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Volume 12, February
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Volume 11, December

Behav. Sci., Volume 12, Issue 1 (January 2022) – 17 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): COVID-19 created much uncertainty and change for university students. Classes were moved to online platforms, examinations rescheduled, and opportunities for social interaction became unavailable. At a time when many young adults would be experiencing much personal growth, students were now forced into isolation, increasing boredom, stress, and anxiety. Such situations are known to have detrimental effects on individuals’ mental wellbeing. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated how negative emotional symptoms (anxiety, depression, and stress) impacted students in Europe, identifying significant increases in these symptoms. The long-term effect needs to be monitored, but governments, universities, and other higher education providers should consider the mental health of students and provide strategies to support their wellbeing. View this paper
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Article
Race, Gender, and the U.S. Presidency: A Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Biases in the Electorate
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12010017 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 922
Abstract
Recent U.S. elections have witnessed the Democrats nominating both black and female presidential candidates, as well as a black and female vice president. The increasing diversity of the U.S. political elite heightens the importance of understanding the psychological factors influencing voter support for, [...] Read more.
Recent U.S. elections have witnessed the Democrats nominating both black and female presidential candidates, as well as a black and female vice president. The increasing diversity of the U.S. political elite heightens the importance of understanding the psychological factors influencing voter support for, or opposition to, candidates of different races and genders. In this study, we investigated the relative strength of the implicit biases for and against hypothetical presidential candidates that varied by gender and race, using an evaluative priming paradigm on a broadly representative sample of U.S. citizens (n = 1076). Our main research question is: Do measures of implicit racial and gender biases predict political attitudes and voting better than measures of explicit prejudice? We find that measures of implicit bias are less strongly associated with political attitudes and voting than are explicit measures of sexist attitudes and modern racism. Moreover, once demographic characteristics and explicit prejudice are controlled statistically, measures of implicit bias provide little incremental predictive validity. Overall, explicit prejudice has a far stronger association with political preferences than does implicit bias. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Psychology)
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Article
Social Media Usage, Working Memory, and Depression: An Experimental Investigation among University Students
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12010016 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1369
Abstract
Social media usage (SMU) and its relationship with working memory (WM) and academic performance remain unclear, and there is a lack of experimental evidence. We investigated whether WM mediates the association between SMU and academic performance, including the roles of depression, anxiety, and [...] Read more.
Social media usage (SMU) and its relationship with working memory (WM) and academic performance remain unclear, and there is a lack of experimental evidence. We investigated whether WM mediates the association between SMU and academic performance, including the roles of depression, anxiety, and disordered social media use as possible contributors. A sample of 118 undergraduate students aged 19 to 28 from Saudi Arabia performed a WM test twice; for one assessment, participants were required to interact with social media before the test, and the other test was preceded by painting online. We also measured grade point average (GPA), habitual social media usage (SMU), depression (PHQ-9), anxiety (GAD-7), and disordered social media usage (SMDS). There was no significant difference between WM scores in the social media condition compared to the control condition, but when solely considering at least moderately depressed participants, social media use predicted significantly more errors in the social media condition compared to the control condition. Furthermore, higher SMDS scores were significantly predicted by higher PHQ-9 scores and more hours of habitual SMU. GPA scores were not predicted by WM performance or SMU. The present study is one of the first experimental attempts to compare the relationship between SMU and WM and highlights the priming effect of depression on the relationship between SMU and WM. Full article
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Article
Burnout, Depression, and Anxiety Levels among Healthcare Workers Serving Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12010015 - 15 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1028
Abstract
Burnout in healthcare workers (HCWs) is defined as a state of emotional, physical, and mental exhaustion that results from unmanaged, excessive, and long-term workplace stressors. This study aims to assess the prevalence of burnout and the levels of anxiety and depression among HCWs [...] Read more.
Burnout in healthcare workers (HCWs) is defined as a state of emotional, physical, and mental exhaustion that results from unmanaged, excessive, and long-term workplace stressors. This study aims to assess the prevalence of burnout and the levels of anxiety and depression among HCWs who primarily work with children who have autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A quantitative cross-sectional survey was conducted utilizing the Arabic version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), Areas of Worklife Survey (AWS), Patient Health Questionnaire for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7), and Patient Health Questionnaire for Depression (PHQ-9). Among the 381 participants working in autism centers, the majority were young Saudi females (326) working full-time as specialists in the private sector with less than five years of experience. The HCWs’ overall mean scores on the three Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) subscales: emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP), and personal accomplishment (PA) were 62%, 23.7%, and 76.5%, respectively. A total of 51.4% of HCWs reported moderate to high anxiety levels on GAD-7, and 47.8% showed moderate to very high levels of depression on PHQ-9. The mean perceived EE converged significantly but negatively on their overall mean perceived satisfaction with AWS (p-value < 0.001), demonstrating that greater emotional fatigue predicts less satisfaction with their work. The PA scores correlated significantly and positively with their overall mean satisfaction with their AWS score (p-value < 0.001). Considering sociodemographic variables, HCWs aged between 20–29 years have significantly lower mean PA scores than HCWs aged thirty and older (p = 0.007). Also, male HCWs perceived significantly higher work-related DP than females. More research is required to determine the nature of variables that contribute to burnout, depression, and anxiety in HCWs helping children with ASD. Full article
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Article
The Impacts of Emotional Intelligence on Students’ Study Habits in Blended Learning Environments: The Mediating Role of Cognitive Engagement during COVID-19
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12010014 - 13 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2107
Abstract
Emotional intelligence is a main area in educational psychology and a key factor in the academic life of students. It deals with deviant behavior through self-awareness and self-motivation, regulates emotional and social skills, and converts emotional energy into positive energy. This study examined [...] Read more.
Emotional intelligence is a main area in educational psychology and a key factor in the academic life of students. It deals with deviant behavior through self-awareness and self-motivation, regulates emotional and social skills, and converts emotional energy into positive energy. This study examined direct and indirect relationships between emotional intelligence and study habits in blended learning environments. Blended learning is conceptualized as a hybrid learning approach that combines online learning opportunities and the traditional classroom approach. Furthermore, the study explored the mediating role of cognitive engagement in the relationship between emotional intelligence and study habits. We used 26 items in a paper-based questionnaire in a quantitative study to collect data on emotional intelligence, cognitive engagement and study habits from health sciences students (N = 338) enrolled in blended learning courses in universities in the Hunan province of China. Emotional intelligence included self-awareness, self-motivation, and the regulation of emotion; social skills were also examined. A partial least squares structural-equation modeling approach was applied through SmartPLS software to explore the relationships. The results indicate that self-awareness and self-motivation have direct, significant, and positive connections with study habits. Similarly, the results indicate that all four dimensions of emotional intelligence (self-awareness, self-motivation, emotion regulation and social skills) had indirect, significant, and positive relationships with study habits using cognitive engagement as a mediator variable. It was concluded that students face higher-than-usual challenges in building study habits in blended learning environments during the COVID-19 pandemic, and that emotional intelligence helps them to develop their study habits to greater effect. Similarly, it was concluded that cognitive engagement strengthens the connection between emotional intelligence and study habits. Therefore, it is recommended that universities take specific measures to enhance students’ emotional intelligence and cognitive engagement, which will ultimately improve their study habits. Moreover, valuable and practical implications for teachers, practitioners, and university management were also discussed in the study. Full article
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Article
COVID-19 Pandemic in a Vulnerable Population: Prevalence and Correlates of Anxiety
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12010013 - 13 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 937
Abstract
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has produced negative mental health outcomes. These effects were more prominent in vulnerable communities that experienced prior similar disasters. The study aimed to examine the likelihood and correlates of anxiety symptoms among Fort McMurray (FMM) residents, during the COVID-19 [...] Read more.
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has produced negative mental health outcomes. These effects were more prominent in vulnerable communities that experienced prior similar disasters. The study aimed to examine the likelihood and correlates of anxiety symptoms among Fort McMurray (FMM) residents, during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey questionnaire was applied between 24 April and 2 June 2021, at FMM, to gather sociodemographic, COVID-19, and clinical information, including generalized anxiety disorder (using GAD-7 scale). Results: Overall, 186 individuals completed the survey (response rate 74.7%). Most of the respondents were females (159, 85.5%); above 40 years (98, 52.7%); employed (175, 94.1%); and in relationship (132, 71%). The prevalence of moderate-to-severe anxiety was (42.5%, 71) on GAD-7 self-reported scale. Subscribers who reported that they would like to receive mental health support; have received no family support since COVID-19 declaration; and have lost their job during the pandemic were all more likely to report moderate-to-severe anxiety (OR = 3.39; 95% CI: 1.29–8.88), (OR = 4.85; 95% CI: 1.56–15.03), and (OR = 4.40; 95% CI: 1.01–19.24), respectively. Conclusions: Anxiety levels were high among FMM residents, compared to levels before COVID-19. Clinical and social factors significantly predicted likely anxiety in the Fort McMurray population, during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is imperative that resources are mobilized to support vulnerable communities during the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
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Review
People’s Experience of Shared Decision Making in Musculoskeletal Physiotherapy: A Systematic Review and Thematic Synthesis
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12010012 - 12 Jan 2022
Viewed by 955
Abstract
(1) Shared decision making (SDM) has been advocated as a way of improving prudency in healthcare and has been linked to self-efficacy and empowerment of service users. The evaluation of its use in musculoskeletal (MSK) physiotherapy has been vague, but articles suggest that [...] Read more.
(1) Shared decision making (SDM) has been advocated as a way of improving prudency in healthcare and has been linked to self-efficacy and empowerment of service users. The evaluation of its use in musculoskeletal (MSK) physiotherapy has been vague, but articles suggest that trust and communication are integral. (2) ENTREQ guidelines informed this systematic review and thematic synthesis. PRISMA recommendations steered a systematic literature search of AHMED, CINAHL, MEDLNE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases from inception to September 2021. COREQ was used for quality appraisal of articles alongside critical discussions. Analysis and synthesis included five stages: outlining study characteristics, coding of data, development of descriptive themes, development of analytical themes and integration and refinement. The review aim was to explore people’s experiences of SDM in MSK physiotherapy and to inform our understanding of the conditions needed for successful SDM. (3) Out of 1508 studies, 9 articles were included. Four main themes (trust, communication, decision preferences and decision ability) demonstrated that the majority of people want to participate in decision-making. As described in the capacity and capability model, three core conditions were needed to facilitate someone’s’ ability to participate. (4) People want to be involved in SDM in MSK physiotherapy. For successful SDM, physiotherapists should look to develop mutual trust, utilise two-way communication and share power. Full article
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Review
Can Dance and Music Make the Transition to a Sustainable Society More Feasible?
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12010011 - 10 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1114
Abstract
Transition to sustainability is a process that requires change on all levels of society from the physical to the psychological. This review takes an interdisciplinary view of the landscapes of research that contribute to the development of pro-social behaviors that align with sustainability [...] Read more.
Transition to sustainability is a process that requires change on all levels of society from the physical to the psychological. This review takes an interdisciplinary view of the landscapes of research that contribute to the development of pro-social behaviors that align with sustainability goals, or what we call ‘inner sustainability’. Engaging in musical and dance activities can make people feel trust and connectedness, promote prosocial behavior within a group, and also reduce prejudices between groups. Sustained engagement in these art forms brings change in a matter of seconds (such as hormonal changes and associated stress relief), months (such as improved emotional wellbeing and learning outcomes), and decades (such as structural changes to the brains of musicians and dancers and superior skills in expressing and understanding emotion). In this review, we bridge the often-separate domains of the arts and sciences by presenting evidence that suggests music and dance promote self-awareness, learning, care for others and wellbeing at individual and group levels. In doing so, we argue that artistic practices have a key role to play in leading the transformations necessary for a sustainable society. We require a movement of action that provides dance and music within a constructive framework for stimulating social sustainability. Full article
Article
Personality, Defense Mechanisms and Psychological Distress in Women with Fibromyalgia
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12010010 - 07 Jan 2022
Viewed by 878
Abstract
Background: Previous studies have shown that many personality traits are associated with fibromyalgia (FM), worsening both the quality of life and psychological distress of patients. Despite the high comorbidity of psychopathological disorders in this syndrome and their association with immature defense styles, few [...] Read more.
Background: Previous studies have shown that many personality traits are associated with fibromyalgia (FM), worsening both the quality of life and psychological distress of patients. Despite the high comorbidity of psychopathological disorders in this syndrome and their association with immature defense styles, few studies have examined the defense mechanisms used by FM patients. The main aim of our study was to investigate personality traits and defense mechanisms in FM patients compared to in a healthy control group (HC). Moreover, we investigated the effect of personality traits and defense mechanisms on psychological distress in both FM and HC groups. Methods: A total of 54 women with FM and 54 healthy women completed the (1) Temperament and Character Inventory—Revised; (2) the Toronto Alexithymia Scale; (3) the Defense Style Questionnaire; and (4) the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results: The results indicated that FM patients display higher alexithymia, higher harm avoidance, lower self-directedness, lower persistence, and the higher use of a maladaptive defense style compared to HC. We found that alexithymia, harm avoidance, and maladaptive defense style are significant predictors of patients’ psychological distress. Moreover, harm avoidance and adaptive defense style significantly predicted psychological distress in the HC group. Conclusion: The present study is the first to explore the contribution of both defense mechanisms and personality characteristics on the psychological distress of FM patients. Our findings have important clinical implications and may help diagnose and treat FM patients more in depth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personality, Intervention and Psychological Treatment)
Article
Relationship between Breast Cancer Surgical Treatment and Psychiatric Symptomatology: Which Sociodemographic and Clinical Factors Could Influence It? A Preliminary Study
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12010009 - 06 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 722
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate psychiatric symptomatology in a sample of patients affected by breast cancer undergoing surgery, evaluating the potential mediators on perceived stress levels, depression and hopelessness. The study was conducted on eighty-five patients with breast cancer, admitted consecutively to the [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate psychiatric symptomatology in a sample of patients affected by breast cancer undergoing surgery, evaluating the potential mediators on perceived stress levels, depression and hopelessness. The study was conducted on eighty-five patients with breast cancer, admitted consecutively to the Breast Unit of the IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, between May 2018 and December 2019. Sociodemographic (age of diagnosis, gender, marital and occupational status, educational level, having children) and clinical (type and side of surgery, previous breast surgery, neoadjuvant chemotherapy and axillary dissection) characteristics were investigated through a semi-structured interview. The following rating scales were administered: Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Hopelessness Scale, and Perceived Stress Scale. Our findings indicate that the presence of children and of a partner was associated with a lower total score on the clinical dimensions evaluated. Furthermore, we found demolitive surgery to be a mediator between perceived stress and hopelessness, while history of previous breast surgery was found to be a mediator between demolitive surgery and perceived stress. In conclusion, patients affected by breast cancer undergoing more complex and demolitive surgery or with history of previous breast surgery should be mostly monitored from a psychological and psychiatric point of view from the beginning of treatments to evaluate the first manifestations of psychiatric symptomatology. Full article
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Article
Shall I Show My Emotions? The Effects of Facial Expressions in the Ultimatum Game
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12010008 - 30 Dec 2021
Viewed by 872
Abstract
Over the past fifteen years, research has demonstrated the central role of interpersonal emotions in communicating intentions, goals and desires. These emotions can be conveyed through facial expressions during specific social interactions, such as in the context of coordination between economic agents, where [...] Read more.
Over the past fifteen years, research has demonstrated the central role of interpersonal emotions in communicating intentions, goals and desires. These emotions can be conveyed through facial expressions during specific social interactions, such as in the context of coordination between economic agents, where information inferred from them can influence certain decision-making processes. We investigated whether four facial expressions (happiness, neutral, angry and disgusted) can affect decision-making in the Ultimatum Game (UG). In this economic game, one player (proposer) plays the first move and proposes how to allocate a given amount of money in an anonymous one-shot interaction. If the other player (responder) accepts the proposal, each player receives the allocated amount of money; if he/she rejects the offer, both players receive nothing. During the task, participants acted as the responder (Experiment 1) or the proposer (Experiment 2) while seeing the opponent’s facial expression. For the responders, the results show that the decision was mainly driven by the fairness of the offer, with a small main effect of emotion. No interaction effect was found between emotion and offer. For the proposers, the results show that participants modulated their offers on the basis of the responders’ expressed emotions. The most generous/fair offers were proposed to happy responders. Less generous/fair offers were proposed to neutral responders. Finally, the least generous/fair offers were proposed to angry and disgusted responders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cognition)
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Article
A Study on Instructional Humor: How Much Humor Is Used in Presentations?
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12010007 - 29 Dec 2021
Viewed by 782
Abstract
Humor is applied in pedagogy to create a positive learning environment. Recent research focuses on the theories, effects, individual differences, and qualitative aspects of humor for instruction. However, there is a lack of studies focusing on quantitative features. Therefore, this research explored the [...] Read more.
Humor is applied in pedagogy to create a positive learning environment. Recent research focuses on the theories, effects, individual differences, and qualitative aspects of humor for instruction. However, there is a lack of studies focusing on quantitative features. Therefore, this research explored the quantitative characteristics of instructional humor in a naturalistic setting and applied techniques from natural language processing (NLP). This paper describes the results of two studies. The first study focused on instructional humor frequency and the placement of humor, while the linguistic features of instructional humor and non-instructional humor were compared in the second study. Two corpora were used in this research: TED Talks and user-submitted jokes from “stupidstuff.org” The results found that educators used humor 12.92 times for popular talks, while less popular talks only had 3.92 times. Humor is also more commonly placed during the first parts of the talk and lessens toward the end. There were also significant differences between the linguistic features of instructional and non-instructional humor in terms of readability scores and sentiment. These results provide a substantial update on quantitative instructional humor research and help educators understand how to use humor in the classroom in terms of quantitative and linguistic features. Full article
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Article
In-Organization Ethics Power-Allocation Mechanisms and Members’ Decision-Making Behavior
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12010006 - 28 Dec 2021
Viewed by 780
Abstract
This study examines experimental evidence showing how ethics power allocation mechanisms affect an individual’s in-organization resource division and ethical behavior. We used two two-stage lab experiments to explore power seeking and usage; the experiments contained two stages of power contending and power usage. [...] Read more.
This study examines experimental evidence showing how ethics power allocation mechanisms affect an individual’s in-organization resource division and ethical behavior. We used two two-stage lab experiments to explore power seeking and usage; the experiments contained two stages of power contending and power usage. Stage one used two different power-seeking mechanisms in the honesty game. Stage two was based on the dictator game and the ultimatum game to measure an individual’s power usage. The results show that the decisions taken by power-holders could influence the optimization of collective resources, and power-holders who gain power with unethical methods could result in collective resource allocation inequities. With more balanced in-organization power, members tend to be more honest. Subjects also adjust their unethical behavior to adapt to the environment, which could cause the diffusion of unethical behavior. This paper re-designed the dictator game and the ultimatum game by adding an ethically vulnerable power acquisition mechanism. For organizations to prevent the disproportionate dispersion of resources and achieve more public benefits, it is meaningful for managers to create a proper in-organization ethical power allocation mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behaviors)
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Article
Personality Traits, Cognitive Styles, Coping Strategies, and Psychological Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic Lockdown on Healthy Youngsters
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12010005 - 24 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1461
Abstract
The objective of the present study was to explore possible changes in the psychological wellbeing of young healthy students during the initial 14 days of the COVID-19 general lockdown that occurred in March of 2020, and if there was any relation with specific [...] Read more.
The objective of the present study was to explore possible changes in the psychological wellbeing of young healthy students during the initial 14 days of the COVID-19 general lockdown that occurred in March of 2020, and if there was any relation with specific personality traits (neuroticism, psychoticism, and extraversion), cognitive styles (internal and external locus of control and intolerance of uncertainty), and coping strategies. One hundred twenty-two university students aged from 18 to 29 years participated in the study. The dispositional factors were assessed at the beginning of the study, while measures of psychological adjustment (anxiety, depression, and self-perceived health) were taken in three different assessment stages, employing validated questionnaires and scales. Anxiety and depression scores significantly increased after one week of lockdown, reaching a plateau pattern by the second week. The levels of self-perceived mental health, vitality, and quality of life showed a pattern of sustained progressive decrease, with a more acute lessening during the first week. Neuroticism, intolerance of uncertainty, and negative autofocus were associated to worse levels of psychological adjustment. These individual differences might be taken into consideration when designing prevention programs aiming to dampen the psychological impact of a general lockdown in healthy population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personality, Intervention and Psychological Treatment)
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Article
Exploring the Psychometric Properties of the Questionnaire on Family Members Adapting to an Older Adult’s Admission to a Nursing Home (CAFIAR-15) in a Colombian Sample
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12010004 - 23 Dec 2021
Viewed by 908
Abstract
Institutionalization to a nursing home can be one of the most significant and traumatic events in a senior’s life, and for their family. For this reason, it is especially important to have validated instruments that evaluate the family member’s adaptation to admitting the [...] Read more.
Institutionalization to a nursing home can be one of the most significant and traumatic events in a senior’s life, and for their family. For this reason, it is especially important to have validated instruments that evaluate the family member’s adaptation to admitting the senior to a nursing home. The study included 139 family members recruited equally in two types of institutions (low-income nursing home (LINH) vs. high-income nursing home (HINH)). A sociodemographic questionnaire with questions to study antecedents and conditions for care and the Questionnaire for Admitting an Older Adult to a Nursing Home (CAFIAR-15) were used. Examining the communalities indicated that four of the five items in factor 3 presented communalities lower than 0.30 and differences in the factorial structure of the CAFIAR-15 were found. There were differences in the antecedents and conditions for care between the relatives of the older adults at LINH and HINH. Cultural differences and differences between LINH and HINH may be the basis for flaws in the conceptual validity of the CAFIAR-15 in the Colombian sample. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Well-Being and Quality of Life in the Elderly: Issues and Challenges)
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Review
The Impact of the COVID-19 Lockdown on European Students’ Negative Emotional Symptoms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12010003 - 23 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1766
Abstract
Considerable changes to higher education approaches, as a response to the global coronavirus pandemic, has increased the stress on university students. The impact of these changes has had an effect on the negative emotional symptoms being experienced, which can lead to more severe [...] Read more.
Considerable changes to higher education approaches, as a response to the global coronavirus pandemic, has increased the stress on university students. The impact of these changes has had an effect on the negative emotional symptoms being experienced, which can lead to more severe mental health issues. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine the prevalence of anxiety, depression and stress during the coronavirus lockdown. A systematic review of three electronic databases (Google Scholar, PubMed and Medline) was conducted, with 13 studies from different European countries reporting data on students and their negative emotional symptoms identified. The random-effects model was used to perform the meta-analysis on anxiety, depression and stress. The overall pooled prevalence rate was 55% (95% CI: 45–64%) for anxiety, 63% (95% CI: 52–73%) for depression and 62% (95% CI: 43–79%) for stress. The impact of the coronavirus pandemic on negative emotional symptoms has been serious with studies reporting high prevalence rates for these. Isolation, reduced social contact, duration of quarantine and restrictions, which are the characteristics of a lockdown, played an important role in increased negative emotional symptoms for students. Countries have to be aware of this situation and develop mental support strategies to mitigate the impact. Full article
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Article
How Does Mobile Workplace Stress Affect Employee Innovative Behavior? The Role of Work–Family Conflict and Employee Engagement
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12010002 - 22 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1766
Abstract
The new wave of interest in mobile workplaces is profoundly changing the internal ecology of Chinese companies and creating new stress for employees. To investigate the mechanisms of mobile workplace stress on employee innovative behavior and the role of work–family conflict and employee [...] Read more.
The new wave of interest in mobile workplaces is profoundly changing the internal ecology of Chinese companies and creating new stress for employees. To investigate the mechanisms of mobile workplace stress on employee innovative behavior and the role of work–family conflict and employee engagement, we collected 426 valid samples from married male employees in the software and information service industries. The results show that mobile workplace stress has a significant negative effect on employee innovative behavior. In contrast, it has a significant positive effect on work–family conflict and employee engagement. In addition, work–family conflict partially mediates the relationship between mobile workplace stress and employee innovative behavior; employee engagement produces the suppressing effects. The chain intermediary effect of work–family conflict and employee engagement between the mobile workplace and employee innovative behavior is present. When we focus on the high performance of the mobile workplace, we should also pay attention to its impact on the company’s ability for innovation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout, Perceived Efficacy, and Job Satisfaction)
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Article
Crafting Life Stories in Photocollage: An Online Creative Art-Based Intervention for Older Adults
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12010001 - 21 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1513
Abstract
Creative arts therapies (CAT) provide a safe and creative environment for older adults to process life experiences and maintain personal growth while aging. There is a growing need to make creative arts therapies more accessible to the aging population, as many have limited [...] Read more.
Creative arts therapies (CAT) provide a safe and creative environment for older adults to process life experiences and maintain personal growth while aging. There is a growing need to make creative arts therapies more accessible to the aging population, as many have limited access to these services. This need has been catalyzed by the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic. Tele-CAT offers a possible solution. This study explored the experiences of older adults who participated in an online creative process of digital photocollage based on CAT. Twenty-four Italian and Israeli community-dwelling older adults aged 78 to 92 participated in this research through Zoom teleconferencing software. Transcriptions of the sessions and the art produced through the photocollage were qualitatively analyzed through Thematic Analysis. The findings show that the projective stimuli of digital photographs supported older adults’ narratives and engaged them in a more embodied emotional experience. Participant experiences involved artistic enjoyment within a positive and safe interaction with therapists. The creation of digital photocollages allowed the participants to process their life experiences and create an integrative view of their life, a vital developmental task in late life. These results point to the advantages and challenges of tele-CAT for older adults. Full article
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