal of our study was to evaluate the burden of endometriosis in the community by comparing healthcare resource utilization, total direct medical costs, infertility, and comorbidity rates of women with and without a diagnosis of endometriosis. A retrospective case–control study was performed using the databases of a 2.1 million-member nationwide healthcare plan. The study population included women aged 15–55 years enrolled in the healthcare plan. Women with a diagnosis (ICD-9) of endometriosis were compared to controls without diagnosed endometriosis. Women were individually matched (1:4) on age and residence area. Patient characteristics were described, including infertility, comorbidities, and annual healthcare resource utilization. Total direct medical costs were analyzed in a generalized linear model adjusting for age. Women with endometriosis (n = 6146, mean age ± SD: 40.4 ± 8.0 y) were significantly more likely than controls (n = 24,572) to have a lower BMI and a higher socioeconomic status. After adjusting for BMI and socioeconomic status, endometriosis was significantly associated with infertility (OR = 3.3; 95% CI 3.1–3.5), chronic comorbidities, higher utilization of healthcare services (hospitalization: OR = 2.3; 95% CI 2.1–2.5), pain medications, and antidepressants. Women aged 15–19 y with endometriosis had substantially higher utilization of primary care visits (57.7% vs. 14.4%) and oral contraceptive use (76.9% vs. 9.6%). Direct medical costs associated with endometriosis were higher than those for controls (OR = 1.75; 95% CI 1.69–1.85). Endometriosis is associated with a high burden of comorbidities, increased healthcare resource utilization, and excess costs, particularly for younger patients whose healthcare needs may differ widely from the older population. Full article
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Review
Why Should Constant Stimulation of Saccular Afferents Modify the Posture and Gait of Patients with Bilateral Vestibular Dysfunction? The Saccular Substitution Hypothesis
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(4), 1132; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11041132 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 668
Abstract
An ongoing EU Horizon 2020 Project called BionicVEST is investigating the effect of constant electrical stimulation (ES) of the inferior vestibular nerve in patients with bilateral vestibular dysfunction (BVD). The evidence is that constant ES results in improved postural stability and gait performance, [...] Read more.
An ongoing EU Horizon 2020 Project called BionicVEST is investigating the effect of constant electrical stimulation (ES) of the inferior vestibular nerve in patients with bilateral vestibular dysfunction (BVD). The evidence is that constant ES results in improved postural stability and gait performance, and so the question of central importance concerns how constant ES of mainly saccular afferents in these BVD patients could cause this improved performance. We suggest that the constant ES substitutes for the absent saccular neural input to the vestibular nuclei and the cerebellum in these BVD patients and indirectly via these structures to other structures, which have been of great recent interest in motor control. One target area, the anterior midline cerebellum (the uvula), has recently been targeted as a location for deep-brain stimulation in human patients to improve postural stability and gait. There are projections from midline cerebellum to basal ganglia, including the striatum, which are structures involved in the initiation of gait. It may be that the effect of this activation of peripheral saccular afferent neurons is analogous to the effect of deep-brain stimulation (DBS) by electrodes in basal ganglia acting to help alleviate the symptoms of patients with Parkinson’s disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment of Vestibular Disorders)
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Article
Arthroscopy-Assisted Reduction and Internal Fixation versus Open Reduction and Internal Fixation for Glenoid Fracture with Scapular Involvement: A Retrospective Cohort Study
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(4), 1131; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11041131 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 515
Abstract
Background: We investigated the superiority of arthroscopy-assisted reduction and internal fixation (ARIF) to open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) for treating glenoid fracture with scapular involvement. Methods: We retrospectively enrolled patients with glenoid fracture who underwent ARIF or ORIF from 2010–2020. Radiographic outcomes [...] Read more.
Background: We investigated the superiority of arthroscopy-assisted reduction and internal fixation (ARIF) to open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) for treating glenoid fracture with scapular involvement. Methods: We retrospectively enrolled patients with glenoid fracture who underwent ARIF or ORIF from 2010–2020. Radiographic outcomes were assessed, and clinical outcomes (active range of motion [ROM], visual analog scale [VAS], Constant, and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand [DASH]) were evaluated 12 months postoperatively. Results: Forty-four patients with Ideberg type II–VI glenoid fractures (ARIF: 20; ORIF: 24; follow-up 12–22 months) were included. Union was achieved in all patients. Active ROM values were comparable between the approaches. Constant and DASH scores were non-significantly better with ARIF (90.9 ± 9.2 vs. 86.6 ± 18.1 [p = 0.341] and 6.8 ± 9.4 vs. 9.3 ± 21.3 [p = 0.626], respectively). However, VAS scores were significantly lower with ARIF (1.5 ± 0.6 vs. 2.7 ± 1.4, p = 0.001). Associated intra-articular lesions (articular depressions [80%], superior labral anterior-posterior tear [20%], labral tears [30%]) were found in most ARIF cases and were repaired during ARIF. Conclusions: For glenoid fracture with scapular involvement, ARIF allows accurate diagnosis of fracture pattern and the management of associated intra-articular lesions, with better pain control outcomes than ORIF. Thus, arthroscopy-assistant surgery should be considered in patient with glenoid fracture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthopaedic Trauma Surgery - State of the Art and Future Perspectives)
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Article
Characterization of Conjunctival Sac Microbiome from Patients with Allergic Conjunctivitis
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(4), 1130; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11041130 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 538
Abstract
Conjunctival sac microbiome alterations have been reported to be closely associated with many ocular diseases. However, the characteristic of conjunctival sac microbiome in allergic conjunctivitis (AC) was scarcely described. In this study, we aimed to identify the differences of the conjunctival sac microbiome [...] Read more.
Conjunctival sac microbiome alterations have been reported to be closely associated with many ocular diseases. However, the characteristic of conjunctival sac microbiome in allergic conjunctivitis (AC) was scarcely described. In this study, we aimed to identify the differences of the conjunctival sac microbiome composition in AC patients compared with normal controls (NCs) using high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing metagenomic analysis. The conjunctival sac microbiome samples from 28 AC patients and 39 NC patients were collected. The V3-V4 region of 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing was performed on the illumina MiSeq platform. Alpha diversity, beta diversity and the relative abundance at the phylum and genus levels were analyzed using QIIME. Alpha diversity demonstrated by Chao1, Observed_species and PD_whole_tree indexes did not show significant difference between the AC and NC groups, while the Shannon index was higher in the AC group. Beta diversity showed divergent microbiome composition in different groups (p < 0.005). The top five abundant phyla were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteriota, Bacteroidota and Cyanobacteria in both groups. The top five abundant genera were Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, Acinetobacter and Ralstonia in the AC group and Acinetobacter, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, Corynebacterium and Geobacillus in the NC group. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio at the phylum level was similar between groups (p = 0.144). The Bacillus/Acinetobacter (B/A) ratio at the genus level was higher in the AC group (p = 0.021). The dysbiosis detected in this study might provide further evidence to investigate the mechanism and treatment methods for allergic conjunctivitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Ocular Surface Diseases)
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Review
Acetylcholine Use in Modern Cardiac Catheterization Laboratories: A Systematic Review
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(4), 1129; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11041129 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 848
Abstract
Background: The use of acetylcholine for the diagnosis of vasospastic angina is recommended by international guidelines. However, its intracoronary use is still off-label due to the absence of safety studies. We aimed to perform a systematic review of the literature to identify adverse [...] Read more.
Background: The use of acetylcholine for the diagnosis of vasospastic angina is recommended by international guidelines. However, its intracoronary use is still off-label due to the absence of safety studies. We aimed to perform a systematic review of the literature to identify adverse events related to the intracoronary administration of acetylcholine for vasoreactivity testing to fill this gap. Methods and results: We conducted a systematic review of observational studies and randomized controlled trials dealing with the intracoronary administration of acetylcholine. Articles were searched in MEDLINE (PubMed) using the MeSH strategy. Three independent reviewers determined whether the studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 434 articles were selected. Data concerning clinical characteristics, study population, acetylcholine dosage, and adverse effects were retrieved from the articles. Overall, 71,566 patients were included, of which only 382 (0.5%) developed one adverse event, and there were no fatal events reported (0%). Conclusions: Intracoronary administration of acetylcholine in the setting of coronary spasm provocation testing is safe and plays a central role in the evaluation of coronary vasomotion disorders, making it worthy of becoming a part of clinical practice in all cardiac catheterization laboratories. Full article
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Article
Risk of Death and Ischemic Stroke in Patients with Atrial Arrhythmia and Thrombus or Sludge in Left Atrial Appendage at One-Year Follow-Up
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(4), 1128; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11041128 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 521
Abstract
Thrombus in the left atrial appendage is a contraindication for cardioversion. Sludge is considered similarly as threatening as thrombus; however, the risk of death and ischemic stroke in patients with atrial arrhythmia and thrombus or sludge is not well-known. This study focused on [...] Read more.
Thrombus in the left atrial appendage is a contraindication for cardioversion. Sludge is considered similarly as threatening as thrombus; however, the risk of death and ischemic stroke in patients with atrial arrhythmia and thrombus or sludge is not well-known. This study focused on assessing the risk of death and ischemic stroke at one-year follow-up in patients with atrial arrhythmia and thrombus or sludge, as well as the effectiveness of anticoagulation in thrombus resolution. 77 out of 267 (29%) of patients who were scheduled for cardioversion were diagnosed with thrombus or sludge. The annual mortality in patients with thrombus or sludge was 23%. In the group without thrombus, the annual mortality was 1.6%. Overall, 17% of patients with thrombus or sludge experienced ischemic stroke. In patients without thrombus, the risk of stroke was 1%. Sludge increased risk of stroke compared to those without thrombus or sludge by 11% vs. 1%, respectively. No differences in mortality or stroke prevalence were observed between sludge and thrombus. Thrombus or sludge in the LAA have a poor prognosis. A diagnosis of sludge has a similar impact on risk of ischemic strokes as does a diagnosis of thrombus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thromboembolic Risk in Atrial Fibrillation)
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Article
Pericardial Effusion on MRI in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(4), 1127; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11041127 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 546
Abstract
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) has been associated with cardiac abnormalities including mitral valve prolapse and aneurysmal dilatation of the aortic root. Herein, we investigated the potential association of pericardial effusion with ADPKD. Subjects with ADPKD (n = 117) and control [...] Read more.
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) has been associated with cardiac abnormalities including mitral valve prolapse and aneurysmal dilatation of the aortic root. Herein, we investigated the potential association of pericardial effusion with ADPKD. Subjects with ADPKD (n = 117) and control subjects without ADPKD matched for age, gender and renal function (n = 117) undergoing MRI including ECG-gated cine MRI of the aorta and heart were evaluated for pericardial effusion independently by three observers measuring the maximum pericardial effusion thickness in diastole using electronic calipers. Pericardial effusion thickness was larger in ADPKD subjects compared to matched controls (Mann–Whitney p = 0.001) with pericardial effusion thickness >5 mm observed in 24 of 117 (21%) ADPKD subjects compared to 4 of 117 (3%) controls (p = 0.00006). Pericardial effusion thickness in ADPKD was associated with female gender patients (1.2 mm greater than in males, p = 0.03) and pleural effusion thickness (p < 0.001) in multivariate analyses. No subjects exhibited symptoms related to pericardial effusion or required pericardiocentesis. In conclusion, pericardial effusion appears to be more prevalent in ADPKD compared to controls. Although in this retrospective cross-sectional study we did not identify clinical significance, future investigations of pericardial effusion in ADPKD subjects may help to more fully understand its role in this disease. Full article
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Review
Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Hepatitis B Virus-Infected Patients and the Role of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg)
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(4), 1126; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11041126 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1046
Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is among the main risk factors for HCC. The risk of HCC is not eliminated completely after viral suppression, due [...] Read more.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is among the main risk factors for HCC. The risk of HCC is not eliminated completely after viral suppression, due to HBV DNA integrated into human chromosomes. Cirrhosis, HBV viral DNA levels, age, male gender, the immune response of the host against HBV, and a combination of obesity and diabetes are among the main risk factors for HCC. Active viral replication and long-standing active disease with inflammation are associated with a higher risk of HCC. Treatment of HBV with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) decreased HCC risk by effectively decreasing viral load and inflammation. Similar risk factors have been reported in hepatitis B patients after seroclearance. Studies have reported decreased risk of HCC after seroclearance, but there were also conflicting results from a few studies indicating no difference in risk of developing HCC. The difference in HCC rates could be because of other factors such as coinfection, occult HBV infection, family history, HBV genotype, and other comorbidities. Due to the persistent risk of HCC after seroclearance, HCC surveillance is critical for early detection, especially in high-risk patients. However, long-term studies might be needed to further validate the results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastroenterology & Hepatopancreatobiliary Medicine)
Comment
Improvements in Outcomes and Expanding Indications for the Commando Procedure. Comment on Giambuzzi et al. Surgical Aortic Mitral Curtain Replacement: Systematic Review and Metanalysis of Early and Long-Term Results. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 3163
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(4), 1125; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11041125 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 432
Abstract
We read with interest the authors’ review and metanalysis of the Commando procedure in “Surgical Aortic Mitral Curtain Replacement: Systematic Review and Metanalysis of Early and Long-Term Results” [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Valvular Heart Disease: A World in Constant Motion)
Article
Diurnal Variability of Platelet Aggregation in Patients with Myocardial Infarction Treated with Prasugrel and Ticagrelor
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(4), 1124; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11041124 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 477
Abstract
Background: Contemporary antiplatelet treatment in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is based on one of two P2Y12 receptor inhibitors, prasugrel or ticagrelor. The aim of this study was to compare diurnal variability of platelet reactivity between patients receiving prasugrel and ticagrelor during the initial [...] Read more.
Background: Contemporary antiplatelet treatment in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is based on one of two P2Y12 receptor inhibitors, prasugrel or ticagrelor. The aim of this study was to compare diurnal variability of platelet reactivity between patients receiving prasugrel and ticagrelor during the initial phase of maintenance treatment after AMI. Methods: It was a prospective, two-center, pharmacodynamic, observational study. Blood for platelet testing was sampled at four time points on day four after AMI (8:00, 12:00, 16:00, 20:00). Diurnal variability of platelet reactivity was expressed as a coefficient of variation (CV) of the above-mentioned measurements. Results: 73 invasively-treated patients were enrolled (ticagrelor: n = 47, prasugrel: n = 26). CV was greater in patients treated with ticagrelor compared with prasugrel according to a VASP assay (47.8 [31.6–64.6]% vs. 21.3 [12.9–25.5]%, p < 0.001), while no statistical differences were detected when the CVs of platelet aggregation according to Multiplate were compared between ticagrelor- and prasugrel-treated patients. Ticagrelor-treated patients showed more pronounced platelet inhibition than prasugrel at 16:00 and 20:00 (VASP16:00: 20.6 ± 15.0 vs. 24.9 ± 12.8 PRI, p = 0.049; VASP20:00: 18.6 ± 17.7 vs. 26.0 ± 11.7 PRI, p = 0.002). Conclusions: Ticagrelor shows greater diurnal variability in platelet aggregation than prasugrel during the initial maintenance phase of AMI treatment, and this is due to the continuous increase of platelet inhibition after the morning maintenance dose. Both drugs provide an adequate antiplatelet effect early after AMI. Evaluation of the clinical significance of these findings warrants further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiology)
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Article
Less Fluctuation in Hemodynamics of the Wide-Awake Local Anesthesia No Tourniquet Technique Than General Anesthesia in Distal Radius Plating Surgery: A Prospective Case-Control Study
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(4), 1123; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11041123 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 651 | Correction
Abstract
This prospective case-control study aimed to compare the intraoperative hemodynamic changes between the wide-awake local anesthesia no tourniquet (WALANT) technique and general anesthesia (GA) in patients undergoing distal radius plating surgery. Forty adults with distal radius fractures underwent plating surgery via the WALANT [...] Read more.
This prospective case-control study aimed to compare the intraoperative hemodynamic changes between the wide-awake local anesthesia no tourniquet (WALANT) technique and general anesthesia (GA) in patients undergoing distal radius plating surgery. Forty adults with distal radius fractures underwent plating surgery via the WALANT technique (20 patients) or GA (20 patients). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate were recorded. Intraoperative pain intensity was measured using the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain in the WALANT group. The measures of hemodynamics and VAS were recorded at seven-time points perioperatively. The VAS score decreased significantly compared with the preoperative status in the WALANT group for most of the intraoperative period except during injections of local anesthetics and fracture reduction. The intraoperative MAP in the WALANT group showed no significant change during the perioperative period. In addition, the WALANT group showed fewer perioperative MAP fluctuations than the GA group (p < 0.05). The reduction and plating quality were similar between the two groups. WALANT provided a feasible technique with less fluctuation in hemodynamic status. With gentle manipulation of the fracture reduction, distal radius plating surgery using the WALANT technique is a well-tolerated surgical procedure and shows similar reduction and plating quality to GA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Orthopedic Surgery)
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Article
Enhanced Recovery after Surgery (ERAS) Protocol for Early Discharge within 12 Hours after Robotic Radical Hysterectomy
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(4), 1122; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11041122 - 20 Feb 2022
Viewed by 658
Abstract
To evaluate safety of quick discharge after robotic radical hysterectomy (RRH) in a tertiary hospital which has the enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol. Among 94 consecutive cervical cancer patients who had undergone RRH, operative outcomes and the rate of unexpected visit after [...] Read more.
To evaluate safety of quick discharge after robotic radical hysterectomy (RRH) in a tertiary hospital which has the enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol. Among 94 consecutive cervical cancer patients who had undergone RRH, operative outcomes and the rate of unexpected visit after surgery were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were categorized as a surgery-to-discharge time of ≤12 h (early discharge [ED]) or >12 h (late discharge [LD]). About 77% (n = 72) of analyzed 94 patients discharged within 12 h after RRH. The ED group had significant correlation with shorter duration for urinary catheter required, less operative blood loss, and less voiding difficulty after long-term follow up compared to the LD group. There was no difference of perioperative complications and unexpected visit between the two groups. Performing nerve sparing (NS) RRH was only independent predictor for ED (p = 0.043, hazard ratio for LD = 0.22, confidence interval = 0.05–0.95). In conclusion, the ED within 12 h after RRH was safe in the setting of ERAS protocol. The NS-RRH could avoid the delay of genitourinary function recovery after surgery which caused LD. It can become the reasonable clinical pathway to discharge early patients who undergo NS-RRH with ERAS protocol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Obstetrics & Gynecology)
Article
Early Use of Methylene Blue in Vasoplegic Syndrome: A 10-Year Propensity Score-Matched Cohort Study
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(4), 1121; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11041121 - 20 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 830
Abstract
Background: Vasoplegic syndrome is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. This retrospective, single-center study aimed to evaluate the effect of early use of methylene blue (MB) on hemodynamics after an intraoperative diagnosis of vasoplegic syndrome (VS). Methods: Over [...] Read more.
Background: Vasoplegic syndrome is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. This retrospective, single-center study aimed to evaluate the effect of early use of methylene blue (MB) on hemodynamics after an intraoperative diagnosis of vasoplegic syndrome (VS). Methods: Over a 10-year period, all patients diagnosed with intraoperative VS (hypotension despite treatment with norepinephrine ≥0.3 μg/kg/min and vasopressin ≥1 IE/h) while undergoing heart surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass were identified, and their data were examined. The intervention group received MB (2 mg/kg intravenous) within 15 min after the diagnosis of vasoplegia, while the control group received standard therapy. The two groups were matched using propensity scores. Results: Of the 1022 patients identified with VS, 221 received MB intraoperatively, and among them, 60 patients received MB within 15 min after the diagnosis of VS. After early MB application, mean arterial pressure was significantly higher, and vasopressor support was significantly lower within the first hour (p = 0.015) after the diagnosis of vasoplegia, resulting in a lower cumulative amount of norepinephrine (p = 0.018) and vasopressin (p = 0.003). The intraoperative need of fresh frozen plasma in the intervention group was lower compared to the control group (p = 0.015). Additionally, the intervention group had higher creatinine values in the first three postoperative days (p = 0.036) without changes in dialysis incidence. The 90-day survival did not differ significantly (p = 0.270). Conclusion: Our results indicate the additive effects of MB use during VS compared to standard vasopressor therapy only. Early MB administration for VS may significantly improve the patients’ hemodynamics with minor side effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anesthetic Management in Perioperative Period)
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Article
Frozen Elephant Trunk: Technical Overview and Our Experience with a Patient-Tailored Approach
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(4), 1120; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11041120 - 20 Feb 2022
Viewed by 655
Abstract
Ever since the first hybrid prosthesis was used for a total aortic arch replacement, many other techniques have been developed to comply with the need for the treatment of a wide spectrum of patients and their clinical pictures. We hereby provide an overview [...] Read more.
Ever since the first hybrid prosthesis was used for a total aortic arch replacement, many other techniques have been developed to comply with the need for the treatment of a wide spectrum of patients and their clinical pictures. We hereby provide an overview of the most popular surgical techniques to perform a frozen elephant trunk, including our tailored approach revolving around the antegrade deployment of a Gore C-TAG endovascular stent graft sutured to a four-branched vascular prosthesis. This technique was applied to three cases of acute type A aortic dissection. Although our small series of patients consists of acute aortic dissections only, this technique could be applied to any other aortic arch pathology, such as chronic dissections or aneurysms. Moreover, we believe that, because of the individually tailored approach and widespread availability of the necessary materials, this technique can reveal itself useful in many different operative scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Surgical Strategy for Aortic Valve Surgery)
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Review
Use of Thromboelastography and Rotational Thromboelastometry in Otolaryngology: A Narrative Review
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(4), 1119; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11041119 - 20 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 823
Abstract
In the field of otolaryngology—head and neck surgery (ENT), coagulopathies present unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. In both hyper- and hypocoagulable patients, management of coagulopathies requires intricate attention to the nature of hemostatic competence. Common coagulation tests (CCTs) offer only a snapshot of [...] Read more.
In the field of otolaryngology—head and neck surgery (ENT), coagulopathies present unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. In both hyper- and hypocoagulable patients, management of coagulopathies requires intricate attention to the nature of hemostatic competence. Common coagulation tests (CCTs) offer only a snapshot of hemostatic competence and do not provide a clear insight into the patient’s real-time hemostatic condition. Viscoelastic tests (VETs) offer a holistic and concurrent picture of the coagulation process. Although VETs have found prominent utilization in hepatic transplants, obstetrics, and emergent surgical settings, they have not been fully adopted in the realm of otolaryngology. The objective of this manuscript is to provide an overview of the literature evaluating the current utilization and possible future uses of VETs in the field of otolaryngology. The authors performed a comprehensive literature search of the utilization of VETs in otolaryngology and identified applicable studies that included descriptions of viscoelastic testing. Twenty-five studies were identified in this search, spanning topics from head and neck oncology, microvascular free flap reconstruction, obstructive sleep apnea, adenotonsillectomy, facial trauma, and epistaxis. The applicability of VETs has been demonstrated in head and neck oncology and microvascular free flap management, although their pervasiveness in practice is limited. Underutilization of VETs in the field of otolaryngology may be due to a lack of familiarity of the tests amongst practitioners. Instead, most otolaryngologists continue to rely on CCTs, including PT, PTT, INR, CBC, fibrinogen levels, and thrombin time. Learning to perform, interpret, and skillfully employ VETs in clinical and operative practice can greatly improve the management of coagulopathic patients who are at increased risk of bleeding or thrombosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Research on Viscoelastic Testing)
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