Next Issue
Volume 11, September
Previous Issue
Volume 11, July
 
 

Animals, Volume 11, Issue 8 (August 2021) – 324 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Those involved in the care of horses have faced challenges to their routine and wellbeing whilst navigating providing care to animals during the pandemic. Using a qualitative approach, this study investigated the impacts of the pandemic on the wellbeing of groups of horse owners, equine veterinarians, farriers, and welfare centre managers, mostly based in the Aberdeenshire region. Results found changes in methods of communication and access to horses had negative mental health consequences for veterinarians and horse owners. It also identified that this equestrian community sample had developed ways to improve their own wellbeing through prosocial attitudes and activities which also benefited the wider community. It is hoped that these findings will help to inform future initiatives that seek to promote wellbeing in studied groups in future pandemic scenarios. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
Effect of Dietary Supplementation with Lipids of Different Unsaturation Degree on Feed Efficiency and Milk Fatty Acid Profile in Dairy Sheep
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2476; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082476 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1259
Abstract
Lipids of different unsaturation degree were added to dairy ewe diet to test the hypothesis that unsaturated oils would modulate milk fatty acid (FA) profile without impairing or even improving feed efficiency. To this aim, we examined milk FA profile and efficiency metrics [...] Read more.
Lipids of different unsaturation degree were added to dairy ewe diet to test the hypothesis that unsaturated oils would modulate milk fatty acid (FA) profile without impairing or even improving feed efficiency. To this aim, we examined milk FA profile and efficiency metrics (feed conversion ratio (FCR), energy conversion ratio (ECR), residual feed intake (RFI), and residual energy intake (REI)) in 40 lactating ewes fed a diet with no lipid supplementation (Control) or supplemented with 3 fats rich in saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated FA (i.e., purified palmitic acid (PA), olive oil (OO), and soybean oil (SBO)). Compared with PA, addition of OO decreased milk medium-chain saturated FA and improved the concentration of potentially health-promoting FA, such as cis-9 18:1, trans-11 18:1, cis-9 trans-11 CLA, and 4:0, with no impact on feed efficiency metrics. Nevertheless, FA analysis and decreases in FCR and ECR suggested that SBO supplementation would be a better nutritional strategy to further improve milk FA profile and feed efficiency in dairy ewes. The paradox of differences observed depending on the metric used to estimate feed efficiency (i.e., the lack of variation in RFI and REI vs. changes in FCR and ECR) does not allow solid conclusions to be drawn in this regard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Nutrition)
Communication
Choniomyzon taiwanensis n. sp. (Crustacea: Copepoda: Nicothoidae) Parasitic on the External Egg Mass of the Longlegged Spiny Lobster Panulirus longipes longipes (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palinuridae) from Taiwanese Waters
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2475; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082475 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1169
Abstract
Choniomyzon taiwanensis n. sp. is described based on specimens collected from examining external egg masses of spiny lobster Panulirus longipes longipes (Milne-Edwards, 1868), obtained from Hualien, Taiwan. The new species differs from its congeners in possessing the following characteristics: (1) small prosome (about [...] Read more.
Choniomyzon taiwanensis n. sp. is described based on specimens collected from examining external egg masses of spiny lobster Panulirus longipes longipes (Milne-Edwards, 1868), obtained from Hualien, Taiwan. The new species differs from its congeners in possessing the following characteristics: (1) small prosome (about 0.84 mm); (2) armature of antennule being 1, 1, 2, 2, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1+1 (aesthetasc), 4, 6+1 (aesthetasc); (3) five-segmented antenna; (4) second segment of antenna bearing 1 inner seta; (5) two-segmented maxilla. Based on the evidence of distinctive morphological features and host preference, Choniomyzon taiwanensis n. sp. is a new species. Until now, four species of Choniomyzon have been known living on decapods, and the new species reported here is the first record of Choniomyzon species from spiny lobster in Taiwanese waters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights on the Taxonomy of Parasites in Aquatic Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Slaughter of Pregnant Cattle at an Austrian Abattoir: Prevalence and Gestational Age
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2474; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082474 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1376
Abstract
The slaughter of pregnant cattle raises ethical–moral questions with regard to animal welfare, but also concerns of consumers because of higher levels of sex steroids in the meat from pregnant cattle. Since no data on the slaughter of pregnant cattle in Austria were [...] Read more.
The slaughter of pregnant cattle raises ethical–moral questions with regard to animal welfare, but also concerns of consumers because of higher levels of sex steroids in the meat from pregnant cattle. Since no data on the slaughter of pregnant cattle in Austria were available, we examined uteri of slaughtered female cattle in one Austrian mid-size abattoir. Sample size was calculated for an assumed prevalence of 2.5% (±1%; 95% confidence interval) of cows or heifers slaughtered in the last trimester of pregnancy and amounted to 870 cows and 744 heifers. 1633 female cattle of domestic origin were examined, most of them of dual-purpose type. Pregnancy was detected in 30/759 heifers and in 74/874 cows (an overall prevalence of 6.4%). The number of cattle in the last trimester of pregnancy was 16 to 26, depending on the evaluation scheme. We found no significant differences in percentages of pregnant cattle sent to slaughter for beef, dual-purpose and dairy breeds, although the latter group demonstrated the lowest percentage. Our results are comparable with those from previously conducted studies in other member states of the European Union. Measures to avoid sending pregnant cattle to slaughter should be implemented at farm-level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cattle)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Bacterial Skin Infections in Livestock and Plant-Based Alternatives to Their Antibiotic Treatment
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2473; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082473 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1606
Abstract
Due to its large surface area, the skin is susceptible to various injuries, possibly accompanied by the entrance of infective agents into the body. Commensal organisms that constitute the skin microbiota play important roles in the orchestration of cutaneous homeostasis and immune competence. [...] Read more.
Due to its large surface area, the skin is susceptible to various injuries, possibly accompanied by the entrance of infective agents into the body. Commensal organisms that constitute the skin microbiota play important roles in the orchestration of cutaneous homeostasis and immune competence. The opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is present as part of the normal biota of the skin and mucous membranes in both humans and animals, but can cause disease when it invades the body either due to trauma or because of the impaired immune response of the host. Colonization of livestock skin by S. aureus is a precursor for majority of bacterial skin infections, which range from boils to sepsis, with the best-characterized being bovine mastitis. Antibiotic treatment of these infections can contribute to the promotion of resistant bacterial strains and even to multidrug resistance. The development of antibiotic resistance to currently available antibiotics is a worldwide problem. Considering the increasing ability of bacteria to effectively resist antibacterial agents, it is important to reduce the livestock consumption of antibiotics to preserve antibiotic effectiveness in the future. Plants are recognized as sources of various bioactive substances, including antibacterial activity towards clinically important microorganisms. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the major groups of phytochemicals with antibacterial activity and their modes of action. It also provides a list of currently known and used plant species aimed at treating or preventing bacterial skin infections in livestock. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Based Alternatives to Antimicrobial in Animal Feed)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Optimization of a Protocol for the Cryopreservation of Sperm in Pellets for the Common Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus mongolicus)
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2472; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082472 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1048
Abstract
The sperm of each avian species and breed have unique characteristics that render them more or less susceptible to the freezing–thawing process; therefore, a suitable cryopreservation protocol that is specific for the sperm of each type of bird is needed. In this context, [...] Read more.
The sperm of each avian species and breed have unique characteristics that render them more or less susceptible to the freezing–thawing process; therefore, a suitable cryopreservation protocol that is specific for the sperm of each type of bird is needed. In this context, little information about the common pheasant’s sperm is available. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test different parameters at each step of the process of freezing into pellets and thawing to detect the least deleterious parameter settings. Sixteen different protocols were tested by studying two levels in each of the four steps (dilution, equilibration at 5 °C, final dimethylacetamide concentration, and dimethylacetamide equilibration time) comprising the freezing process. The pheasant sperm exhibited a high susceptibility to the damage caused by freezing into pellets; however, the survival of the sperm reached 29%, and the greatest recovered mobility was 22%. The mobility of the sperm was affected by the dilution and the dimethylacetamide concentration, and the viability of the sperm was affected by the equilibration at 5 °C and the dimethylacetamide equilibration. The protocols that caused the least damage to the pheasant sperm were found to be those with higher dilution rates, 10 min of equilibration at 5 °C, and 6% dimethylacetamide equilibrated for 1 or 5 min. In the present study, we individualise some applicable parameters for certain critical steps of the freezing–thawing process; however, further investigations are needed in order to improve upon and complete a suitable protocol for the cryopreservation and thawing of pheasant sperm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterization and Strategies to Preserve Local Poultry Breeds)
Review
Acid-Sensing Ion Channels in Zebrafish
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2471; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082471 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2181
Abstract
The ASICs, in mammals as in fish, control deviations from the physiological values of extracellular pH, and are involved in mechanoreception, nociception, or taste receptions. They are widely expressed in the central and peripheral nervous system. In this review, we summarized the data [...] Read more.
The ASICs, in mammals as in fish, control deviations from the physiological values of extracellular pH, and are involved in mechanoreception, nociception, or taste receptions. They are widely expressed in the central and peripheral nervous system. In this review, we summarized the data about the presence and localization of ASICs in different organs of zebrafish that represent one of the most used experimental models for the study of several diseases. In particular, we analyzed the data obtained by immunohistochemical and molecular biology techniques concerning the presence and expression of ASICs in the sensory organs, such as the olfactory rosette, lateral line, inner ear, taste buds, and in the gut and brain of zebrafish. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Morpho-Physiological Evaluation of Fish Welfare)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Predictivity of Antemortem Findings on Postmortem Inspection in Italian Heavy Pigs Slaughterhouses
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2470; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082470 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1301
Abstract
Pigs slaughtered in European abattoirs must be submitted to antemortem inspection (AMI) and postmortem inspection (PMI), as required by the current European legislation in the matter of official controls. AMI and PMI are equally essential to guarantee food safety and to monitor swine [...] Read more.
Pigs slaughtered in European abattoirs must be submitted to antemortem inspection (AMI) and postmortem inspection (PMI), as required by the current European legislation in the matter of official controls. AMI and PMI are equally essential to guarantee food safety and to monitor swine health and welfare. However, little is known about the ability of AMI to predict conditions that are possibly found during PMI. In this study, such a correlation was explored together with the assessment of conditions typically found during AMI and PMI in heavy pigs slaughtered in two Italian slaughterhouses. An assessment scheme containing 13 variables for AMI and 34 lesions for PMI was used for the scope. The herd size was also considered as a variable and included in the study. A total of 24,510 pigs and 30,961 pigs were assessed during AMI and PMI, respectively. The most common conditions found were manure on the body covering more than 30% of the body (dirt >30%) and pluck lesions (‘pleurisy’, ‘pericarditis’, and ‘pneumonia’) for AMI and PMI, respectively. A significant correlation (p < 0.05) between some antemortem (AM) findings and postmortem (PM) conditions was found. In particular, the AM conditions ‘dirt >30%’and ‘skin lesions’ were positively related with PM conditions ‘skin wounds’ and ‘dermatitis’, while the complexes of respiratory and kidney lesions were predicted only by the condition ‘dirt >30%’. The variable ‘standardized herd size’ was negatively associated with ‘milk spot liver’ and positively associated with ‘arthritis/bursitis’. The results of this study show that findings reported during AMI can potentially be used to predict certain conditions found in pigs at PMI. These data can be useful for the competent authorities in characterizing swine farms using a risk-based approach and in developing systems and specific plans for official controls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pigs)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Integrating Livestock Grazing and Sympatric Takin to Evaluate the Habitat Suitability of Giant Panda in the Wanglang Nature Reserve
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2469; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082469 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1226
Abstract
Habitat suitability provides essential information for the management of protected species. However, studies that jointly consider the impacts of human disturbance and sympatric animals in habitat suitability assessments of giant panda are limited, which may overestimate the habitat status. To address this issue, [...] Read more.
Habitat suitability provides essential information for the management of protected species. However, studies that jointly consider the impacts of human disturbance and sympatric animals in habitat suitability assessments of giant panda are limited, which may overestimate the habitat status. To address this issue, we evaluated the habitat suitability of giant panda in Wanglang Nature Reserve by simultaneously investigating livestock grazing and sympatric takin via MAXENT, a new attempt at the assessment of the habitat suitability of giant panda. We focused on describing the habitat suitability of giant panda and determining the habitat overlap between livestock, takin, and panda to evaluate the impacts of livestock grazing and sympatric takin on the suitable giant panda habitat. Results revealed that only 16.33% of the area in Wanglang was suitable giant panda habitat, of which 67.66% was shared by livestock, and 97.99% of the remaining suitable panda habitat not shared by livestock was revealed to be shared by takin. The results indicate an unfavorable habitat status of giant panda in Wanglang, with the potential extensive habitat overlap between livestock, takin and panda exerting further pressure. Thus, to effectively protect giant pandas and their habitats, grazing activity should be controlled. Furthermore, to accurately protect sympatric animals, the monitoring of panda and takin activities in the overlapping areas must be maintained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ecology and Conservation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Profile, Bioavailability, and Withdrawal Time of Tylosin Tartrate Following a Single Intramuscular Administration in Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2468; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082468 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1220
Abstract
The objective of this study was to demonstrate the pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic profile, bioavailability, and withdrawal time of tylosin tartrate (TT) administered to olive flounder via intramuscular (IM, 10 or 20 mg/kg, n = 240) and intravascular (IV, 10 mg/kg, n = 90) injections. Serum [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to demonstrate the pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic profile, bioavailability, and withdrawal time of tylosin tartrate (TT) administered to olive flounder via intramuscular (IM, 10 or 20 mg/kg, n = 240) and intravascular (IV, 10 mg/kg, n = 90) injections. Serum concentrations of tylosin were determined using a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. According to the non-compartmental analysis, the bioavailability of TT was 87%. After the IV injection, the terminal half-life, total body clearance, volume of distribution, and mean residence time of TT were 21.07 h, 0.07 L/kg/h, 2.15 L/kg, and 16.39 h, respectively. Rapid absorption (Tmax 0.25 h), prolonged action (terminal half-life, 33.96 and 26.04 h; MRT, 43.66 and 33.09 h), and linear dose–response relationship (AUC0-inf, 123.55 and 246.05 µg/mL*h) were monitored following 10 and 20 mg/kg IM injection. The withdrawal time of TT from muscle (water temperature, 22 °C) was 9.84 days, rounded up to 10 days (220 degree days). Large Cmax/MIC90, AUC0-inf/MIC90, and T > MIC90 values were obtained for Streptococcus isolates and these PK/PD indices satisfied the criteria required for efficacy evaluation. This study lays a foundation for the optimal use of TT and provides valuable information for establishing therapeutic regimens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Clinical Studies)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Prevalence of Potential Indicators of Welfare Status in Young Calves at Meat Processing Premises in New Zealand
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2467; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082467 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1204
Abstract
In New Zealand, over two million dairy calves between four and seven days of age are sent to meat processing premises every year. There is a need to develop protocols for holistically assessing the welfare of calves sent to slaughter in the first [...] Read more.
In New Zealand, over two million dairy calves between four and seven days of age are sent to meat processing premises every year. There is a need to develop protocols for holistically assessing the welfare of calves sent to slaughter in the first week of life. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of potential animal-based indicators of the welfare state in bobby calves in lairage. The study observed calves in lairage between June and October 2016. Data collection involved assessing groups of calves in pens followed by non-invasive measurements on up to five calves within each pen. We made 23 visits to 12 meat processing premises with group-level observations made on 5910 calves in 102 pens, followed by a non-invasive examination of 504 calves. During the group level observations, none of the calves had their heads tilted or were panting, and coughing and play behaviour were observed in only 1% of pens. In contrast, at least one calf had faecal soiling in all the observed pens, with the percentage of calves affected in each pen ranging from 1% to 48%. In the individual observations, more than 60% of calves had signs of some degree of dehydration, and nearly 40% had some faecal soiling present. In addition, 24% of calves had a respiratory rate over 36 breaths per minute, considered higher than normal. The change in prevalence of some indicators—as time spent in lairage increased or as the calving season progressed—is worth further exploration. Identification of prevalent animal-based indicators facilitates better understanding of the welfare status of young calves in lairage, and these should be incorporated into more holistic calf welfare assessment schemes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Welfare at Slaughter)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Altered Proteomic Profile of Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Exosomes from Cats with Severe Chronic Gingivostomatitis
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2466; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082466 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1415
Abstract
Feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS) is a pathology with a complicated therapeutic approach and with a prevalence between 0.7 and 12%. Although the etiology of the disease is diverse, feline calicivirus infection is known to be a predisposing factor. To date, the available treatment [...] Read more.
Feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS) is a pathology with a complicated therapeutic approach and with a prevalence between 0.7 and 12%. Although the etiology of the disease is diverse, feline calicivirus infection is known to be a predisposing factor. To date, the available treatment helps in controlling the disease, but cannot always provide a cure, which leads to a high percentage of refractory animals. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play a pivotal role in the homeostasis and reparation of different tissues and have the ability to modulate the immune system responses. This ability is, in part, due to the capacity of exosomes to play a part in intercellular cell communication. However, the precise role of MSC-derived exosomes and their alterations in immunocompromised pathologies remains unknown, especially in veterinary patients. The goal of this work was to analyze the proteomic profile of feline adipose tissue-derived MSCs (fAd-MSCs) from calicivirus-positive FCGS patients, and to detect possible modifications of the exosomal cargo, to gain better knowledge of the disease’s etiopathogenesis. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry and functional enrichment analysis with Gene Ontology, exosomes isolated from the fAd-MSCs of five healthy cats and five calicivirus-positive FCGS patients, were pooled and compared. The results showed that the fAd-MSCs from cats suffering from FCGS not only had a higher exosome production, but also their exosomes showed significant alterations in their proteomic profile. Eight proteins were exclusively found in the exosomes from the FCGS group, and five proteins could only be found in the exosomes from the healthy cats. When comparing the exosomal cargo between the two groups, significant upregulation of 17 and downregulation of 13 proteins were detected in the FCGS group compared to the control group. These findings shed light on new perspectives on the roles of MSCs and their relation to this disease, which may help in identifying new therapeutic targets and selecting specific biomarkers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Pathology in Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Characterisation of the Behavioural Effects of a Thoracic Squeeze in Healthy Newborn Piglets
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2465; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082465 - 22 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1336
Abstract
A thoracic squeeze has been observed to cause both healthy and low vigour neonatal foals to enter a ‘less-responsive state’, characterised by loss of posture, eye closure and cessation of movement, from which they rapidly recover to express normal healthy behaviours when the [...] Read more.
A thoracic squeeze has been observed to cause both healthy and low vigour neonatal foals to enter a ‘less-responsive state’, characterised by loss of posture, eye closure and cessation of movement, from which they rapidly recover to express normal healthy behaviours when the squeeze is released. To date, there have been no systematic studies characterising the responses of healthy neonates of other mammalian species to a thoracic squeeze. We describe the responses of healthy newborn piglets (n = 17) to a standardised application of the thoracic squeeze and evaluate the effect of the method of squeeze application on the response. Neonatal piglets were squeezed around the chest with either a soft fabric rope as has been used in foals (n = 8) or a novel purpose-made inflation cuff (n = 9). Both methods were effective at inducing a less-responsive behavioural state in all piglets, with neural reflexes reduced or absent in over half of them. The inflation cuff appeared to induce the less-responsive state faster than the rope, and more piglets squeezed with the cuff remained in this state for the full 10-min squeeze. These findings suggest that the behavioural response of foals to thoracic squeezing can be generalised to neonates of other precocial mammalian species. This initial study provides a foundation for further research using the inflation cuff to explore mechanisms underlying the thoracic squeeze and ways in which it may be applied whilst performing husbandry procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Welfare)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Nitrogen Balance of Dairy Cows Divergent for Milk Urea Nitrogen Breeding Values Consuming Either Plantain or Perennial Ryegrass
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2464; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082464 - 22 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1682
Abstract
Inefficient nitrogen (N) use from pastoral dairy production systems has resulted in environmental degradation, as a result of excessive concentrations of urinary N excretion leaching into waterways and N2O emissions from urination events into the atmosphere. The objectives of this study [...] Read more.
Inefficient nitrogen (N) use from pastoral dairy production systems has resulted in environmental degradation, as a result of excessive concentrations of urinary N excretion leaching into waterways and N2O emissions from urination events into the atmosphere. The objectives of this study were to measure and evaluate the total N balance of lactating dairy cows selected for milk urea N concentration breeding values (MUNBVs) consuming either a 100% perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) or 100% plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) diet. Sixteen multiparous lactating Holstein-Friesian × Jersey cows divergent for MUNBV were housed in metabolism crates for 72 h, where intake and excretions were collected and measured. No effect of MUNBV was detected for total N excretion; however, different excretion characteristics were detected, per urination event. Low MUNBV cows had a 28% reduction in the concentration of urinary urea nitrogen (g/event) compared to high MUNBV cows when consuming a ryegrass diet. Cows consuming plantain regardless of their MUNBV value had a 62% and 48% reduction in urinary urea nitrogen (g/event) compared to high and low MUNBV cows consuming ryegrass, respectively. Cows consuming plantain also partitioned more N into faeces. These results suggest that breeding for low MUNBV cows on ryegrass diets and the use of a plantain diet will reduce urinary urea nitrogen loading rates and therefore estimated nitrate leaching values, thus reducing the environmental impact of pastoral dairy production systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Nutrition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Canine Olfaction: Physiology, Behavior, and Possibilities for Practical Applications
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2463; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082463 - 21 Aug 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 6425
Abstract
Olfaction in dogs is crucial for gathering important information about the environment, recognizing individuals, making decisions, and learning. It is far more specialized and sensitive than humans’ sense of smell. Using the strength of dogs’ sense of smell, humans work with dogs for [...] Read more.
Olfaction in dogs is crucial for gathering important information about the environment, recognizing individuals, making decisions, and learning. It is far more specialized and sensitive than humans’ sense of smell. Using the strength of dogs’ sense of smell, humans work with dogs for the recognition of different odors, with a precision far exceeding the analytical capabilities of most modern instruments. Due to their extremely sensitive sense of smell, dogs could be used as modern, super-sensitive mobile area scanners, detecting specific chemical signals in real time in various environments outside the laboratory, and then tracking the odor of dynamic targets to their source, also in crowded places. Recent studies show that dogs can detect not only specific scents of drugs or explosives, but also changes in emotions as well as in human cell metabolism during various illnesses, including COVID-19 infection. Here, we provide an overview of canine olfaction, discussing aspects connected with anatomy, physiology, behavioral aspects of sniffing, and factors influencing the olfactory abilities of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Behavior: Insights into Chemical Communication)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Strepsirrhine Primate Training Programs in North American Institutions: Status and Implications for Future Welfare Assessment
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2462; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082462 - 21 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1299
Abstract
Many articles have shown the benefits of operant conditioning training techniques in the care and welfare of several species of nonhuman primates; however, the information regarding their use in strepsirrhine species is scarce. We assessed the development and current status of training programs [...] Read more.
Many articles have shown the benefits of operant conditioning training techniques in the care and welfare of several species of nonhuman primates; however, the information regarding their use in strepsirrhine species is scarce. We assessed the development and current status of training programs with these species in North American institutions. An online survey was distributed through members of the Association of Zoos and Aquariums using a multiple-choice format. We collected information related to training program details; animals, behaviors, and techniques; the evaluation process; and the impact of training. Seventy-one organizations completed the survey, with the results showing that 97% of respondents trained their strepsirrhines with the main objective of husbandry and veterinary care (around 80%). Sixty-eight percent of organizations did not report any risk in training these species. The benefits reported include increases in positive human–animal interactions (97%), psychological well-being (88%), and staff awareness of animal behaviors (90%). However, a multi-dimensional approach to measure the efficacy of training could provide a deeper understanding of its impact on the welfare of strepsirrhine primates. We hope that the data offered in this survey can help in this future assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-human Primates: Emotion, Cognition and Welfare)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Environment-Dependent Variation in Gut Microbiota of an Oviparous Lizard (Calotes versicolor)
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2461; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082461 - 21 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1349
Abstract
Vertebrates maintain complex symbiotic relationships with microbiota living within their gastrointestinal tracts which reflects the ecological and evolutionary relationship between hosts and their gut microbiota. However, this understanding is limited in lizards and the spatial heterogeneity and co-occurrence patterns of gut microbiota inside [...] Read more.
Vertebrates maintain complex symbiotic relationships with microbiota living within their gastrointestinal tracts which reflects the ecological and evolutionary relationship between hosts and their gut microbiota. However, this understanding is limited in lizards and the spatial heterogeneity and co-occurrence patterns of gut microbiota inside the gastrointestinal tracts of a host and variations of microbial community among samples remain poorly understood. To address this issue and provide a guide for gut microbiota sampling from lizards, we investigated the bacteria in three gut locations of the oriental garden lizard (Calotes versicolor) and the data were analyzed for bacterial composition by 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene amplicon sequencing. We found the relative abundance of the dominant phyla exhibited an increasing trend from the small intestine to the large intestine, and phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were the three primary phyla in the gut microbiota of C. versicolor. There were a higher abundance of genus Bacteroides (Class: Bacteroidia), Coprobacillus and Eubacterium (Class: Erysipelotrichia), Parabacteroides (Family: Porphyromonadaceae) and Ruminococcus (Family: Lachnospiraceae), and Family Odoribacteraceae and Rikenellaceae in the sample from the hindgut. The secondary bile acid biosynthesis, glycosaminoglycan degradation, sphingolipid metabolism and lysosome were significantly higher in the hindgut than that in the small intestine. Taken together our results indicate variations of gut microbiota composition and metabolic pathway in different parts of the oriental garden lizard. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effect of Tea Tree Oil on the Expression of Genes Involved in the Innate Immune System in Goat Rumen Epithelial Cells
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2460; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082460 - 21 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1331
Abstract
In subacute rumen acidosis (SARA), the rumen epithelium is frequently attacked by endotoxin (LPS), which is caused by the lysis of dead Gram-negative bacteria. However, the rumen epithelium innate immune system can actively respond to the infection. Previous studies have demonstrated that tea [...] Read more.
In subacute rumen acidosis (SARA), the rumen epithelium is frequently attacked by endotoxin (LPS), which is caused by the lysis of dead Gram-negative bacteria. However, the rumen epithelium innate immune system can actively respond to the infection. Previous studies have demonstrated that tea tree oil (TTO) has good bactericidal and anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TTO on the expression of genes involved in the inflammatory cytokines in goat rumen epithelial cells (GRECs) triggered by LPS. Our study shows that rumen epithelial cells isolated from goat rumen tissue can be cultured in vitro in 0.25% trypsin for a long time. These cells were identified as epithelial cells by the expression of cytokeratin 18, monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4), Na[+]/H[+] hydrogen exchanger 1 (NHE1), putative anion transporter 1 (PAT1), vH+ ATPase B subunit (vH+ ATPase), and anion exchanger 2 (AE2). The mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, TLR-2, NF-κB, CXCL6 and CXCL8 genes was significantly increased when LPS was used compared to untreated controls. In addition, mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, TLR-2, NF-κB, CXCL8, CXCL6 and interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 3 (IFIT3) genes was also significantly higher in the LPS group compared to the 0.05% TTO group. However, the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, TLR-2, CXCL6 and IFIT3 genes was significantly lower in the LPS and 0.05% TTO group compared to the 1 μg/mL LPS group. These results suggest that TTO can inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines expression in GRECs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Small Ruminants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Evaluation of Thermal Indices as the Indicators of Heat Stress in Dairy Cows in a Temperate Climate
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2459; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082459 - 21 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1293
Abstract
Many thermal indices (TIs) have been developed to quantify the severity of heat stress in dairy cows. Systematic evaluation of the representative TIs is still lacking, which may cause potential misapplication. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the theoretical and actual [...] Read more.
Many thermal indices (TIs) have been developed to quantify the severity of heat stress in dairy cows. Systematic evaluation of the representative TIs is still lacking, which may cause potential misapplication. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the theoretical and actual performance of the TIs in a temperate climate. The data were collected in freestall barns at a commercial dairy farm. The heat transfer characteristics of the TIs were examined by equivalent air temperature change (ΔTeq). One-way ANOVA and correlation were used to test the relationships between the TIs and the animal-based indicators (i.e., rectal temperature (RT), respiration rate (RR), skin temperature (ST), and eye temperature (ET)). Results showed that the warming effect of the increased relative humidity and the chilling effect of the increased wind speed was the most reflected by the equivalent temperature index (ETI) and the comprehensive climate index (CCI), respectively. Only the equivalent temperature index for cows (ETIC) reflected that warming effect of solar radiation could obviously increase with increasing Ta. The THI and ETIC showed expected relationships with the RT and RR, whereas the CCI and ETIC showed expected relationships with the ST and ET. Moreover, CCI showed a higher correlation with RT (r = 0.672, p < 0.01), ST(r = 0.845, p < 0.01), and ET (r = 0.617, p < 0.01) than other TIs (p < 0.0001). ETIC showed the highest correlation with RR (r = 0.850, p < 0.01). These findings demonstrated that the CCI could be the most promising thermal index to assess heat stress for housed dairy cows. Future research is still needed to develop new TIs tp precisely assess the microclimates in cow buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Housing Environment and Farm Animals' Well-Being)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Hybrid Genotype of Anisakis simplex (s.s.) and A. pegreffii Identified in Third- and Fourth-Stage Larvae from Sympatric and Allopatric Spanish Marine Waters
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2458; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082458 - 21 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1128
Abstract
The sibling species Anisakis simplex (s.s.) and Anisakis pegreffii are parasites of marine mammals and fish worldwide and the main causative agents of human anisakiasis. In sympatric areas, a hybrid genotype between the two species has been identified, mainly in third-stage larvae, but [...] Read more.
The sibling species Anisakis simplex (s.s.) and Anisakis pegreffii are parasites of marine mammals and fish worldwide and the main causative agents of human anisakiasis. In sympatric areas, a hybrid genotype between the two species has been identified, mainly in third-stage larvae, but rarely in fourth-stage and adult forms. The aim of this study was to confirm the presence of hybrid genotypes in larvae parasitizing fish caught in sympatric and allopatric Spanish marine waters, the North-East Atlantic and West Mediterranean, respectively, and to study possible differences in the growth behaviour between genotypes. Of the 254 molecularly analysed larvae, 18 were identified as hybrids by PCR-RFLP analysis of the rDNA ITS region, 11 of which were subsequently confirmed by EF1 α-1 nDNA gene sequencing. These results therefore indicate an overestimation of hybrid genotypes when identification is based only on the ITS region. We also report the detection of a hybrid specimen in a host from the West Mediterranean, considered an allopatric zone. Additionally, fourth-stage larvae with a hybrid genotype were obtained in vitro for the first time, and no differences were observed in their growth behaviour compared to larvae with A. simplex (s.s.) and A. pegreffii genotypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights on the Taxonomy of Parasites in Aquatic Animals)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Individual Nest Site Preferences Do Not Explain Upslope Population Shifts of a Secondary Cavity-Nesting Species
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2457; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082457 - 21 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1177
Abstract
Geographic ranges of plants and animals are shifting due to environmental change. While some species are shifting towards the poles and upslope in elevation, the processes leading to these patterns are not well known. We analyzed 22 years of western bluebird (Sialia [...] Read more.
Geographic ranges of plants and animals are shifting due to environmental change. While some species are shifting towards the poles and upslope in elevation, the processes leading to these patterns are not well known. We analyzed 22 years of western bluebird (Sialia mexicana) data from a large nest box network in northern New Mexico at elevations between 1860 m and 2750 m. This population has shifted to higher elevations over time, but whether this is due to changes in nesting behavior and preference for higher elevation within the population or driven by immigration is unclear. We banded adults and nestlings from nest boxes and examined nesting location and elevation for individual birds captured two or more times. Most recaptured birds nested at the same nest boxes in subsequent years, and the number of birds that moved upslope did not significantly differ from the number that moved downslope. Fledglings moved greater distances and elevations than adults, but these movements were not upslope specific. Female fledglings showed greater changes in elevation and distance compared to male fledglings, but again, movements were not consistently upslope. The upslope shift in this population may be due to birds immigrating into the population and not from changes in individual nesting behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Environmental Change on Bird Populations and Communities)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Quality of Reporting in Preclinical Urethral Tissue Engineering Studies: A Systematic Review to Assess Adherence to the ARRIVE Guidelines
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2456; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082456 - 21 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1227
Abstract
Preclinical research within the area of urethral tissue engineering has not yet been successfully translated into an efficient therapeutic option for patients. This gap could be attributed, in part, to inadequate design and reporting of the studies employing laboratory animals. In this study, [...] Read more.
Preclinical research within the area of urethral tissue engineering has not yet been successfully translated into an efficient therapeutic option for patients. This gap could be attributed, in part, to inadequate design and reporting of the studies employing laboratory animals. In this study, a systematic review was conducted to investigate the quality of reporting in preclinical studies utilizing tissue engineering approaches for urethral repair. The scope was on studies performed in rabbits, published between January 2014 and March 2020. Quality assessment of the data was conducted according to the Animal Research: Reporting of in Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) guidelines by the scoring of a 38-item checklist in different categories. A total of 28 articles that fulfilled the eligibility criteria were included in the study. The range of ARRIVE score was from 0 to 100, taking into consideration having reported the item in question or not. The mean checklist score was 53%. The items that attained the highest scores included the number of animals utilized, the size of control and experimental groups, and the definition of experimental outcomes. The least frequently reported items included the data regarding the experimental procedure, housing and husbandry, determination and justification of the number of animals, and reporting of adverse events. Surprisingly, full disclosure about ethical guidelines and animal protocol approval was missing in 54% of the studies. No paper stated the sample size estimation. Overall, our study found that a large number of studies display inadequate reporting of fundamental information and that the quality of reporting improved marginally over the study period. We encourage a comprehensive implementation of the ARRIVE guidelines in animal studies exploring tissue engineering for urethral repair, not only to facilitate effective translation of preclinical research findings into clinical therapies, but also to ensure compliance with ethical principles and to minimize unnecessary animal studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Models in Biomedical Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effects of Ferulic Acid Supplementation on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits and Histochemical Characteristics of Muscle Fibers in Finishing Pigs
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2455; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082455 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1317
Abstract
FA dietary supplementation on the growth performance, carcass traits and histochemical characteristics of the Longissimus thoracis muscle from finishing pigs was investigated. Four hundred and twenty pigs were used in this study, and 105 animals (with five replicate pens and 21 pigs per [...] Read more.
FA dietary supplementation on the growth performance, carcass traits and histochemical characteristics of the Longissimus thoracis muscle from finishing pigs was investigated. Four hundred and twenty pigs were used in this study, and 105 animals (with five replicate pens and 21 pigs per pen) were assigned to one of four treatments: basal diet (BD) without additives (C−); BD + 10 ppm ractopamine hydrochloride + 0.97% lysine (C+); BD + 25 ppm of FA (FA); and BD + 25 ppm of FA + 0.97% lysine (FA-Lys). Dietary supplementation with FA or ractopamine increased both the average daily gain (14%) and loin muscle area (19%), while fat deposition decreased by 53%, in comparison with C− (p < 0.05). The growth performance of pigs treated with FA was similar to those of ractopamine (p > 0.05). The histochemical analysis showed that FA and C+ treatments induced a shift in muscle fiber types: from fast fibers to intermediate (alkaline ATPase) and from oxidative to glycolytic fibers. Muscle tissues from animals treated with FA or ractopamine had a lower cross-sectional area and a greater number of muscle fibers per area (p < 0.05). Findings regarding growth performance and carcass traits indicate that FA supplementation at 25 ppm without extra-lysine can replace the use of ractopamine as a growth promoter in finishing pigs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Dietary Supplements on Livestock and Poultry Products)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Cadmium Accumulation and Depuration in the Muscle of Prussian Carp (Carassius gibelio Bloch) after Sub-Chronic Cadmium Exposure: Ameliorating Effect of Melatonin
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2454; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082454 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1018
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the bioaccumulation of cadmium in the muscle tissue of Prussian carp during 7 and 13 weeks of exposure to different concentrations of this metal in water (0.4 and 4.0 mg/L), and the depuration of cadmium [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the bioaccumulation of cadmium in the muscle tissue of Prussian carp during 7 and 13 weeks of exposure to different concentrations of this metal in water (0.4 and 4.0 mg/L), and the depuration of cadmium from muscle during the following 6-week depuration period in the presence of melatonin implants. Furthermore, the relationship between cadmium accumulation and the levels of essential bioelements (copper, zinc, iron) in muscle was evaluated, as well as the bioconcentration factor of cadmium. Heavy metal concentration was determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. Cadmium accumulation in fish muscle increased with the duration of exposure. Cd concentrations exceeded the permissible levels for human consumption in groups exposed to the higher concentration of this metal. Moreover, a significant increase of Zn and Fe levels in the muscle was observed. In the fish that received melatonin implants and were exposed to Cd, its level in the muscle was significantly lower. The depuration of accumulated cadmium depended mainly on the duration of the elimination period. This is the first study to report that melatonin co-administration can effectively protect the fish from the accumulation of cadmium in muscle tissue and changes in trace metal levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Aquatic Animals)
Review
What Are the Keys to the Adaptive Success of European Wild Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in the Iberian Peninsula?
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2453; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082453 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1716
Abstract
The European wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) plays an important ecological role in the ecosystems of the Iberian Peninsula. Recently, rabbit populations have drastically reduced, so the species is now considered endangered. However, in some places, this animal is considered a pest. [...] Read more.
The European wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) plays an important ecological role in the ecosystems of the Iberian Peninsula. Recently, rabbit populations have drastically reduced, so the species is now considered endangered. However, in some places, this animal is considered a pest. This is the conservation paradox of the 21st century: the wild rabbit is both an invasive alien and an endangered native species. The authors of this review aimed to understand the keys to the adaptive success of European rabbits, addressing all aspects of their biology in order to provide the keys to the ecological management of this species. Aspects including nutrition, genetics, immunity interactions with the environment, behaviour, and conflict with human activities were reviewed. Ultimately, rabbits are resilient and adaptable. The main adaptations that explain the rabbit’s adaptive success are its nutrition (wide adaptation to food and good nutritional use of caecotrophy), immune system (powerful and developed), and other aspects related to genetics and behaviour. Rabbits’ relationship with humans has led them to colonise other places where they have become pests. Despite these adaptations, populations in native places have been drastically reduced in recent years. Since it serves as a bastion of the Mediterranean ecosystem, a specific conservation program for this species must be carried out. Therefore, a study of the rabbit’s response to diseases and nutrition (especially protein), as well as the interaction between them, is of special interest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wildlife)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Temperament Predicts the Quality of Social Interactions in Captive Female Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2452; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082452 - 20 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1223
Abstract
Previous reports suggest that female macaques with greater similarity in emotionality and nervous temperament, as evaluated in a well-established BioBehavioral Assessment (BBA) at the California National Primate Research Center, were more likely to form successful pairs. We tested whether the same measures can [...] Read more.
Previous reports suggest that female macaques with greater similarity in emotionality and nervous temperament, as evaluated in a well-established BioBehavioral Assessment (BBA) at the California National Primate Research Center, were more likely to form successful pairs. We tested whether the same measures can also predict the quality of social interactions among 20 female rhesus macaque pairs. We correlated the pairs’ emotionality and nervous temperament scores obtained in infancy and the levels of behaviors recorded systematically during the pairing process years later. Supporting previous findings, partners with similar emotionality scores were more affiliative, and pairs with similar nervous temperament expressed less dominance/submissive behavior. Exploratorily, we found that pairs that were better at processing social information (part of BBA) were also more anxious. Such animals should be prioritized to be introduced in rooms that house calmer, less aggressive animals and provide opportunities for hiding to alleviate their anxiety. Indeed, positive social experiences not only promote animal welfare, but also reduce stress related confounds and unexplained data variability. Therefore, by incorporating the animals’ temperament into the pair configuration process we increase the likelihood of forming high-quality pairs, both in terms of welfare and the research of which they are a part. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Research Animal Welfare and Quality of Science)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Seasonal and Nutritional Fluctuations in the mRNA Levels of the Short Form of the Leptin Receptor (LRa) in the Hypothalamus and Anterior Pituitary in Resistin-Treated Sheep
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2451; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082451 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1019
Abstract
The short form of the leptin receptor (LRa) plays a key role in the transport of leptin to the central nervous system (CNS). Here, the resistin (RSTN)-mediated expression of LRa in the preoptic area (POA), ventromedial and dorsomedial nuclei (VMH/DMH),arcuate nucleus [...] Read more.
The short form of the leptin receptor (LRa) plays a key role in the transport of leptin to the central nervous system (CNS). Here, the resistin (RSTN)-mediated expression of LRa in the preoptic area (POA), ventromedial and dorsomedial nuclei (VMH/DMH),arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the anterior pituitary gland (AP)was analyzed considering the photoperiodic (experiment 1) and nutritional status (experiment 2) of ewes. In experiment 1, 30 sheep were fed normally and received one injection of saline or two doses of RSTN one hour prior to euthanasia. RSTN increased LRa expression mainly in the ARC and AP during long days (LD) and only in the AP during short days (SD). In experiment 2, an altered diet for 5 months created lean or fat sheep. Twenty sheep were divided into four groups: the lean and fat groups were given saline, while the lean-R and fat-R groups received RSTN one hour prior to euthanasia. Changes in adiposity influenced the effect of RSTN on LRa mRNA transcript levels in the POA, ARC and AP and without detection of LRa in the VMH/DMH. Overall, both photoperiodic and nutritional signals influence the effects of RSTN on leptin transport to the CNS and are involved in the adaptive/pathological phenomenon of leptin resistance in sheep. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effects of the Duration of Zilpaterol Hydrochloride Supplementation and Days on Feed on Performance, Carcass Traits and Saleable Meat Yield of Nellore Bulls
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2450; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082450 - 20 Aug 2021
Viewed by 996
Abstract
This study evaluated the effects of the duration of ZH supplementation and days on feed (DOF) on performance, carcass characteristics, and saleable meat yield of Nellore young bulls. The fixed effects included the duration (0, 20, 30, or 40 d before slaughter plus [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the effects of the duration of ZH supplementation and days on feed (DOF) on performance, carcass characteristics, and saleable meat yield of Nellore young bulls. The fixed effects included the duration (0, 20, 30, or 40 d before slaughter plus a 3 d ZH withdrawal period—8.33 mg of ZH/kg of DM) and DOF (90 and 117 d). Feed efficiency (G:F) linearly increased when the duration of ZH supplementation increased (p < 0.01). Nellore bulls fed ZH had greater HCW (p < 0.01), dressing percentage (p < 0.01) and Longissimus muscle area (LMA) (p < 0.01), but less 12th-rib fat (p = 0.04) than the control group. The hot carcass weight (HCW) (p < 0.01), and dressing percentage increased linearly (p < 0.01) with the increase of duration of ZH supplementation. The HCW, ossification, and 12th-rib fat increased with DOF (p < 0.01). The ZH supplemented group had most of the individual cuts of hindquarters and total saleable meat increased compared with the control. Zilpaterol hydrochloride was effective in improving hot carcass weight, hindquarter, and saleable meat yields of Nellore bulls when fed for at least 20 d before slaughter, independently of days on feed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cattle)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Efflux Might Participate in Decreased Susceptibility to Oxytetracycline in Contagious Agalactia-Causative Mycoplasma spp.
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2449; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082449 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1054
Abstract
Contagious agalactia is associated with mastitis, keratoconjunctivitis, arthritis, pneumonia, and septicemia in small ruminants in countries with large dairy industries worldwide. The causative agents belong to four (sub)species of the Mycoplasma genus that have remained essentially susceptible to antimicrobials, including to the widely-used [...] Read more.
Contagious agalactia is associated with mastitis, keratoconjunctivitis, arthritis, pneumonia, and septicemia in small ruminants in countries with large dairy industries worldwide. The causative agents belong to four (sub)species of the Mycoplasma genus that have remained essentially susceptible to antimicrobials, including to the widely-used tetracycline family. However, some clinical isolates have been detected that show increased minimum inhibitory concentrations of tetracyclines, although they do not harbor the mutation in the 16SrRNA gene usually associated with resistance. The present work aimed to assess whether efflux pumps, infrequently described in mycoplasmas, could participate in the observed moderate loss of susceptibility. General efflux mechanisms were measured (i) using the fluorescence property of ethidium bromide when accumulated intracellularly and intercalated in the mycoplasma genomes, its active extrusion resulting in a temperature-dependent decrease in fluorescence and (ii) monitoring the growth inhibition of mycoplasmas by subinhibitory concentrations of tetracycline with or without reserpine, a known inhibitor of efflux in other bacteria. Both methods revealed non-specific efflux phenomena in most of the isolates tested, although their efficacy was difficult to quantify. This property could contribute to the acquisition of mutations conferring resistance by maintaining intracellular concentrations of tetracyclines at subinhibitory levels. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effect of Sex and Reproductive Status on Inhibitory Control and Social Cognition in the Domestic Dog (Canis familiaris)
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2448; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082448 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2624
Abstract
Sex differences in a variety of cognitive traits have long been reported in various species, including dogs. However, only a few canine studies have taken the possible effect of reproductive hormones into account. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects [...] Read more.
Sex differences in a variety of cognitive traits have long been reported in various species, including dogs. However, only a few canine studies have taken the possible effect of reproductive hormones into account. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sex and reproductive status of pet dogs (N = 1032) on two cognitive traits: inhibitory control and social cognition. Inhibitory control was assessed using the cylinder test, and the dogs’ tendency to initiate social contact with a human during a problem-solving situation was assessed using the unsolvable task. Female dogs had a significantly higher success rate in the cylinder test compared to males, and they spent significantly more time in human-directed behavior during the unsolvable task. In contrast, males spent significantly more time in independent behavior during the unsolvable task. Reproductive status had no significant effect on the results of the cylinder test or the unsolvable task. Our results showed that female dogs asked for more help/used a more cooperative strategy during a problem-solving situation and had greater inhibitory control compared to males. According to our results, it seems likely that these sex differences were not influenced to a large extent by reproductive hormones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cognition and Olfaction of Dogs)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Implications of Changing Age and Weight at Slaughter of Heavy Pigs on Carcass and Green Ham Quality Traits
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2447; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082447 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1223
Abstract
Italian dry-cured ham production requires pigs to be slaughtered at 160 ± 16 kg at 9 months of age (control, C). The study explored three alternatives, based on different feeding conditions: (1) allowing pigs to express their growth potential by letting them reach [...] Read more.
Italian dry-cured ham production requires pigs to be slaughtered at 160 ± 16 kg at 9 months of age (control, C). The study explored three alternatives, based on different feeding conditions: (1) allowing pigs to express their growth potential by letting them reach 160 ± 16 kg slaughter weight (SW) at younger slaughter age (SA) (younger Age, YA); (2) allowing pigs to express their growth potential by maximizing their SW at 9 months SA (greater weight, GW); (3) increasing the SA required to reach 160 ± 16 kg SW (older age, OA). Pigs (336 C21 Goland, 95 kg initial body weight) were slaughtered on average at 257, 230, 257, and 273 d SA and 172.7, 172.3, 192.9, and 169.3 SW kg for the four treatments, respectively. C pigs had an average daily gain (ADG) of 715 g/d and feed efficiency (FE) of 0.265 (gain to feed). Compared to C, YA pigs had higher ADG (+32%), FE (+7.5%), and better ham adiposity; GW pigs had higher carcass weight (+12%), ADG (+25%), trimmed ham weight (+10.9%), and better ham adiposity. OA treatment affected ADG (−16.4%), FE (−16.6%), and trimmed ham weight (−3.6%). YA and GW could be promising alternatives to C as they improved FE and ham quality traits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Nutrition)
Previous Issue
Back to TopTop