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Behav. Sci., Volume 12, Issue 3 (March 2022) – 30 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Work occupies most adult men’s waking time. Satisfaction with work has wide-ranging impacts, including on male workers’ psychological health. Though the link between job satisfaction and psychological health is well documented, little is known about how job satisfaction affects male workers’ mental health. Work is known to contribute to men’s sense of meaning in life, positioning meaning in life as a possible conduit through which job satisfaction might impact men’s psychological health. Our findings revealed that men with lower job satisfaction were more likely to report reduced meaning in life, which in turn was related to increased psychological distress. These results highlight the need for organizations to help their male employees to find satisfaction with their work in order to lever happier, more engaged and productive workers. View this paper
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Brief Report
Buffering the Fear of COVID-19: Social Connectedness Mediates the Relationship between Fear of COVID-19 and Psychological Wellbeing
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12030086 - 21 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1158
Abstract
Social connections are crucial for an individual’s health, wellbeing, and overall effective functioning. During the COVID-19 pandemic, one major preventative effort for reducing the spread of COVID-19 involved restricting people’s typical social interactions through physical distancing and isolation. The current cross-sectional study, conducted [...] Read more.
Social connections are crucial for an individual’s health, wellbeing, and overall effective functioning. During the COVID-19 pandemic, one major preventative effort for reducing the spread of COVID-19 involved restricting people’s typical social interactions through physical distancing and isolation. The current cross-sectional study, conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic, explored the relationship among fear of COVID-19, social connectedness, resilience, depressive symptomologies, and self-perceived stress. Participants (N = 174) completed an anonymous, online questionnaire, and results indicated that social connectedness mediated the relationship between fear of COVID-19 and psychological wellbeing. In contrast, the relationship between fear of COVID-19 and psychological wellbeing was not mediated by resilience. These findings highlight the important role that social connections and resilience play in buffering against negative psychological wellbeing outcomes, especially during a pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Psychology)
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Article
Return to the New Normal: Empirical Analysis of Changes in E-Consumer Behavior during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12030085 - 18 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1142
Abstract
The global pandemic caused by the new coronavirus has largely changed established business practices. The aim of this study is to present the results of eighteen months of intensive research into the effects of the pandemic on e-consumer behavior. In one of the [...] Read more.
The global pandemic caused by the new coronavirus has largely changed established business practices. The aim of this study is to present the results of eighteen months of intensive research into the effects of the pandemic on e-consumer behavior. In one of the most active e-commerce markets in Europe, the Czech Republic, we analyzed a sample of more than one and a half million Facebook users in terms of their C2B interactions on the B2C activities of the five major e-commerce market players. The measurements were carried out in three periods, which corresponded to the onset of the first wave, the peak, and the fading of the second wave of the pandemic. This enabled us to monitor the effect of seasonality and the stabilization of patterns of consumer behavior during the coronavirus crisis. The results suggest that a specific panic pattern of e-consumer behavior was developed at the time of the onset of the pandemic. However, as the pandemic progressed, the market adapted to a new normal, which, as evidenced by the change in trends, appears to be a combination of the pre-pandemic and pandemic behavioral patterns. Using a statistical analysis, it was possible to identify the delta of changes within the patterns of consumer behavior, thus fulfilling the final condition for creating an empirical model of the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on e-consumer behavior presented in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Psychology)
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Article
From Childhood Residential Green space to Adult Mental Wellbeing: A Pathway Analysis among Chinese Adults
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12030084 - 17 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1069
Abstract
Residential green spaces, arguably the most accessible type of urban green space, may have lasting impacts on children and even change their lives later in adulthood. However, the potential pathways from childhood residential green space to adulthood mental wellbeing are not well understood. [...] Read more.
Residential green spaces, arguably the most accessible type of urban green space, may have lasting impacts on children and even change their lives later in adulthood. However, the potential pathways from childhood residential green space to adulthood mental wellbeing are not well understood. Therefore, we conducted a questionnaire survey among Chinese adults (N = 770) in September 2021 to capture data on subjective measures of residential green space and nature contact during childhood, and nature connectedness, nature contact, and mental wellbeing during adulthood. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to examine theoretical pathways between childhood residential green space and adult mental wellbeing. The results suggest that childhood residential green space positively predicts childhood nature contact and also has direct and indirect positive impacts on nature contact, nature connectedness, and mental wellbeing during adulthood. These findings advance understanding of the long-term impacts of childhood residential green space. Policymakers are advised to prioritize residential greening as well as other recreational facilities for children when planning health-promoting environments in urban spaces. Due to limitations in our study design, we also advise future studies to re-examine and extend the framework documented here. Full article
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Article
COVID-19-Related Knowledge and Anxiety Response among Physical Education Teachers during Practical In-Person Lessons: Effects of Potential Moderators
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12030083 - 17 Mar 2022
Viewed by 938
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in heightened anxiety levels among teachers, especially regarding PE teachers who are required to engage students in practical in-person or contact teaching lessons. Previous research showed that these levels of anxiety among PE teachers appeared to be explained [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in heightened anxiety levels among teachers, especially regarding PE teachers who are required to engage students in practical in-person or contact teaching lessons. Previous research showed that these levels of anxiety among PE teachers appeared to be explained by the interplay between COVID-19 knowledge, workplace safety perception, and educational qualification. This study assessed the relationship between COVID-19-related knowledge and anxiety response among PE teachers during such practical lessons while moderating the effects of workplace safety perception and educational qualification within the relationship. The study conveniently recruited 160 PE teachers to solicit responses through both online and printed questionnaires. Using correlation and linear regression analyses, the study revealed a significant negative relationship between COVID-19-related knowledge and anxiety response among PE teachers. The educational qualification of PE teachers did not significantly moderate the association between COVID-19-related knowledge and anxiety response. Workplace safety perception significantly moderated the association between COVID-19-related knowledge and anxiety response among PE teachers. The findings remind educational authorities about the essence of creating a positive and safe working environment conducive to academic work. Achieving this goal requires the provision of adequate COVID-19 management logistics (e.g., personal protective equipment, hand sanitizers) by educational authorities for PE teachers to maintain safety practices and optimal learning conditions. Full article
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Review
Should Burnout Be Conceptualized as a Mental Disorder?
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12030082 - 17 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1013
Abstract
Burnout is generally acknowledged by researchers, clinicians, and the public as a pervasive occupational difficulty. Despite this widespread recognition, longstanding debates remain within the scientific community regarding its definition and the appropriateness of classifying burnout as its own pathological entity. The current review [...] Read more.
Burnout is generally acknowledged by researchers, clinicians, and the public as a pervasive occupational difficulty. Despite this widespread recognition, longstanding debates remain within the scientific community regarding its definition and the appropriateness of classifying burnout as its own pathological entity. The current review seeks to address whether burnout should (or could) be characterized as a distinctive mental disorder to shed light on this debate. After briefly reviewing the history, theoretical underpinnings, and measurement of burnout, we more systematically consider the current evidence for and against its classification as a mental disorder within existing diagnostic systems. Stemming from a lack of conceptual clarity, the current state of burnout research remains, unfortunately, largely circular and riddled with measurement issues. As a result, information regarding the unique biopsychosocial etiology, diagnostic features, differential diagnostic criteria, and prevalence rates of burnout are still lacking. Therefore, we conclude that it would be inappropriate, if not premature, to introduce burnout as a distinct mental disorder within any existing diagnostic classification system. We argue, however, that it would be equally premature to discard burnout as a psychologically relevant phenomenon and that current evidence does support its relevance as an important occupational syndrome. We finally offer several avenues for future research, calling for cross-national collaboration to clarify conceptual and measurement issues while avoiding the reification of outdated definitions. In doing so, we hope that it one day becomes possible to more systematically re-assess the relevance of burnout as a distinctive diagnostic category. Full article
Article
Effects of Motivational Climate on Knowledge Hiding: The Mediating Role of Work Alienation
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12030081 - 16 Mar 2022
Viewed by 970
Abstract
Although knowledge is arguably an organization’s most important resource, many organizations still practice knowledge hiding. This study explores how an organization’s motivational climate—mediated by work alienation among its members—influences knowledge hiding from the perspective of the conservation of resources (COR) theory. Specifically, we [...] Read more.
Although knowledge is arguably an organization’s most important resource, many organizations still practice knowledge hiding. This study explores how an organization’s motivational climate—mediated by work alienation among its members—influences knowledge hiding from the perspective of the conservation of resources (COR) theory. Specifically, we establish hypotheses that the performance and mastery climates, mediated by work alienation, have positive and negative effects on knowledge hiding, respectively. To verify these hypotheses, we conducted a survey among members of Chinese companies, through which 200 responses were collected through a two-wave panel design. The results of the analysis demonstrated that motivational climate, as an antecedent of knowledge hiding, has a significant effect on work alienation. We also found that work alienation mediated the relationship between (a) performance climate, and (b) mastery climate and knowledge hiding. Based on these findings, we discuss the research implications and limitations while suggesting directions for future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behaviors)
Article
Examining the Role of Traditional Masculinity and Depression in Men’s Risk for Contracting COVID-19
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12030080 - 16 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1215
Abstract
In the light of the COVID-19 pandemic and claims that traditional masculinity may put some men at increased risk for infection, research reporting men’s health behaviors is critically important. Traditional masculine norms such as self-reliance and toughness are associated with a lower likelihood [...] Read more.
In the light of the COVID-19 pandemic and claims that traditional masculinity may put some men at increased risk for infection, research reporting men’s health behaviors is critically important. Traditional masculine norms such as self-reliance and toughness are associated with a lower likelihood to vaccinate or follow safety restrictions. Furthermore, infection risk and traditional masculinity should be investigated in a differentiated manner including gender role orientation, underlying traditional masculine ideologies and male gender role conflict. In this pre-registered online survey conducted during March/April 2021 in German-speaking countries in Europe, 490 men completed questionnaires regarding contracting COVID-19 as confirmed by a validated test, fear of COVID-19 (FCV-19S), and experience of psychological burden due to COVID-19. In addition, depression symptomatology was assessed by using prototypical internalizing and male-typical externalizing depression symptoms. Furthermore, self-identified masculine gender orientation, endorsement of traditional masculinity ideologies, and gender role conflict were measured. A total of 6.9% of men (n = 34) reported having contracted COVID-19 since the beginning of the pandemic. Group comparisons revealed that men who had contracted COVID-19 exhibited higher overall traditional masculine ideology and gender role conflict. Logistic regression controlling for confounders (age, income, education, and sexual orientation) indicated that only depression symptoms are independently associated with the risk of having contracted COVID-19. While prototypical depression symptoms were negatively associated with the risk of having contracted COVID-19, male-typical externalizing depression symptoms were positively associated with the risk of contracting COVID-19. For traditional masculinity, no robust association for an increased risk of contracting COVID-19 could be established, while higher male-typical externalizing depression symptoms were associated with an increased risk of contracting COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Male Depression and Therapy)
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Article
The Nexus between Study Burnout Profiles and Social Support —The Differences between Domestic (Finnish) and International Master’s Degree Students
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12030079 - 15 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1049
Abstract
The present study investigated the variation in higher education students’ study burnout experiences and how they are related to academic success and social support needs. Similarities and differences between the international and domestic students were also explored. In this mixed-methods study, the data [...] Read more.
The present study investigated the variation in higher education students’ study burnout experiences and how they are related to academic success and social support needs. Similarities and differences between the international and domestic students were also explored. In this mixed-methods study, the data were collected through a self-reported questionnaire, and a total of 902 (response rate 42%) first year master’s students from the fields of arts, business and technology responded. Using Latent Profile Analysis (LPA), we detected three distinct study burnout risk profiles (No exhaustion or cynicism; Exhausted; Exhausted and cynical). The following distinct forms of social support needs were found using theory-based qualitative content analysis: informational, instrumental, emotional, and co-constructional support. We found out that the students with highest risk of burnout had the lowest grade point averages (GPAs). Further investigation showed that international students pass their courses despite the experiences of study burnout, even though the GPAs might deteriorate. When the domestic students experience study burnout symptoms, they both gain fewer study credits and earn lower GPAs. Finally, a relationship between the form of support needed and the burnout profile was identified. Full article
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Review
The Limits between Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder: What Do Magnetic Resonance Findings Tell Us?
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12030078 - 15 Mar 2022
Viewed by 862
Abstract
Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, two of the most severe psychiatric illnesses, have historically been regarded as dichotomous entities but share many features of the premorbid course, clinical profile, genetic factors and treatment approaches. Studies focusing on neuroimaging findings have received considerable attention, as [...] Read more.
Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, two of the most severe psychiatric illnesses, have historically been regarded as dichotomous entities but share many features of the premorbid course, clinical profile, genetic factors and treatment approaches. Studies focusing on neuroimaging findings have received considerable attention, as they plead for an improved understanding of the brain regions involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. In this review, we summarize the main magnetic resonance imaging findings in both disorders, aiming at exploring the neuroanatomical and functional similarities and differences between the two. The findings show that gray and white matter structural changes and functional dysconnectivity predominate in the frontal and limbic areas and the frontotemporal circuitry of the brain areas involved in the integration of executive, cognitive and affective functions, commonly affected in both disorders. Available evidence points to a considerable overlap in the affected regions between the two conditions, therefore possibly placing them at opposite ends of a psychosis continuum. Full article
Article
Managing the Consequences of Oncological Major Surgery: A Short- and Medium-Term Skills Assessment Proposal for Patient and Caregiver through M.A.D.I.T. Methodology
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12030077 - 15 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 982
Abstract
The effects of cancer surgery and treatment harm patients’ life and working ability: major causes of this can be intensified by the postoperative symptoms. This study, the first part of the HEAGIS project (Health and Employment after Gastrointestinal Surgery), proposes a method to [...] Read more.
The effects of cancer surgery and treatment harm patients’ life and working ability: major causes of this can be intensified by the postoperative symptoms. This study, the first part of the HEAGIS project (Health and Employment after Gastrointestinal Surgery), proposes a method to assess patients and caregivers’ competences in dealing with postoperative course and the related needs to improve the adequate competences. In this observational study, an ad hoc structured interview was conducted with 47 patients and 15 caregivers between the third and fifteenth postoperative day. Oesophageal (38%), esophagogastric junction (13%), gastric (30%), colon (8%) and rectum (11%) cancer patients were considered. Computerized textual data analysis methodology was used to identify levels of competences. Text analysis highlighted three different levels (low, medium and high) of four specific types of patients and caregivers’ competences. In particular, the overall trend of the preview of future scenarios and use of resource competences was low. Less critical were situation evaluation and preview repercussion of own actions’ competences. Caregivers’ trends were similar. The Kruskal–Wallis test did not distinguish any differences in the level of competences related to the characteristics of the participants. Patients and caregivers are not accurate in planning the future after surgery, using personal beliefs rather than referring to physicians, and not recognizing adequate resources. The medium-low competences’ trend leads to unexpected critical situations, and patients could not deal with them in a maximally effective way. Both patients and caregivers should be taken over by healthcare professionals to improve patients’ competences and make the curative surgery effective in daily life. Full article
Article
Frontline Service Employees’ Profiles: Exploring Individual Differences in Perceptions of and Reactions to Workplace Incivility
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12030076 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1005
Abstract
Employee turnover is a big issue in the service industry, which can be significantly affected by job stressors including workplace incivility. This exploratory study aims to identify the frontline service employees’ profiles exploring to what extent individuals may have different perceptions of incivility [...] Read more.
Employee turnover is a big issue in the service industry, which can be significantly affected by job stressors including workplace incivility. This exploratory study aims to identify the frontline service employees’ profiles exploring to what extent individuals may have different perceptions of incivility and social supports at work and showing different reactions (job outcomes). In a cross-sectional study, 291 completed questionnaires from a sample of Norwegian frontline service employees were subjected to correlation analysis, K-means clustering, and post hoc ANOVA analysis with Bonferroni correction. Cluster analysis revealed three distinct clusters of employees with different profiles, which indicated that those who perceived the highest level of workplace incivility and the lowest level of social supports at work showed the highest turnover intention compared to that of others. Moreover, employees with longer tenure and the highest perception of social supports at work coped better with workplace incivility and showed the lowest turnover intention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behaviors)
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Article
The Place of Gender Stereotypes in the Network of Cognitive Abilities, Self-Perceived Ability and Intrinsic Value of School in School Children Depending on Sex and Preferences in STEM
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12030075 - 10 Mar 2022
Viewed by 881
Abstract
Adolescents face many barriers on the path towards a STEM profession, especially girls. We examine the gender stereotypes, cognitive abilities, self-perceived ability and intrinsic values of 546 Russian school children from 12 to 17 years old by sex and STEM preferences. In our [...] Read more.
Adolescents face many barriers on the path towards a STEM profession, especially girls. We examine the gender stereotypes, cognitive abilities, self-perceived ability and intrinsic values of 546 Russian school children from 12 to 17 years old by sex and STEM preferences. In our sample, STEM students compared to no-STEM have higher cognitive abilities, intrinsic motivation towards math and science, are more confident in their math abilities and perceive math as being easier. Boys scored higher in science, math and overall academic self-efficacy, intrinsic learning motivation and math’s importance for future careers. Meanwhile, girls displayed higher levels of gender stereotypes related to STEM and lower self-efficacy in math. A network analysis was conducted to identify the structure of psychological traits and the position of the stem-related stereotypes among them. The analysis arrived at substantially different results when adolescents were grouped by sex or preference towards STEM. It also demonstrated that gender stereotypes are connected with cognitive abilities, with a stronger link in the no-STEM group. Such stereotypes play a more important role for girls than boys and, jointly with the general self-efficacy of cognitive and academic abilities, are associated with the factors that distinguish groups of adolescents in their future careers. Full article
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Article
Randomized Trial on the Effects of a Mindfulness Intervention on Temperament, Anxiety, and Depression: A Multi-Arm Psychometric Study
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12030074 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 921
Abstract
Mindfulness is a mental state that can be achieved through meditation. So far, studies have shown that practicing mindfulness on a consistent and regular basis can improve attentional functions and emotional well-being. Mindfulness has recently begun to be used in the field of [...] Read more.
Mindfulness is a mental state that can be achieved through meditation. So far, studies have shown that practicing mindfulness on a consistent and regular basis can improve attentional functions and emotional well-being. Mindfulness has recently begun to be used in the field of child development. The goal of this study is to assess if a mindfulness program may help primary school students in reducing anxiety and depression while also improving their temperamental characteristics. This multi-arm pre-post study included 41 subjects recruited in the fifth year of two primary school classes. Participants were randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. The experimental group, but not the control group, underwent an eight-week mindfulness training. Every week, the program included 60-min group sessions. QUIT (Italian Questionnaires of Temperament) and TAD (Test for Anxiety and Depression in Childhood and Adolescence) were used to assess temperament, and anxiety and depression, respectively. Both groups were administered both instruments before and after mindfulness intervention. The mindfulness program lowered anxiety levels and was effective in changing temperament dimensions: there was an increase in social orientation (SO), positive emotionality (PE), and attention (AT), as well as a decrease in inhibition to novelty (IN) and negative emotionality. Path analysis revealed that AT may promote the improvement of both SO and IN. Similarly, PE may be promoted by the decrease of IN. Clinical implications are discussed. Full article
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Article
Exploration of Changes in Low-Income Latino Families’ Beliefs about Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity: A Qualitative Post-Intervention Study
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12030073 - 09 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1105
Abstract
Objective: To investigate changes in beliefs around obesity, nutrition, and physical activity among low-income majority Latino families who participated in a community-based family-inclusive obesity intervention. Methods: Six focus groups were conducted with a predominately Latino low-income population, who completed the Healthy Living Program [...] Read more.
Objective: To investigate changes in beliefs around obesity, nutrition, and physical activity among low-income majority Latino families who participated in a community-based family-inclusive obesity intervention. Methods: Six focus groups were conducted with a predominately Latino low-income population, who completed the Healthy Living Program (HeLP). Two groups were conducted in English and four groups were conducted in Spanish, and were recorded, translated, transcribed, and analyzed for thematic content. Two coders independently coded transcripts then reflexive team analysis with three members was used to reach consensus. Results: Thirty-seven caregivers representing thirty-three families participated in focus groups. A number of themes emerged around changes in beliefs about obesity, nutrition, and physical activity (PA) as a result of the HeLP curriculum. Regarding obesity, the themes that emerged focused on the acceptability of children being overweight and the importance of addressing weight at an early age. Changes in beliefs regarding nutrition emerged, noting changes in the use of food as a reward, the multiple benefits of a healthy diet, and for some participants change in their beliefs around the adaptability of traditional foods and habits. Regarding physical activity, themes emerged around the difficulty of engaging in PA due to unsafe conditions and finding creative indoor and outdoor activities with whole family participation and becoming aware of the benefits of PA. Conclusions: Parental changes in beliefs about obesity, nutrition, and physical activity as a result of a family-inclusive weight management program in a population of low-income predominately Latino families can aid and inform the development of future weight management programs for this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Behavior Change: Theories, Methods, and Interventions)
Article
Influences of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Intuitive Exercise and Physical Activity among College Students
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12030072 - 09 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1173
Abstract
The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted the health behaviors of people around the world, including their physical activity patterns. Intuitive exercise, a facet of one’s relationship with physical activity, is defined as one’s awareness, mindset (positive versus negative), and mindfulness [...] Read more.
The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted the health behaviors of people around the world, including their physical activity patterns. Intuitive exercise, a facet of one’s relationship with physical activity, is defined as one’s awareness, mindset (positive versus negative), and mindfulness when engaged in movement. The study’s purpose was to explore whether self-reported physical activity and psychological mindsets around exercise changed during the pandemic. College students (n = 216) described their relationship with exercise before and during the pandemic through anonymous completion of the Intuitive Exercise Scale (IEXS) and open-ended questions to provide in-depth contextualized responses about exercise habits. Participants reported significantly higher scores on intuitive exercise during the pandemic, such as on the Body Trust subscale (M = 3.43), compared to pre-pandemic levels (M = 3.20), p < 0.001. Moreover, varied themes related to physical activity were uncovered such as exercising for fun, exercise influenced by emotion, and loss of motivation to exercise. Important takeaways of the study include the diversity of responses to the pandemic (i.e., some participants reported an increase in physical activity levels and more positive exercise attitudes while others experienced the opposite), the need to promote self-care, and the need for positive coping strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Image, Eating Attitudes and Behaviors)
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Article
Physical Activity and Depression in Adolescents: Evidence from China Family Panel Studies
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12030071 - 08 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1071
Abstract
Depression in adolescents is a major public health disorder. The relationship between physical activity and risk of depression in adolescents was examined using three waves of data from the China Family Panel Studies in 2020. The risk of depression was significantly higher among [...] Read more.
Depression in adolescents is a major public health disorder. The relationship between physical activity and risk of depression in adolescents was examined using three waves of data from the China Family Panel Studies in 2020. The risk of depression was significantly higher among adolescents who reported lower frequency and shorter duration of physical exercise than those who reported physical exercise more frequently and for a longer duration. The risk of depression was significantly higher among adolescents who reported intense physical exercise than those who reported little or no intense physical exercise. The amount of time spent on housework by adolescents is inversely associated with depression. These results provide somewhat stronger evidence for an activity–depression link than previous studies and suggest a differential role for different types of physical activity, such as exercise and housework. The overall model predicting depression in adolescents (LR chi-squared = 95.974, p < 0.001, Nagelkerke R-square = 0.183) was statistically significant. To effectively control depression in adolescents, the government, schools and parents need to act together to guide adolescents towards participation in appropriate physical activities. The appropriate level of physical activity is for adolescents to experience breathing, rapid heartbeat, and slight perspiration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity, Physical and Psychological Health)
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Article
Biochanin A Improves Memory Decline and Brain Pathology in Cuprizone-Induced Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12030070 - 04 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1036
Abstract
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system characterized by the demyelination of nerves, neural degeneration, and axonal loss. Cognitive impairment, including memory decline, is a significant feature in MS affecting up to 70% of patients. [...] Read more.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system characterized by the demyelination of nerves, neural degeneration, and axonal loss. Cognitive impairment, including memory decline, is a significant feature in MS affecting up to 70% of patients. Thereby, it substantially impacts patients’ quality of life. Biochanin A (BCA) is an o-methylated isoflavone with a wide variety of pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective activities. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the possible protective effects of BCA on memory decline in the cuprizone (CPZ) model of MS. Thirty Swiss albino male mice (SWR/J) were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10): control (normal chow + i.p. 1:9 mixture of DMSO and PBS), CPZ (0.2% w/w of CPZ mixed into chow + i.p. 1:9 mixture of DMSO and PBS), and CPZ + BCA (0.2% w/w of CPZ mixed into chow + i.p. 40 mg/kg of BCA). At the last week of the study (week 5), a series of behavioral tasks were performed. A grip strength test was performed to assess muscle weakness while Y-maze, novel object recognition task (NORT), and novel arm discrimination task (NADT) were performed to assess memory. Additionally, histological examination of the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) were conducted. BCA administration caused a significant increase in the grip strength compared with the CPZ group. Additionally, BCA significantly improved the mice’s spatial memory in the Y-maze and recognition memory in the NORT and the NADT compared with the CPZ group. Moreover, BCA mitigated neuronal damage in the PFC and the hippocampus after five weeks of administration. In conclusion, our data demonstrates the possible protective effect of BCA against memory deterioration in mice fed with CPZ for five weeks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Experimental and Clinical Neurosciences)
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Article
One Year after the Flood: Prevalence and Correlates of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Residents in Fort McMurray
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12030069 - 02 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1038
Abstract
Background: The 2020 Fort McMurray (FMM) and area flood caused more than $228 million in insured damage, affected over 1200 structures, and more than 13,000 people were evacuated. Objective: This study sought to determine the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-like symptoms and [...] Read more.
Background: The 2020 Fort McMurray (FMM) and area flood caused more than $228 million in insured damage, affected over 1200 structures, and more than 13,000 people were evacuated. Objective: This study sought to determine the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-like symptoms and the risk predictors among the population of FMM one year after the 2020 flooding. Methods: An online quantitative cross-sectional survey was distributed to residents of FMM via REDCap between 24 April to 2 June 2021 to collect sociodemographic, clinical, and flood-related information. The PTSD checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-C) was used to assess likely PTSD among respondents. Results: 186 of 249 respondents completed all essential self-assessment questionnaires in the analysis, yielding a response rate of 74.7%. The prevalence of likely PTSD was 39.6% (65). Respondents with a history of depression were more likely to develop PTSD symptoms (OR = 5.71; 95% CI: 1.68–19.36). Similarly, responders with limited and no family support after the disaster were more prone to report PTSD symptoms ((OR = 2.87; 95% CI: 1.02–8.05) and (OR = 2.87; 95% CI: 1.06–7.74), respectively). Conclusions: Our research indicated that history of depression and the need for mental health counseling significantly increased the risk of developing PTSD symptoms following flooding; family support is protective. Further studies are needed to explore the relations between the need to receive counseling and presenting with likely PTSD symptoms. Full article
Article
Creativity, Boredom Proneness and Well-Being in the Pandemic
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12030068 - 02 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1317
Abstract
Throughout the course of the pandemic, it has become clear that the strictures of social isolation and various levels of lockdown constraints have impacted people’s well-being. Here, our aim was to explore relations between trait dispositions associated with boredom proneness, self-regulation and well-being [...] Read more.
Throughout the course of the pandemic, it has become clear that the strictures of social isolation and various levels of lockdown constraints have impacted people’s well-being. Here, our aim was to explore relations between trait dispositions associated with boredom proneness, self-regulation and well-being using data collected early in the pandemic. Specifically, we explored whether the tendency to engage in everyday creative pursuits (e.g., making your own greeting cards) would act as a prophylactic against poor well-being. Results showed that well-being was higher for those individuals who increased engagement with creative pursuits during the early stages of the pandemic. That is, people who engaged more in everyday creative activities also reported higher levels of self-esteem, optimism, and positive affect. In contrast, those who pursued fewer creative outlets had higher levels of depression and anxiety, were higher in boredom proneness, and reported experiencing more negative affect. As we emerge from the pandemic, these data provide a clue as to how people might plan to cope adaptively with the restrictive circumstances this extreme world event engendered. More generally, these data provide support for the notion that everyday creativity (and not necessarily creative expertise) has positive associations for well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Boredom in the COVID-19 Pandemic)
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Article
Rumination and Worry Selectively Modulate Total Calorie Consumption within an Online, Nudge Tactic Paradigm
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12030067 - 02 Mar 2022
Viewed by 888
Abstract
Rumination and worry, collectively referred to as perseverative cognition, have been implicated in the increased engagement of several health risk behaviours. The current study aimed to investigate the potential influencing role of these repetitive negative thought cognitions in an online snack paradigm. Participants [...] Read more.
Rumination and worry, collectively referred to as perseverative cognition, have been implicated in the increased engagement of several health risk behaviours. The current study aimed to investigate the potential influencing role of these repetitive negative thought cognitions in an online snack paradigm. Participants were randomly assigned to either an even condition (a 3:3 ratio of ≤101 kcal and >201 kcal snacks) or an uneven condition (a 4:2 ratio in favour of ≤101 kcal snacks). Upon the presentation of six images of sweet treats, participants were asked to choose the snack they most wanted to consume “right now”, before completing the Ultra-Brief Penn State Worry Questionnaire (UB-PSWQ) and the brief (5-item) Ruminative Response Scale (RRS). The results showed that the reduced availability of higher calorie snacks significantly improved both snack choice and total calorie consumption. However, despite rumination and worry having no influence on the snack type chosen, higher levels of rumination still led to significantly higher overall calorie consumption. Although, contrary to predictions, higher levels of worry conversely led to significantly lower overall calorie consumption. This study adds to the growing work in the role of perseverative cognition and food consumption, which may aid in informing public health strategies. Further exploration is needed to assess whether rumination directly induces unhealthy eating behaviours or simply exacerbates them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Psychology)
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Article
Sleep, Diet, Physical Activity, and Stress during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Qualitative Analysis
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12030066 - 02 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1143
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has changed routines and habits, raising stress and anxiety levels of individuals worldwide. The goal of this qualitative study was to advance the understanding of how pandemic-related changes affected sleep, diet, physical activity (PA), and stress among adults. We conducted [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has changed routines and habits, raising stress and anxiety levels of individuals worldwide. The goal of this qualitative study was to advance the understanding of how pandemic-related changes affected sleep, diet, physical activity (PA), and stress among adults. We conducted semi-structured, qualitative interviews with 185 participants and selected 33 interviews from a represented sample based on age, race, and gender for coding and analysis of themes. After coding for thematic analysis, results demonstrated four primary themes: sleep, diet, PA, and stress. Sleep sub-themes such as poorer sleep quality were reported by 36% of our participants, and 12% reported increased an frequency of vivid dreams and nightmares. PA was decreased in 52% of our participants, while 33% experienced an increase and 15% experienced no change in PA. Participants also reported having an improved diet, mostly among women. Stress was elevated in 79% of our participants and was more likely to be discussed by women. Many participants reported how stress was involved in precipitating health behavior change, especially for sleep. Increased stress was also linked to elevated anxiety and depression among participants. The results of this qualitative study demonstrate how managing stress could have a beneficial effect on promoting health behaviors and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond. Full article
Article
Stress and Its Correlates in Migraine-Headache Patients with a Family History of Migraine
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12030065 - 01 Mar 2022
Viewed by 872
Abstract
Purpose: Stress and migraine are often comorbid. However, no studies have examined stress severity in a sample of migraine patients. That is why this study investigated the determinants of stress level in a sample of migraine patients with a family history of migraine [...] Read more.
Purpose: Stress and migraine are often comorbid. However, no studies have examined stress severity in a sample of migraine patients. That is why this study investigated the determinants of stress level in a sample of migraine patients with a family history of migraine (MWFH) in Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods: A quantitative observational study with a cross-sectional data collection and convenient sampling of (MWFH) was performed in Madinah, Saudi Arabia. Participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale-4 (PSS-4) and a list of items to register clinical history and demographics information. Results: Out of eight independent variables that were explored, only two variables —both sleep related, i.e., insufficient sleep (β = 0.22, p = 0.04) and non-refreshing sleep (β = 0.22, p = 0.04), F(8, 127) = 5.13, p < 0.001, R2 = 0.244—were associated with stress severity. The majority of (MWFH) were female (73.7%), recorded a lack of habitual physical activity (56.2%), received treatment for co-morbidities (56.9%), reported sleep insufficiency (54%), non-refreshing sleep (52.6%) and traumatic incidents (50.4%). Discussion: Stress severity increased with sleep complaints, indicating a comorbidity of stress–sleep problems among migraine patients with a family history of migraine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Developmental Psychology)
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Article
The Role of Guilt and Empathy on Prosocial Behavior
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12030064 - 01 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1208
Abstract
Research on the effects of guilt on interpersonal relationships has shown that guilt frequently motivates prosocial behavior in dyadic social situations. When multiple persons are involved, however, this emotion can be disadvantageous for other people in the social environment. Two experiments were carried [...] Read more.
Research on the effects of guilt on interpersonal relationships has shown that guilt frequently motivates prosocial behavior in dyadic social situations. When multiple persons are involved, however, this emotion can be disadvantageous for other people in the social environment. Two experiments were carried out to examine the effect of guilt and empathy on prosocial behavior in a context in which more than two people are involved. Experiment 1 investigates whether, in three-person situations, guilt motivates prosocial behavior with beneficial effects for the victim of one’s actions but disadvantageous effects for the third individual. Participants were faced with a social dilemma in which they could choose to take action that would benefit themselves, the victim, or the other individual. The findings show that guilt produces disadvantageous side effects for the third individual person present without negatively affecting the transgressor’s interest. In Experiment 2, participants were faced with a social dilemma in which they could act to benefit themselves, the victim, or a third person for whom they were induced to feel empathic concern. Again, the results show that guilt generates advantages for the victim but, in this case, at the expense of the transgressor and not at the expense of the third person, for whom they were induced to feel empathic concern. Therefore, guilt and empathy seem to limit the transgressor’s interest. The theoretical implications are discussed. Full article
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Article
Differential Effects of Fundamental and Longitudinal Life History Trade-Offs on Delay Discounting: An Evolutionary Framework
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12030063 - 01 Mar 2022
Viewed by 916
Abstract
We synthesized life history theory and the antagonistic pleiotropy hypothesis to form an integrative framework for understanding delay discounting (DD). We distinguished between fundamental and longitudinal life history trade-offs to explain individual and age differences of DD. Fundamental life history trade-offs are characterized [...] Read more.
We synthesized life history theory and the antagonistic pleiotropy hypothesis to form an integrative framework for understanding delay discounting (DD). We distinguished between fundamental and longitudinal life history trade-offs to explain individual and age differences of DD. Fundamental life history trade-offs are characterized by life history strategies (LHS), describing how individuals adjust reproductive timing according to childhood environments, while longitudinal life history trade-offs characterize how individuals make trade-offs between early- vs. late-life reproduction as a function of age. Results of a life-span sample (242 Chinese participants) supported several theoretical predictions: (a) slower LHS predicted lower DD; (b) the relationship between chronological age and DD was U-shaped; (c) the effects of age and LHS were differential. Mechanisms underlying fundamental and longitudinal trade-offs were explored. Regarding fundamental trade-offs, LHS mediated the effects of childhood environment on DD. Regarding longitudinal trade-offs, the U-shaped relationship was more evident between physical age and DD: older adults who were in poorer physical health felt older and exhibited a higher DD. Neither the time perspective nor anticipatory time perception mediated the effect of life history trade-offs. We concluded that DD was a product of two distinct life history trade-offs, reflecting both the trait-like quality and age-related development. Full article
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Article
Multi-Informant Assessment of Adolescents’ Social–Emotional Skills: Patterns of Agreement and Discrepancy among Teachers, Parents, and Students
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12030062 - 25 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1236
Abstract
Objectives: This study explores the patterns of agreement and discrepancy among informants (teachers, parents, and students) in the domains of the Social Emotional Skills Scale Assessment System—Social Skills Scales (SESAS-SS), which is a translation of the Social Skills Improvement System—Rating Scales (SSIS-RS) for [...] Read more.
Objectives: This study explores the patterns of agreement and discrepancy among informants (teachers, parents, and students) in the domains of the Social Emotional Skills Scale Assessment System—Social Skills Scales (SESAS-SS), which is a translation of the Social Skills Improvement System—Rating Scales (SSIS-RS) for use in Spain. Methods: The sample is composed of students, 88 teachers, and 98 parents from Spanish secondary schools. Inter-rater agreements have been assessed, calculating the Pearson correlation coefficients among pairs of raters, effect size indices, and intraclass correlation coefficients at the subscale and total scale level. Results: The convergent validity coefficients were stronger than the divergent ones, with the highest level of agreement between teachers and parents in social skills, particularly for total social skills, engagement, empathy, and communication. The patterns of discrepancies confirmed weaker agreements between teachers and parents in self-control and between parents and students in empathy. Significant differences were also found in students’ estimates depending on gender. Conclusions: The SESAS-SS provides support for previous studies on inter-rater agreements for SS, extending the focus on the degree of agreement in the estimate of dyads of raters when considering the students’ gender. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Educational Psychology)
Article
Physical Exercise Ameliorates Anxiety, Depression and Sleep Quality in College Students: Experimental Evidence from Exercise Intensity and Frequency
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12030061 - 25 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1346
Abstract
Background: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise intensity and exercise frequency on anxiety, depression and sleep quality in college students. Methods: All participants came from a university in northeastern China. All participants were tested for Diagnostic [...] Read more.
Background: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise intensity and exercise frequency on anxiety, depression and sleep quality in college students. Methods: All participants came from a university in northeastern China. All participants were tested for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and were diagnosed with anxiety disorders. The research subjects were divided into six groups, namely the low-intensity and low-frequency group (group 1), low-intensity and moderate-frequency group (group 2), low-intensity and high-frequency group (group 3), high-intensity and low-frequency group (group 4), and high-intensity and moderate-frequency group (group 5) and high-intensity and high-frequency group (group 6). The duration of each physical exercise for each group was 1 h. Participants’ exercise intensity was monitored using Polar H10 HR sensors and the Borg RPE scale. The experiment was carried out for a total of 6 weeks. The researchers conducted pre- and post-test scores on the subjects’ anxiety, depression and sleep quality through questionnaires. Results: Exercise intensity improved anxiety and decreased symptoms of depression better than exercise frequency; sleep quality was more closely related to exercise intensity. Conclusion: Exercise intensity and exercise frequency have different effects on anxiety, depression and sleep quality improvement, indicating that exercise intensity and exercise frequency have different effects on anxiety, depression and sleep quality of college students. Full article
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Article
A Longitudinal Examination of Real-World Sedentary Behavior in Adults with Schizophrenia-Spectrum Disorders in a Clinical Trial of Combined Oxytocin and Cognitive Behavioral Social Skills Training
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12030060 - 23 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1043
Abstract
Sedentary behavior contributes to a shortened life expectancy in individuals with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSDs), highlighting the need for effective interventions to improve health. This study examined whether reduced ecological momentary assessment (EMA) measures of sedentary activities were observed in individuals with SSDs who [...] Read more.
Sedentary behavior contributes to a shortened life expectancy in individuals with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSDs), highlighting the need for effective interventions to improve health. This study examined whether reduced ecological momentary assessment (EMA) measures of sedentary activities were observed in individuals with SSDs who participated in a 24-week randomized trial of cognitive behavioral social skills training (CBSST) and either intranasal oxytocin or placebo (NCT01752712). Participants (n = 57) were prompted with EMA surveys seven times per day for seven days during the baseline, 12-week, and 24-week timepoints to sample sedentary behavior ratings, positive and negative affect, interpersonal interactions, and interpersonal interaction appraisals. Results revealed that sedentary behavior and social interactions did not significantly change over the 24-week clinical trial; however, positive and negative affect and defeatist interaction appraisals improved with treatment, and oxytocin produced modest additional improvements in these EMA outcomes. Greater momentary positive affect was significantly associated with greater activity and greater frequency of interactions. Overall, CBSST was effective at improving functioning, momentary affect, and defeatist interaction appraisals, although it did not reduce sedentary behavior; therefore, targeting these factors is not sufficient to reduce sedentary behavior, and adjunct interventions are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Behaviors and Outcomes across the Schizophrenia-Spectrum)
Article
Americans’ Perspectives on Online Media Warning Labels
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12030059 - 23 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 989
Abstract
Americans are pervasively exposed to social media, news, and online content. Some of this content is designed to be deliberately deceptive and manipulative. However, it is interspersed amongst other content from friends and family, advertising, and legitimate news. Filtering content violates key societal [...] Read more.
Americans are pervasively exposed to social media, news, and online content. Some of this content is designed to be deliberately deceptive and manipulative. However, it is interspersed amongst other content from friends and family, advertising, and legitimate news. Filtering content violates key societal values of freedom of expression and inquiry. Taking no action, though, leaves users at the mercy of individuals and groups who seek to use both single articles and complex patterns of content to manipulate how Americans consume, act, work, and even think. Warning labels, which do not block content but instead aid the user in making informed consumption decisions, have been proposed as a potential solution to this dilemma. Ideally, they would respect the autonomy of users to determine what media they consume while combating intentional deception and manipulation through its identification to the user. This paper considers the perception of Americans regarding the use of warning labels to alert users to potentially deceptive content. It presents the results of a population representative national study and analysis of perceptions in terms of key demographics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Psychology of Fake News)
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Article
Job Satisfaction and Psychological Distress among Help-Seeking Men: Does Meaning in Life Play a Role?
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12030058 - 22 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1412
Abstract
Men’s low job satisfaction has been shown to be associated with greater symptoms of psychological distress. Meaning in life may be an important factor in this relationship, but its role as a mediator has not been reported. The present study investigated meaning in [...] Read more.
Men’s low job satisfaction has been shown to be associated with greater symptoms of psychological distress. Meaning in life may be an important factor in this relationship, but its role as a mediator has not been reported. The present study investigated meaning in life as a mediator in the relationship between job satisfaction and psychological distress among men. A total of 229 employed Canadian men participated in a cross-sectional survey, completing measures of depression and anxiety symptoms, anger severity, job satisfaction, and the presence of meaning in life. Zero-order correlations were calculated, and regression with mediation analyses were conducted; two models were tested: one for anxiety/depression symptoms and one for anger, as the dependent variables. Both mediation models emerged as significant, revealing a significant mediating effect for job satisfaction on the symptoms of psychological distress (anxiety/depression symptoms, anger) through meaning in life, even while controlling for salient confounding variables including COVID-related impacts. Lower job satisfaction was associated with less meaning in life, which in turn was associated with more symptoms of depression, anxiety, and anger. The findings highlight the importance of job satisfaction in the promotion of a sense of meaning in life among men, leading to improved psychological well-being both inside and outside of the workplace. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Male Depression and Therapy)
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Article
Alcohol Use and Prefrontal Cortex Volume Trajectories in Young Adults with Mood Disorders and Associated Clinical Outcomes
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12030057 - 22 Feb 2022
Viewed by 939
Abstract
(1) Background: Alcohol use in the course of mood disorders is associated with worse clinical outcomes. The mechanisms by which alcohol use alters the course of illness are unclear but may relate to prefrontal cortical (PFC) sensitivity to alcohol. We investigated associations between [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Alcohol use in the course of mood disorders is associated with worse clinical outcomes. The mechanisms by which alcohol use alters the course of illness are unclear but may relate to prefrontal cortical (PFC) sensitivity to alcohol. We investigated associations between alcohol use and PFC structural trajectories in young adults with a mood disorder compared to typically developing peers. (2) Methods: 41 young adults (24 with a mood disorder, agemean = 21 ± 2 years) completed clinical evaluations, assessment of alcohol use, and two structural MRI scans approximately one year apart. Freesurfer was used to segment PFC regions of interest (ROIs) (anterior cingulate, orbitofrontal cortex, and frontal pole). Effects of group, alcohol use, time, and interactions among these variables on PFC ROIs at baseline and follow-up were modeled. Associations were examined between alcohol use and longitudinal changes in PFC ROIs with prospective mood. (3) Results: Greater alcohol use was prospectively associated with decreased frontal pole volume in participants with a mood disorder, but not typically developing comparison participants (time-by-group-by-alcohol interaction; p = 0.007); however, this interaction became a statistical trend in a sensitivity analysis excluding one outlier in terms of alcohol use. Greater alcohol use and a decrease in frontal pole volume related to longer duration of major depression during follow-up (p’s < 0.05). (4) Conclusion: Preliminary findings support more research on alcohol use, PFC trajectories, and depression recurrence in young adults with a mood disorder including individuals with heavier drinking patterns. Full article
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