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Volume 12, January

Behav. Sci., Volume 12, Issue 2 (February 2022) – 39 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is an ongoing challenge for clinicians, being responsible for high disability and poor social functioning. In the framework of precision medicine, the objective of current research in the field is to find clinical and biological factors associated with this condition. Patients affected by TRD present unfavourable clinical features such as the propensity to suicidal behaviour. The identification of TRD-related changes in biochemical parameters such as bilirubin or neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio initiates the search for new treatment targets. In this context, as regards the enhancement of antioxidative systems, it would be important to understand whether the administration of antioxidant agents could improve some clinical aspects of patients with TRD. View this paper
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Article
Why and When Do Employees Hide Their Knowledge?
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12020056 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 951
Abstract
This study establishes a theoretical and integrative framework for analyzing the relationship between knowledge hiding and task performance. The existing literature indicates that knowledge hiding is prominent in service sector firms and impedes knowledge transfer. However, the potential determinants and consequences have not [...] Read more.
This study establishes a theoretical and integrative framework for analyzing the relationship between knowledge hiding and task performance. The existing literature indicates that knowledge hiding is prominent in service sector firms and impedes knowledge transfer. However, the potential determinants and consequences have not been extensively investigated. The objectives of this study are threefold: First, examining the effect of distrust and the complexity of knowledge on knowledge hiding. Second, examining the effect of knowledge hiding on task performance. Third, examining the conditional effect of task relatedness in the relationship between distrust, knowledge complexity, and knowledge hiding. We conducted an online survey by using a Google form to collect our data. We gathered data from 325 salespersons in the business departments of a single firm in Indonesia. To test our hypotheses, we employed Partial Least Square (PLS). The results revealed that distrust and knowledge complexity are critical factors in predicting knowledge hiding. Interestingly, knowledge hiding positively affects task performance. The rationale behind this result is that employees tend to believe that hiding knowledge is a strategy to boost their performance in the short run. The contribution of this study is the suggestion that organizations should implement a knowledge-sharing culture to minimize knowledge hiding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behaviors)
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Article
Accessing Neuromarketing Scientific Performance: Research Gaps and Emerging Topics
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12020055 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1190
Abstract
(1) Background: Using neuroscience to understand and influence consumer behavior often leads to ethical controversy. Thus, it is necessary to demystify the use of neuroscience for marketing purposes; the present paper, by accessing the worldwide academic performance in this domain, fulfills this objective. [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Using neuroscience to understand and influence consumer behavior often leads to ethical controversy. Thus, it is necessary to demystify the use of neuroscience for marketing purposes; the present paper, by accessing the worldwide academic performance in this domain, fulfills this objective. (2) Methods: All extant literature on neuromarketing indexed to the Scopus database—318 articles—was subjected to a bibliometric analysis through a mixed-method approach. (3) Results: The results show that Spain leads the ranks of the most productive countries, while Italian researchers clearly dominate in terms of collaboration. Regarding the most prominent topics, the connection between “Neuroscience” and “Advertising” is highlighted. The findings provide a better understanding of the state-of-the-art in neuromarketing studies, research gaps, and emerging research topics, and additionally provide a new methodological contribution by including SciVal topic prominence in the bibliometric analysis. (4) Conclusions: As practical implications, this study provides useful insights for neuromarketing researchers seeking funding opportunities, which are normally associated with topics within the top prominence percentile or emerging topics. In terms of originality, this study is the first to apply SciVal topic prominence to a bibliometric analysis of neuromarketing, and provides a new bibliometric indicator for neuromarketing research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Neurosciences)
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Article
Development of an Ecologically Valid Assessment for Social Cognition Based on Real Interaction: Preliminary Results
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12020054 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 879
Abstract
Many social cognitive assessment measures that are appropriate for clinical use are currently available, but there is a general concern about their ecological validity. This study aimed to develop an applicable real interaction-based test to assess social cognition. A sample of 50 subjects [...] Read more.
Many social cognitive assessment measures that are appropriate for clinical use are currently available, but there is a general concern about their ecological validity. This study aimed to develop an applicable real interaction-based test to assess social cognition. A sample of 50 subjects (mean age 22 ± 5.8, 56% women) took the Social Interaction Test as well as two instruments for assessing social cognition: (1) the Movie for Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC) and (2) branch 4 from the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). The test showed no incidence on its application. The reliability of the 18-item final version of the test was a medium-high level (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.701). To assess the internal structure of the test, a multidimensional scaling procedure was used. The common space of coordinates for the two-dimensional solution showed a normalized raw stress of 0.076 and Tucker’s congruence coefficient of 0.965. The social interaction test showed stronger association with MASC (more realistic, video-based format) than with MSCEIT (less realistic, paper-based format). The Social Interaction Test is applicable and feasible to use it to assess social cognition in the general population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Psychology)
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Article
Evidence of Anxiety, Depression and Learning Impairments following Prenatal Hypertension
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12020053 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1090
Abstract
Background: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, such as Preeclampsia (PreE) and HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzyme, low platelet) syndrome, affects approximately 5–10% of pregnancies and increases the risk of women developing disorders, such as anxiety or depression, in the postpartum period. Using preclinical rodent [...] Read more.
Background: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, such as Preeclampsia (PreE) and HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzyme, low platelet) syndrome, affects approximately 5–10% of pregnancies and increases the risk of women developing disorders, such as anxiety or depression, in the postpartum period. Using preclinical rodent models, we set out to determine whether rats with a history of PreE or HELLP had evidence of anxiety, depression or cognitive impairment and whether immune suppression during pregnancy prevented these changes in mood and/or cognition. Methods: Timed-pregnant rats were infused with sFlt-1 and/or sEng to induce PreE or HELLP beginning on gestational day 12. After delivery, a battery of validated behavioral assays was used to assess post-partum depression, anxiety and learning. Results: There was no negative effect on maternal pup interaction due to PreE or HELLP; however, hypertensive dams spent more time immobile in the forced swim test (p < 0.0001). Hypertensive dams also spent less time in the open area of the open field (p = 0.001). There were no significant changes in recognition memory (p = 0.08); however, spatial learning was impaired in hypertensive dams (p = 0.003). Immobility time in the forced swim test was positively correlated with increased circulating S100B (p = 0.04), while increased time spent in the outer zones of the open field was negatively correlated with BDNF levels (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: The results from this study suggest that hypertensive pregnancy disorders are associated with depression, anxiety and learning impairments in the post-partum period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reproductive Mental Health—Individual and Family Aspects)
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Article
Relationship between Mental Disorders and Optimism in a Community-Based Sample of Adults
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12020052 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 804
Abstract
Optimism should be included in efforts to protect mental health, as it can provide cognitive resources. Optimism also reduces the negative effects of stressful life events associated with the occurrence and recurrence of mental disorders. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between [...] Read more.
Optimism should be included in efforts to protect mental health, as it can provide cognitive resources. Optimism also reduces the negative effects of stressful life events associated with the occurrence and recurrence of mental disorders. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between mental disorders and optimism in a community-based sample of adults. The study was conducted in three semi-rural clusters determined via random sampling. After adjustment in accordance with the independent variables, the relationship between each psychiatric disorder and Life Orientation Test (LOT) was calculated using logistic models. Overall, 24.5% of participants were categorized into at least one mental disorder group, with 20.8%, 3.5%, and 0.3% having one, two, or three mental disorders, respectively. The median LOT score was lower in patients diagnosed from the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders modules, except for the somatoform disorder module. Maintaining an optimistic view reduced the risk of mood disorders by 0.86 (OR; 95% CI, 0.81–0.91), anxiety disorders by 0.89 (0.83–0.97), and probable alcohol abuse by 0.83 (0.74–0.93) times after adjustment. The role of an optimistic view in coping with mental problems should be investigated in detail. Full article
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Article
Trust, Media Credibility, Social Ties, and the Intention to Share towards Information Verification in an Age of Fake News
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12020051 - 16 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1994
Abstract
Social media is now the primary form of communication between internet users and has soared in popularity, which has directly impacted the spread of the phenomenon of fake news. Fake news is not only a widespread phenomenon; it is also problematic and dangerous [...] Read more.
Social media is now the primary form of communication between internet users and has soared in popularity, which has directly impacted the spread of the phenomenon of fake news. Fake news is not only a widespread phenomenon; it is also problematic and dangerous for society. The aim of this study is to understand the phenomenon of fake news better. The study utilised a structural modelling equation in order to identify how Polish society perceives the problem of fake news and assess the extent to which it trusts content that is published on the internet. The key goal was to determine what factors have the most significant influence on the verification of information being viewed on the internet. By deploying the partial least squares method of validation, SmartPLS3 software was used to process the survey results. The strongest positive effect on information verification behaviour was found to be fake news awareness, which was followed by the intention to share information. The research did not consider any clear connections that may exist between the nature of fake news and its recipient; however, much of the fake news that appears on the internet is political in nature. The study can be used by news reporting companies and provides preliminary information for developers responsible for running social media sites as well as users who want to combat and limit the spread of fake news online. This study expands on the available literature related to fake news by identifying the effects on information verification behaviour of fake news awareness and the intention to share data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Psychology of Fake News)
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Article
Factors Affecting the Repurchase Intention of Organic Tea among Millennial Consumers: An Empirical Study
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12020050 - 16 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1141
Abstract
The study aims to identify the factors affecting consumers’ intention to repurchase organic tea in an emerging country such as Bangladesh. The study adopted the Stimulus-Organism-Response (SOR) theory, which uses seven constructs as the predictor of repurchase intention. This is a quantitative and [...] Read more.
The study aims to identify the factors affecting consumers’ intention to repurchase organic tea in an emerging country such as Bangladesh. The study adopted the Stimulus-Organism-Response (SOR) theory, which uses seven constructs as the predictor of repurchase intention. This is a quantitative and empirical study that adopted cross-sectional survey methods. The convenience sampling method was used to collect data from 340 young respondents who visited supermarkets in Dhaka between October and November 2021. In order to analyze the obtained primary data, the structural equation modeling (SEM) approach was used. The findings revealed that product satisfaction, perceived values and brand trust are the predictors of repurchase intention. Surprisingly, we did not find that promotional efforts effected repurchase intention. The study also identified food quality and information quality as the antecedents of perceived value and product satisfaction, while the antecedents of brand trust were product satisfaction, food quality, brand image, information quality and promotional effort. The study suggested numerous theoretical and policy implications to improve repurchase intention of organic tea in the context of emerging economies such as Bangladesh. Full article
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Article
Work Motivation: The Roles of Individual Needs and Social Conditions
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12020049 - 15 Feb 2022
Viewed by 804
Abstract
Work motivation plays a vital role in the development of organizations, as it increases employee productivity and effectiveness. To expand insights into individuals’ work motivation, the authors investigated the influence of individuals’ competence, autonomy, and social relatedness on their work motivation. Additionally, the [...] Read more.
Work motivation plays a vital role in the development of organizations, as it increases employee productivity and effectiveness. To expand insights into individuals’ work motivation, the authors investigated the influence of individuals’ competence, autonomy, and social relatedness on their work motivation. Additionally, the country-level moderating factors of those individual-level associations were examined. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to analyze data from 32,614 individuals from 25 countries, obtained from the World Values Survey (WVS). Findings showed that autonomy and social relatedness positively impacted work motivation, while competence negatively influenced work motivation. Moreover, the individual-level associations were moderated by the country-level religious affiliation, political participation, humane orientation, and in-group collectivism. Contributions, practical implications, and directions for further research were then discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behaviors)
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Article
Cerebral Blood Flow and Brain Functional Connectivity Changes in Older Adults Participating in a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Program
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12020048 - 14 Feb 2022
Viewed by 809
Abstract
There is a growing interest in the potential beneficial effects of mindfulness meditation training in protecting against age-related physical, emotional, and cognitive decline. The current prospective, single-center, single-arm study investigated if functional magnetic resonance imaging-based changes in cerebral blood flow and brain functional [...] Read more.
There is a growing interest in the potential beneficial effects of mindfulness meditation training in protecting against age-related physical, emotional, and cognitive decline. The current prospective, single-center, single-arm study investigated if functional magnetic resonance imaging-based changes in cerebral blood flow and brain functional connectivity could be observed in 11 elderly adults (mean age 79) after participation in a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program. The results showed significantly (p < 0.05) altered cerebral blood flow and functional connectivity in the cingulate gyrus, limbic structures, and subregions of the temporal and frontal lobes, similar to findings of other meditation-related studies in younger populations. Furthermore, these changes were also associated with significant improvements in depression symptoms. This study suggests that the MBSR program can potentially modify cerebral blood flow and connectivity in this population. Full article
Article
“The Best Laid Plans”: Do Individual Differences in Planfulness Moderate Effects of Implementation Intention Interventions?
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12020047 - 14 Feb 2022
Viewed by 842
Abstract
While there is good evidence supporting the positive effect of planning strategies like implementation intentions on the relationship between intention and behavior, there is less evidence on the moderating role of individual differences in planning capacity on this effect. This study aimed to [...] Read more.
While there is good evidence supporting the positive effect of planning strategies like implementation intentions on the relationship between intention and behavior, there is less evidence on the moderating role of individual differences in planning capacity on this effect. This study aimed to examine the role of individual differences in planfulness on the effect of planning strategies on the intention–behavior gap. Specifically, this study investigated the influence of planfulness on the effectiveness of implementation intentions on goal-directed behavior using an experimental design. Undergraduate university students (N = 142) with high and low levels of planfulness based on a priori scores on a planfulness measure were randomized to either a planning (implementation intention) or familiarization (control) condition prior to completing a computerized go no-go task. We predicted that individuals reporting low levels of planfulness would be more effective in executing goal-directed behavior when prompted to form an implementation intention compared to individuals who do not receive a prompt. Additionally, we predicted that individuals reporting high planfulness would be equally effective in enacting goal-directed behaviour regardless of whether they formed an implementation intention. The results revealed no main or interaction effects of implementation intention manipulation and planfulness on task reaction times. The current results do not provide support for the moderating effect of planfulness on the implementation effect. The findings of this study were inconsistent with previous literature. This research has implications for the effectiveness of implementation intentions, as well as opportunities for further replication in a novel research area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Behavior Change: Theories, Methods, and Interventions)
Article
Developing an Open Innovation Attitude Assessment Framework for Organizations: Focusing on Open Innovation Role Perspective and Locus of Activity
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12020046 - 11 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1181
Abstract
From an organizational perspective, open innovation (OI) capability assessments are becoming increasingly important. The authors propose that an organization’s attitude toward interactive OI activities among OI stakeholders can reveal its degree of capability. This paper aims to focus on an organization’s OI attitude [...] Read more.
From an organizational perspective, open innovation (OI) capability assessments are becoming increasingly important. The authors propose that an organization’s attitude toward interactive OI activities among OI stakeholders can reveal its degree of capability. This paper aims to focus on an organization’s OI attitude measurement scales and develop a framework linked to the role perspectives and loci of OI activities occurring at the organizational level. This research will introduce a practical, theory-based indication of OI assessment by combining a deductive process that identifies organizational OI attitude constructs with an inductive framework development process. First, the authors conducted an extensive literature review of attitude measurement on the execution of OI. Then, they performed empirical data analysis using a large-scale structured attitude assessment survey from individuals in domestic and multi-national corporations (n = 134), which led to the development of questionnaire sets on attitude evaluation. This study contributes to developing an organizational OI attitude assessment scale. Furthermore, based on empirical data analysis, the research framework demonstrated the reliability and validity of the organizational OI attitude measurement scale. Specifically, the scale contains proven questionnaires assessing OI attitudes by interrogating individual actors’ impact, behavior, and cognition regarding their organization’s OI activities. The organization’s three role perspectives (transfer, absorption, and brokerage) and two loci of activities in the OI ecosystem provide six distinct dimensions, suggesting areas of focus for a firm’s strategic OI direction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behaviors)
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Article
Bicultural Minds: A Cultural Priming Approach to the Self-Bias Effect
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12020045 - 11 Feb 2022
Viewed by 609
Abstract
Recent research has discovered a robust bias towards the processing of self-relevant information in perceptual matching. Self-associated stimuli are processed faster and more accurately than other-associated stimuli. Priming of independent or interdependent self-construal can dynamically modulate self-biases in high-level cognitive tasks. This study [...] Read more.
Recent research has discovered a robust bias towards the processing of self-relevant information in perceptual matching. Self-associated stimuli are processed faster and more accurately than other-associated stimuli. Priming of independent or interdependent self-construal can dynamically modulate self-biases in high-level cognitive tasks. This study explored whether priming of independent/interdependent mindsets can modulate the self-bias effect in perceptual matching. In two experiments, British participants performed a priming task (Experiment 1 using a word-search task—an implicit priming approach, Experiment 2 with a reflective thinking task—an explicit priming method) immediately followed by a perceptual matching task, where they first learned to associate geometric shapes with labels (e.g., circle is you, square is friend, triangle is stranger) and then made judgments on whether shape-label pairs displayed on-screen were the correct associations or not. The analysis in Experiment 1 revealed that priming the interdependent self-construal led to a reduced self-bias effect in perceptual matching in participants who had low bias compared to those with high bias in the neutral/non-priming condition. In contrast, priming the independent self-construal did not modulate the self-bias in perceptual matching. The effects were replicated in Experiment 2. The results indicate that the self is a dynamic concept that can modulate perceptual processing by accessing different cultural contexts. Full article
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Article
Spotlight on Maternal Perceptions of Child Behavior: A Daily Diary Study with Child Welfare-Involved Mothers
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12020044 - 11 Feb 2022
Viewed by 602
Abstract
Research has documented a variety of factors—including stress, attributions, and anger—that may increase parents’ risk for child maltreatment, but most of this research is based on low-risk, community samples of parents’ perceptions about themselves and their children. Moreover, parents are usually asked to [...] Read more.
Research has documented a variety of factors—including stress, attributions, and anger—that may increase parents’ risk for child maltreatment, but most of this research is based on low-risk, community samples of parents’ perceptions about themselves and their children. Moreover, parents are usually asked to provide self-reports wherein they summarize their general impressions distal from actual parenting. The current study employed experience sampling methods with a high-risk sample. Mothers identified for child maltreatment reported on their stress and coping as well as their perceptions regarding children’s misbehavior and good behavior using end-of-day surveys for up to four weeks. Only maternal reports of children’s good behavior based on personality and mood were relatively stable; stress, coping, and reports on child misbehavior varied considerably across days, implying that contributors to daily fluctuations in these factors could represent intervention targets. Although maternal perceptions of misbehavior severity, anger, and negative attributions were interrelated, only anger about misbehavior related to maternal stress levels. Mothers who reported better coping perceived their child’s behavior more favorably that day and were more likely to ascribe positive behavior to the child’s mood and personality. Current findings highlight the importance of positive coping mechanisms in parental perceptions of children; such findings should be replicated to determine how to maximize parental resources that reduce child maltreatment risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Developmental Psychology)
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Perspective
Sliding Scale Theory of Attention and Consciousness/Unconsciousness
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12020043 - 10 Feb 2022
Viewed by 569
Abstract
Attention defined as focusing on a unit of information plays a prominent role in both consciousness and the cognitive unconscious, due to its essential role in information processing. Existing theories of consciousness invariably address the relationship between attention and conscious awareness, ranging from [...] Read more.
Attention defined as focusing on a unit of information plays a prominent role in both consciousness and the cognitive unconscious, due to its essential role in information processing. Existing theories of consciousness invariably address the relationship between attention and conscious awareness, ranging from attention is not required to crucial. However, these theories do not adequately or even remotely consider the contribution of attention to the cognitive unconscious. A valid theory of consciousness must also be a robust theory of the cognitive unconscious, a point rarely if ever considered. Current theories also emphasize human perceptual consciousness, primarily visual, despite evidence that consciousness occurs in diverse animal species varying in cognitive capacity, and across many forms of perceptual and thought consciousness. A comprehensive and parsimonious perspective applicable to the diversity of species demonstrating consciousness and the various forms—sliding scale theory of attention and consciousness/unconsciousness—is proposed with relevant research reviewed. Consistent with the continuous organization of natural events, attention occupies a sliding scale in regards to time and space compression. Unconscious attention in the form of the “cognitive unconscious” is time and spaced diffused, whereas conscious attention is tightly time and space compressed to the present moment. Due to the special clarity derived from brief and concentrated signals, the tight time and space compression yields conscious awareness as an emergent property. The present moment enhances the time and space compression of conscious attention, and contributes to an evolutionary explanation of conscious awareness. Full article
Article
The Relationship between Androgen Receptor Gene Polymorphism, Aggression and Social Status in Young Men and Women
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12020042 - 10 Feb 2022
Viewed by 597
Abstract
In both sexes, aggression has been described as a critical trait to acquire social status. Still, almost uniquely in men, the link between aggressiveness and the genetic background of testosterone sensitivity measured from the polymorphism in the androgen receptor (AR) gene [...] Read more.
In both sexes, aggression has been described as a critical trait to acquire social status. Still, almost uniquely in men, the link between aggressiveness and the genetic background of testosterone sensitivity measured from the polymorphism in the androgen receptor (AR) gene has been previously investigated. We assessed the relevance of the AR gene to understand aggression and how aggressiveness affects social status in a cross-sectional study of 195 participants, for the first time in both young men and women. We estimated polymorphism sequences from saliva and measured aggression and self-perceived social status. Unfortunately, the results did not support our prediction because we did not find any of the expected relationships. Therefore, the results suggest that the genetic association between aggressive mechanisms and polymorphism of the AR gene is less straightforward than expected, at least in men, and seems to indicate that aggression is not usually used to gain social status in our population. Full article
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Article
Next Steps: Applying a Trauma-Informed Model to Create an Anti-Racist Organizational Culture
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12020041 - 09 Feb 2022
Viewed by 793
Abstract
Although there has been a significant increase in the delivery of evidence-supported, trauma-informed care over the past few years, there has been less discussion around the consideration of the broader cultural, political, and societal factors that contextualize client trauma and that also need [...] Read more.
Although there has been a significant increase in the delivery of evidence-supported, trauma-informed care over the past few years, there has been less discussion around the consideration of the broader cultural, political, and societal factors that contextualize client trauma and that also need to be recognized and understood to promote healing and prevent future trauma. In support of sharing some best practices and lessons learned, this article provides a case study of one agency that has used the Sanctuary Model®, an evidence-supported, trauma-informed organizational change model, to introduce the practice of cultural humility with staff as a facilitator of improved service delivery for clients from culturally marginalized communities. The model supports these endeavors through the adherence to the seven commitments, a set of organizational values for creating a trauma-informed community, allowing for all voices to be heard and considered and providing opportunities to begin the repair of previous experiences of inequity and suppression. Through the board of directors, leadership, and staff, the organization transformed its culture into one that truly supports and embraces diversity, equity, and inclusion in its operation for the benefit of both staff and clients alike. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Culturally Responsive Trauma-Informed Care)
Article
A Behavioral Strategy to Nudge Young Adults to Adopt In-Person Counseling: Gamification
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12020040 - 07 Feb 2022
Viewed by 841
Abstract
Mental illness has always been an important issue for young adults. Moreover, initiatives resulting from the outbreak of COVID-19 have had an even greater impact on the mental health of young adults. This study sought to examine the effect of gamification on whether [...] Read more.
Mental illness has always been an important issue for young adults. Moreover, initiatives resulting from the outbreak of COVID-19 have had an even greater impact on the mental health of young adults. This study sought to examine the effect of gamification on whether young adults adopt in-person counseling. One hundred twenty young adults (42 males and 78 females) with an average age of 29 years participated in our experiment. In the experiment, a 2 (Gamification: no vs. yes) × 2 (Vividness: low vs. high) between-subjects design was employed. In the “yes” gamification condition, participants decided whether or not to read introductory material about in-person counseling, and also whether or not to adopt in-person counseling in the future. The results of the study show that: (1) gamification increased adoption, (2) participants’ perception of subjective usability of in-person counseling mediated the effect of gamification to adoption, and (3) vividness of presentation moderated subjective usability. Our study demonstrated that gamification nudges young adults to adopt in-person counseling while subjective usability mediates the relationship, and vividness moderates the relationship between gamification and subjective usability. Our findings provide counselors fresh insights into motivating people to access counseling services. Full article
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Commentary
Can We Do Better Next Time? Italians’ Response to the COVID-19 Emergency through a Heuristics and Biases Lens
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12020039 - 07 Feb 2022
Viewed by 678
Abstract
During the outbreak of COVID-19 in Italy, people often failed to adopt behaviors that could have stopped, or at least slowed down, the spread of this deadly disease. We offer cognitive explanations for these decisions, based on some of the most common heuristics [...] Read more.
During the outbreak of COVID-19 in Italy, people often failed to adopt behaviors that could have stopped, or at least slowed down, the spread of this deadly disease. We offer cognitive explanations for these decisions, based on some of the most common heuristics and biases that are known to influence human judgment and decision-making, especially under conditions of high uncertainty. Our analysis concludes with the following recommendations: policymakers can and should take advantage of this established science, in order to communicate more effectively and increase the likelihood that people choose responsible actions in a public health crisis. Full article
Review
Procrastination during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Scoping Review
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12020038 - 06 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1952
Abstract
Procrastination involves voluntarily or habitually delaying unpleasant tasks for later. It is characterized by short-term benefits and long-term costs. The COVID-19 pandemic set specific circumstances that may have influenced procrastination behavior. This scoping review identified the existing peer-reviewed literature in English or Spanish [...] Read more.
Procrastination involves voluntarily or habitually delaying unpleasant tasks for later. It is characterized by short-term benefits and long-term costs. The COVID-19 pandemic set specific circumstances that may have influenced procrastination behavior. This scoping review identified the existing peer-reviewed literature in English or Spanish about procrastination during the COVID-19 pandemic (January 2020 to April 2021) in six electronic databases. To conduct the review, a five-step methodological framework, as well as established PRISMA guidelines, was followed. A total of 101 articles were found. After removing duplicates and reviewing the articles, only 13 were included in the review. Findings indicate that procrastination was studied mostly in academic contexts in various parts of the globe. Procrastination behavior was related to anxiety, distress, time management, self-control, and other variables. There is limited information about interventions to prevent or decrease procrastinating behaviors in the context of confinement or in the living conditions generated by the pandemic. Future research should consider how procrastination evolved during the pandemic using longitudinal methodologies. Individual differences related to procrastination also should be identified, and the evaluation of the efficacy of existing interventions is still needed. This information might help in the creation of appropriate interventions that target detrimental procrastination behaviors. Full article
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Article
Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Brain Electrical Activity, Heart Rate Variability, and Dual-Task Performance in Healthy and Fibromyalgia Women: A Study Protocol
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12020037 - 04 Feb 2022
Viewed by 844
Abstract
People with fibromyalgia could experience physical and cognitive impairments. Furthermore, when performing two tasks at the same time, people with fibromyalgia showed a higher dual-task cost compared to a single task than healthy people. This may result in poorer performance of activities of [...] Read more.
People with fibromyalgia could experience physical and cognitive impairments. Furthermore, when performing two tasks at the same time, people with fibromyalgia showed a higher dual-task cost compared to a single task than healthy people. This may result in poorer performance of activities of daily living that are commonly presented as a combination of two or more tasks. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising nonpharmacological therapy. However, there is controversy regarding the intensities and the effectiveness of this therapy. Thus, the present study will aim: (1) to compare the effectiveness and the impact of two tDCS intensities (1 mA and 2 mA) on cognitive, motor, brain functions, and cardiac autonomic modulation; (2) to study the impact of tDCS on the dual-task performance and creativity after applying tDCS in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In this study, 26 women will participate and will be divided into two groups: women with fibromyalgia (n = 13), and healthy controls (n = 13). A reduction in cognitive-motor interference in dual-task performance is expected, as well as a modification in neurophysiological parameters and an improvement in cardiac autonomic modulation. Lastly, no different effects are expected depending on the stimulation intensity applied. The obtained results will help to determine if tDCS in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex could improve the occupational performance of women with fibromyalgia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity, Physical and Psychological Health)
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Article
An Assessment of Various Challenges Perceived by Dental Students amidst the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Digital Questionnaire Study
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12020036 - 04 Feb 2022
Viewed by 714
Abstract
The objective of our study was to evaluate dental students’ perception of the challenges faced during the COVID-19 pandemic related to their clinical work, education, performance, online examinations, psychological health, and teamwork. A validated online questionnaire consisting of closed ended questions was sent [...] Read more.
The objective of our study was to evaluate dental students’ perception of the challenges faced during the COVID-19 pandemic related to their clinical work, education, performance, online examinations, psychological health, and teamwork. A validated online questionnaire consisting of closed ended questions was sent to all the undergraduate dental students at our institute. Data were collected and analyzed statistically using a chi-square test to compare responses of male with female and junior with senior students. A total of 317 undergraduate dental students (N = 317) participated in this cross-sectional study. The most common challenges perceived by the participants were related to their exam duration (77.3%), patient availability (66.9%), difficulty in understanding online lectures (58.4%), and a fear of losing grades (57.4%). Participants reported that the COVID-19 pandemic affected their performance in the courses (75.4%), teamwork (72.2%), educational aspects (67.5%), and psychological health (51.1%). A significantly greater proportion of female students reported the adverse effects of COVID-19 on their psychological health than male students (p = 0.031). Senior students perceived the negative impact of COVID-19 on teamwork significantly more than the junior students (p = 0.004). The majority of students reported challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. Female students and senior students perceived more challenges than their counterparts. Future studies from other institutes of this region are recommended to establish a clearer picture of COVID-19 related challenges faced by dental students. Full article
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Article
Research on the Impact of Enterprise Green Development Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Approach
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12020035 - 03 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 776
Abstract
The environmental situation is not optimistic. Improving the level of enterprise green development behavior can help enterprises to comply with the trend of environmental protection. However, existing studies do not explain the factors influencing enterprise green development behavior. This research collects and screens [...] Read more.
The environmental situation is not optimistic. Improving the level of enterprise green development behavior can help enterprises to comply with the trend of environmental protection. However, existing studies do not explain the factors influencing enterprise green development behavior. This research collects and screens 33 empirical studies related to enterprise green development behavior from multiple authoritative data platforms, which cover 10 different countries and regions. A quantitative approach is then used to comprehensively explore the influencing factors, deeply dig into their degree of influence, and explore the moderating effect of the moderators. The results show the following: (1) corporate tangible resources, corporate intangible resources, market environment, policy and institutional environment, and public supervision have positive effects on enterprise green development behavior, and there are differences in the degree of influence; (2) corporate intangible resources have the most significant influence on enterprise green development behavior; (3) the size, region, and industry of enterprise can moderate enterprise green development behavior. This research suggests four participants: society, enterprise, market, and government. The research results are intended to provide a basis for researchers to further study enterprise green development behavior for specific industries and promote enterprise green development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behaviors)
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Article
Clinical and Biological Factors Are Associated with Treatment-Resistant Depression
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12020034 - 03 Feb 2022
Viewed by 782
Abstract
Background: Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is a debilitating condition associated with unmet clinical needs. Few studies have explored clinical characteristics and serum biomarkers associated with TRD. Aims: We investigated whether there were differences in clinical and biochemical variables between patients affected by TRD than [...] Read more.
Background: Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is a debilitating condition associated with unmet clinical needs. Few studies have explored clinical characteristics and serum biomarkers associated with TRD. Aims: We investigated whether there were differences in clinical and biochemical variables between patients affected by TRD than those without. Methods: We recruited 343 patients (165 males and 178 females) consecutively hospitalized for MDD to the inpatient clinics affiliated to the Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico, Milan, Italy (n = 234), and ASST Monza, Italy (n = 109). Data were obtained through a screening of the clinical charts and blood analyses conducted during the hospitalization. Results: TRD versus non-TRD patients resulted to be older (p = 0.001), to have a longer duration of illness (p < 0.001), to be more currently treated with a psychiatric poly-therapy (p < 0.001), to have currently more severe depressive symptoms as showed by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) scores (p = 0.016), to have lower bilirubin plasma levels (p < 0.001). In addition, more lifetime suicide attempts (p = 0.035), more antidepressant treatments before the current episode (p < 0.001), and a lower neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio at borderline statistically significant level (p = 0.060) were all associated with the TRD group. Conclusion: We identified candidate biomarkers associated with TRD such as bilirubin plasma levels and NLR, to be confirmed by further studies. Moreover, TRD seems to be associated with unfavorable clinical factors such as a predisposition to suicidal behaviors. Future research should replicate these results to provide robust data in support of the identification of new targets of treatment and implementation of prevention strategies for TRD. Full article
Article
Effects of Mind-Body Interventions on Adolescents’ Cooperativeness and Emotional Symptoms
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12020033 - 02 Feb 2022
Viewed by 677
Abstract
Background: Mind-body interventions may support the development of adolescents’ self-regulation and provide a protective effect against maladaptive outcomes, e.g., internalizing and externalizing problems. The present study aimed at evaluating the effects of mindfulness-oriented meditation training (MOM) and autogenic training (AT) on a group [...] Read more.
Background: Mind-body interventions may support the development of adolescents’ self-regulation and provide a protective effect against maladaptive outcomes, e.g., internalizing and externalizing problems. The present study aimed at evaluating the effects of mindfulness-oriented meditation training (MOM) and autogenic training (AT) on a group of healthy Italian adolescents’ character dimensions, emotional and behavioral difficulties. Methods: 72 adolescents were randomly assigned to MOM/AT conditions and tested before and after the 8-week trainings through self-report measures (Temperament and Character Inventory 125, TCI; Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for Adolescents, SDQ-A). Main analyses involved robust and repeated measures ANOVAs, carried out separately for character TCI and SDQ-A scales. Results: After trainings, we found increased levels of cooperativeness and reduced emotional symptoms. Changes in these dimensions were negatively correlated: the more participants increased in their cooperativeness the greater decrease they showed in emotional symptoms. Conclusion: Both MOM and AT enhanced a cooperative attitude in adolescents and helped reducing their emotional problems. Therefore, it may be useful to apply these mind-body interventions in school settings as they can have a protective effect on the well-being and psychosocial adjustment of youths, through fostering their character maturity and helping them to better regulate their emotions. Full article
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Article
Comprehension of the Co-Operation of Professional Identity and Metacognition of English Teachers in Pedagogical Problem Solving
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12020032 - 31 Jan 2022
Viewed by 740
Abstract
Teaching is a metacognitive pedagogical problem-solving process. Teachers’ commitment to this process can be partly influenced by their professional identity (PI) in the pursuit of identity-congruent actions and identity verification. For these pursuits, teachers produce cognitive, affective, and behavioural responses, which are the [...] Read more.
Teaching is a metacognitive pedagogical problem-solving process. Teachers’ commitment to this process can be partly influenced by their professional identity (PI) in the pursuit of identity-congruent actions and identity verification. For these pursuits, teachers produce cognitive, affective, and behavioural responses, which are the representations of PI, and use metacognition by monitoring and regulating these responses for successful pedagogical problem solving. Teachers, in turn, improve their PI and metacognition. Based on a narrative approach, the problem-solving processes of five Korean teachers of English are explored along with their PI and metacognition operation. This exploration provides the rationales for the conceptualised co-operation mechanism of teacher PI and metacognition, and also reveals the possibility of its variation. Comprehension of the mechanism enables teacher educators and policy makers to establish specific plans and procedures for principled professional development or policy support. Thus, based on the conceptualisation and findings, systematic interventions via problem-solving-based teacher education and contextual support, which help teachers develop PI and metacognition, are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cognition)
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Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Behavioral Sciences in 2021
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12020031 - 30 Jan 2022
Viewed by 693
Abstract
Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
Review
Migraine and Neuroticism: A Scoping Review
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12020030 - 28 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1128
Abstract
Headache is the first cause of consultation in neurology, and one of the most frequent reasons for consultation in general medicine. Migraine is one of the most common, prevalent, and socioeconomically impactful disabling primary headache disorders. Neuroticism can be conceptualized as a disposition [...] Read more.
Headache is the first cause of consultation in neurology, and one of the most frequent reasons for consultation in general medicine. Migraine is one of the most common, prevalent, and socioeconomically impactful disabling primary headache disorders. Neuroticism can be conceptualized as a disposition to suffer anxiety and emotional disorders in general. Neuroticism has been associated with various mental and physical disorders (e.g., chronic pain, depression), including migraine. With the aim to explore in depth the relationship between migraine and neuroticism, and contribute to the understanding of this relation in order to provide a better treatment for migraine patients based on a personalized and more comprehensive approach, a scoping review was performed using PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Databases were searched independently by the two researchers, reaching a final set of 18 articles to be included. The search terms were: migraine and neuroticism. Neuroticism seems to be highly prevalent in migraine patients. Findings reveal that migraine patients with comorbid depression and anxiety showed higher levels of neuroticism. Depression has been associated with an increased risk of transformation from episodic to chronic migraine whereas neuroticism might be a mediator factor. Neuroticism also might be a mediator factor between childhood maltreatment and migraine. The revision conducted confirms that: (1) Migraine patients usually have a higher level of neuroticism and vulnerability to negative affect, compared to non-migraineurs and tension-type headache patients. (2) Neuroticism is associated with migraine. Nonetheless, more research is needed to clarify potential moderators of this relationship and the role of neuroticism itself in this disease. This knowledge might be useful in order to promote a better management of negative emotions as part of intervention programs in migraine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personality, Intervention and Psychological Treatment)
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Article
Predicting Innovative Work Behaviour in an Interactive Mechanism
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12020029 - 28 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1182
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impacts of employees’ creative self-efficacy (CSE) and creative self-identity (CSI) on their innovative work behaviour (IWB), with the indirect effects of creative process engagement (CPE) and creative climate (CC). Following the deductive reasoning approach, [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impacts of employees’ creative self-efficacy (CSE) and creative self-identity (CSI) on their innovative work behaviour (IWB), with the indirect effects of creative process engagement (CPE) and creative climate (CC). Following the deductive reasoning approach, the study was conducted on IT-based firms in Bangladesh. A total of 348 surveys were collected using a multi-item questionnaire. The collected data were then analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). The study reveals a significant relationship between CSE and IWB, and CSI and IWB. It further explores the significant mediating effects of CPE and the moderating effects of CC on CSE and IWB, and CSI and IB, relationships. Based on the premise of interactionist perspectives on creativity, this study contributes to the literature proposing a distinctive model comprising five variables to investigate employees’ IWB from a multi-level perspective. This integrated model, using predictors from multiple levels, supports the theoretical assumption that IB results from employees’ CSE, CSI, and, finally, CPE. Distinct from the other literature, the study also portrays the moderating and mediating impact of CC and CPE simultaneously. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout, Perceived Efficacy, and Job Satisfaction)
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Article
Investigating the Role of Insight, Decision-Making and Mentalizing in Functional Outcome in Schizophrenia: A Cross-Sectional Study
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12020028 - 27 Jan 2022
Viewed by 863
Abstract
Background: Recovery has become a priority in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs). This study aimed to investigate predictors of objective—general functioning and disability—and subjective—quality of life (QoL)—measures of functional outcomes in SSD. Methods: Sample: n = 77 SSD outpatients (age 18–64, IQ > 70) [...] Read more.
Background: Recovery has become a priority in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs). This study aimed to investigate predictors of objective—general functioning and disability—and subjective—quality of life (QoL)—measures of functional outcomes in SSD. Methods: Sample: n = 77 SSD outpatients (age 18–64, IQ > 70) participating in a randomised controlled trial. Baseline data were used to build three multivariable linear regression models on: (i) general functioning—General Assessment of Functioning (GAF); (ii) disability—the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS-2.0); and (iii) QoL—Satisfaction Life Domains Scale (SLDS). Results: Young age and being employed (R2 change = 0.211; p = 0.001), late adolescence premorbid adjustment (R2 change = 0.049; p = 0.0050), negative symptoms and disorganization (R2 change = 0.087; p = 0.025) and Theory of Mind (R2 change = 0.066, p = 0.053) predicted general functioning. Previous suicidal behaviour (R2 change = 0.068; p = 0.023) and negative and depressive symptoms (R2 change = 0.167; p = 0.001) were linked with disability. Previous suicidal behaviour (R2 change = 0.070, p = 0.026), depressive symptoms (R2 change = 0.157; p < 0.001) and illness recognition (R2 change = 0.046, p = 0.044) predicted QoL. Conclusions: Negative, disorganization and depressive symptoms, older age, unemployment, poor premorbid adjustment, previous suicide attempts and illness awareness appear to underlie a poor global functional outcome in SSD. Achieving recovery in SSD appears to require both symptomatic remission (e.g., through antipsychotics) and measures to improve mastery and relieve low mood. Full article
Article
Resiliency with Forced Migrants: A Qualitative Study of Providers and Forced Migrants through a Resilience Perspective
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12020027 - 26 Jan 2022
Viewed by 881
Abstract
In the last ten years, the world has experienced unprecedented, forced migration due to civil unrest, political persecution, and the ever-growing climate crisis. This is a qualitative study of the professional experiences of social workers (n = 73) working with forced migrants [...] Read more.
In the last ten years, the world has experienced unprecedented, forced migration due to civil unrest, political persecution, and the ever-growing climate crisis. This is a qualitative study of the professional experiences of social workers (n = 73) working with forced migrants (n = 34) and the lived experiences of forced migrants in several countries: Germany, Greece, Iceland, Mexico, Switzerland, and the United States. Social workers reported that most of their interventions involved short-term case management that focused on securing initial housing and healthcare. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) was the primary intervention for behavioral health issues. The recipients of these services were appreciative of the pragmatic approach of case management as it helped them meet concrete needs. When resiliency enhancing interventions were used, recipients reported a greater sense of self-control, greater optimism for the future, and less anxious symptoms. The resiliency model used is discussed. This is a possible universal approach to working with forced migrants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Resilience Psychology)
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