Next Issue
Volume 11, October
Previous Issue
Volume 11, August
 
 

Animals, Volume 11, Issue 9 (September 2021) – 280 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This study measured welfare indicators in Asian elephants during their transition and acclimation to a new zoo habitat designed to meet the species’ physical, physiological, psychological, and social needs. Findings indicate the new habitat’s complexity and flexibility improved overall welfare. Elephants were more active and exhibited more autonomy in choosing environment conditions, and also in choosing whom to associate with socially with evolving herd dynamics, suggesting increased social equity for individuals. All individuals showed adaptive and normal adrenal responses to change and challenge. As wildlife populations increasingly come under varying degrees of human care, this study can provide a model and methods for future investigations relevant to both in situ and ex situ conservation. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
A Co-Culture Model of IPEC-J2 and Swine PBMC to Study the Responsiveness of Intestinal Epithelial Cells: The Regulatory Effect of Arginine Deprivation
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2756; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092756 - 21 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 958
Abstract
Arginine is a semi-essential amino acid, supplementation with which induces a reduction of intestinal damage and an improvement of intestinal immunity in weaned piglets, but the mechanism is not yet entirely clear. The aim of this study was to characterise a co-culture model [...] Read more.
Arginine is a semi-essential amino acid, supplementation with which induces a reduction of intestinal damage and an improvement of intestinal immunity in weaned piglets, but the mechanism is not yet entirely clear. The aim of this study was to characterise a co-culture model by measuring changes in gene expression over time (24 and 48 h) in intestinal IPEC-J2 cells in the presence of immune cells activated with phytohemagglutinin and, consequently, to assess the effectiveness of arginine deprivation or supplementation in modulating the expression of certain cytokines related to the regulation of intestinal cells’ function. The main results show the crucial role of arginine in the viability/proliferation of intestinal cells evaluated by an MTT assay, and in the positive regulation of the expression of pro-inflammatory (TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8) and anti-inflammatory (TGF-β) cytokines. This experimental model could be important for analysing and clarifying the role of nutritional conditions in intestinal immune cells’ functionality and reactivity in pigs as well as the mechanisms of the intestinal defence system. Among the potential applications of our in vitro model of interaction between IEC and the immune system there is the possibility of studying the effect of feed additives to improve animal health and production. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Some Aspects of Development and Histological Structure of the Visual System of Nothobranchius Guentheri
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2755; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092755 - 21 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1250
Abstract
In this, work some aspects of the development of the visual system of Nothobranchius guentheri at the main stages of ontogenesis were described for the first time. It was possible to establish that the formation of the visual system occurs similarly to other [...] Read more.
In this, work some aspects of the development of the visual system of Nothobranchius guentheri at the main stages of ontogenesis were described for the first time. It was possible to establish that the formation of the visual system occurs similarly to other representatives of the order Cyprinodontiformes, but significantly differs in terms of the individual stages of embryogenesis due to the presence of diapause. In the postembryonic period, there is a further increase in the size of the fish’s eyes and head, to the proportions characteristic of adult fish. The histological structure of the eye in adult N. guentheri practically does not differ from most teleost fish living in the same environmental conditions. The study of the structure of the retina showed the heterogeneity of the thickness of the temporal and nasal areas, which indicates the predominant role of peripheral vision. Morphoanatomical measurements of the body and eyes of N. guentheri showed that their correlation was conservative. This indicates an important role of the visual system for the survival of fish in natural conditions, both for the young and adults. In individuals of the older age group, a decrease in the amount of sodium (Na) and an increase in magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) were found in the eye lens. Such changes in the elemental composition of the lens can be a sign of the initial stage of cataractogenesis and disturbances in the metabolism of lens fibers as a result of aging. This allows us to propose N. guentheri as a model for studying the structure, formation, and aging of the visual and nervous systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolutionary and Environmental Morphology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
First Report of Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Virulence Gene Characterization Associated with Staphylococcus aureus Carriage in Healthy Camels from Tunisia
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2754; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092754 - 21 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 901
Abstract
A total of 318 nasal and rectal swabs were collected from 159 apparently healthy camels (Camelus dromedarius) randomly selected from five regions in southern and central Tunisia and screened for Staphylococcus aureus carriage. Staphylococcus spp. were recovered from 152 of 159 [...] Read more.
A total of 318 nasal and rectal swabs were collected from 159 apparently healthy camels (Camelus dromedarius) randomly selected from five regions in southern and central Tunisia and screened for Staphylococcus aureus carriage. Staphylococcus spp. were recovered from 152 of 159 camels studied (95.6%) and in total 258 swabs (81%) were positive. Among these isolates, 16 were coagulase positive Staphylococcus (CoPS) (6.2%) and were characterized by biochemical and molecular tests as S. aureus. These were isolated from 14 camels (8.8%) with co-carriage in nasal and rectal mucosa by two camels. All S. aureus isolates recovered were methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and were characterized by spa typing and PFGE. Three different spa types were recovered: t729, t4013 and a spa type newly registered as t19687, which was the most common. PFGE analysis revealed seven different patterns and these were characterized by MLST, which revealed five different sequence types (ST6, ST88, ST3583 and two new sequences, ST6504 and ST6506). All isolates harbored different virulence genes, including hld, encoding delta hemolysin; lukE–lukD, encoding bicomponent leukotoxin LukE–LukD; the clfB gene, encoding clumping factor B; the laminin gene, encoding laminin-binding protein; and cap8, encoding capsule type 8. Fifteen isolates harbored hemolysin beta (hlb) and fourteen encoded hemolysin alpha (hla) and hemolysin G2 (hlgv). Adhesin factors, including clfA and fnbB, were detected in five and four isolates respectively. Binding proteins, including collagen (cbp) and elastin-binding protein (ebp), were detected in two S. aureus isolates while fibrinogen-binding protein (fib) was identified in four isolates. This study provides the first set of genotyping data on the population structure and presence of toxin genes of S. aureus strains in Tunisian camels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Camel Health and Production)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Initial Liver Copper Status in Finishing Beef Steers Fed Three Dietary Concentrations of Copper Affects Beta Agonist Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Lipolysis Response, and Muscle Inflammation Markers
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2753; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092753 - 21 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 658
Abstract
Ninety-three Angus-crossbred steers (470 ± 35 kg) were assigned to a 3 × 2 factorial to determine the effects of Cu status and beta agonist (BA) on performance, carcass characteristics, lipolytic rate, and muscle inflammation. Factors included Cu supplementation (mg Cu/kg dry matter [...] Read more.
Ninety-three Angus-crossbred steers (470 ± 35 kg) were assigned to a 3 × 2 factorial to determine the effects of Cu status and beta agonist (BA) on performance, carcass characteristics, lipolytic rate, and muscle inflammation. Factors included Cu supplementation (mg Cu/kg dry matter (DM)) at: 0 (LO), 10 (MED), or 20 (HI) from Cu amino acid complex (Availa Cu; Zinpro) with no BA (NoRAC) or 300 mg·steer−1·day−1 of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC; Optaflexx; Elanco) for final 28 days of 88-day trial. Linear and quadratic effects of Cu status within BA treatment were tested. Pre-BA gain was not affected by Cu supplementation (p ≥ 0.57), although day 53 liver Cu quadratically increased (p = 0.01). Average daily gain and muscle IL-8 gene expression quadratically increased (p ≤ 0.01), with MED having greatest gain and gene expression. Ribeye area tended to quadratically increase with Cu supplementation within RAC (p = 0.08). In vitro basal lipolytic rate tended to quadratically increase with Cu supplementation within RAC (p = 0.11), while stimulated lipolytic rate tended to linearly increase within NoRAC (p = 0.10). These data suggest lipolysis and the BA response of steers are influenced by dietary and liver Cu concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ruminant Nutrition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Heads and Tails: An Analysis of Visual Signals in Cats, Felis catus
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2752; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092752 - 21 Sep 2021
Viewed by 1349
Abstract
Visual communication involves specific signals. These include the different positions of mobile body elements. We analyzed visual configurations in cats that involve ears and the tail. We aimed at deciphering which features of these configurations were the most important in cats’ interactions with [...] Read more.
Visual communication involves specific signals. These include the different positions of mobile body elements. We analyzed visual configurations in cats that involve ears and the tail. We aimed at deciphering which features of these configurations were the most important in cats’ interactions with other cats and with humans. We observed a total of 254 cat–cat interactions within a sample of 29 cats, during a total of 100 h of observation scheduled with the “Behavioral dependent onset of sampling” method and using the “All occurences” sampling method. In addition, we sampled 10 interactions between cats and humans. In cat–cat interactions, we noted the positions of ears and tail of both protagonists, as well as the outcome of the interaction, which was either positive/neutral or negative. In a great majority of the 254 interactions sampled, both cats held their tail down. On the contrary, ear position was a critical element in predicting the outcome. When both partners held their ears erect, the outcome was significantly positive, such as rubbing or close proximity. In all other cases of the position of ears in both cats, the outcome was negative, with increased distance of the partners. Although the tail did not seem to play a significant role in visual configurations in cat interactions, the “tail-up” display was important when a cat approached a human being. In the vast majority of cases the cat rubbed itself on a human’s leg(s). Thus, we may conclude that the presence of a human has a specific meaning in the cat’s world, probably as the result of a long period of commensalism. It is important for pet owners to understand the signals that cats use with other cats and with humans in order to promote the welfare of cats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Expression of Emotions: Communication and Welfare Issues)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Behavioral Changes of Solitary Housed Female Pygmy Slow Lorises (Nycticebus pygmeaus) after Introduction into Group Enclosures
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2751; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092751 - 20 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1394
Abstract
Pygmy slow lorises (Nycticebus pygmaeus) are threatened with extinction in the wild. Their nocturnal lifestyle and small size make them difficult to study in their natural habitat, but increasing evidence suggests that they are more social than previously thought. Our study [...] Read more.
Pygmy slow lorises (Nycticebus pygmaeus) are threatened with extinction in the wild. Their nocturnal lifestyle and small size make them difficult to study in their natural habitat, but increasing evidence suggests that they are more social than previously thought. Our study was designed to assess the sociability of pygmy slow lorises by transferring six adult females from solo cages into environmentally enriched group home cages at the Japan Monkey Centre’s Slow Loris Conservation Centre. Two females were paired to create one group, while the other four were placed together in a second group. We compared their social interactions, activity budgets, and postural behaviors before and after social housing was initiated. We found that all-female slow loris groups had a high degree of sociality, preferred to stay close to each other, nested together every night, and spent less time in locomotion and more time grooming than when living alone. These results suggest that female pygmy slow lorises actively seek companions when available. The captive housing of all-female groups of lorises could lead to better husbandry practices and improved animal welfare by allowing them to have conspecific companions. We conclude that isosexual groups of pygmy slow lorises should be preferred over single housing when possible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-human Primates: Emotion, Cognition and Welfare)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Dietary Phospholipids Enhance Growth Performance and Modulate Cold Tolerance in Meagre (Argyrosomus regius) Juveniles
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2750; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092750 - 20 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 829
Abstract
Meagre (Argyrosomus regius) is a fast-growing species currently produced in aquaculture. This species is highly sensitive to low environmental temperatures which results in high mortality events during production cycles. In this study, the effects of dietary phospholipids (PLs) on growth and [...] Read more.
Meagre (Argyrosomus regius) is a fast-growing species currently produced in aquaculture. This species is highly sensitive to low environmental temperatures which results in high mortality events during production cycles. In this study, the effects of dietary phospholipids (PLs) on growth and cold tolerance were evaluated. For this purpose, control (CTRL) and PL-enriched diets (three-fold higher levels than CTRL) were supplied to meagre juveniles (12.9 ± 2.5 g) for 60 days, and growth was determined using a longitudinal approach. Weight gaining and SGR reduction were significantly different between dietary treatments. Animals fed with the PL-enriched diet were 4.1% heavier and grew 3.2% faster than those fed with the CTRL diet. Survival was higher than 98% in both groups. After finishing the growth trial, animals were submitted to two cold challenges and cold tolerance was evaluated as temperature at death (Tdeath), risk to death and lethal doses (LD) 50 and 90 using the cumulative degree cooling hours 6 h (CD6H). Tdeath ranged between 7.54 and 7.91 °C without statistical differences between dietary treatments. However, risk to death was significantly smaller (0.91-fold lower) and LD50 and LD90 were higher in animals fed with the PL-enriched than those supplied the CTRL diet. To assess the fatty acid (FA) composition of liver and brain in animals fed both diets after a cold challenge, FA profiles were determined in juveniles maintained at 14 °C and challenged at 7 °C. FA amounts increased in the liver of animals challenged at 7 °C. In contrast, several FAs reduced their levels in the PL-enriched diet with respect to CTRL indicating that these animals were able to mobilize efficiently lipids from this organ mitigating the negative effects of lipid accumulation during the cold challenge. In brain, the PL-enriched diet increased DHA level during the cold shock indicating a role in maintaining of brain functions. These results open a new research line that could improve the cold tolerance of meagre through dietary supplementation before winter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquatic Animals: New Horizons for Blue Growth)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Retrospective Evaluation of a Minor Dietary Change in Non-Diabetic Group-Housed Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2749; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092749 - 20 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 693
Abstract
Macaques in captivity are prone to becoming overweight and obese, which may cause several health problems. A diet that mimics the natural diet of macaques may prevent these problems and improve animal welfare. Adjusting captive diets towards a more natural composition may include [...] Read more.
Macaques in captivity are prone to becoming overweight and obese, which may cause several health problems. A diet that mimics the natural diet of macaques may prevent these problems and improve animal welfare. Adjusting captive diets towards a more natural composition may include increasing fiber content and lowering the glycemic index, i.e., reducing the impact on blood glucose levels. Such a dietary change was implemented in our long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) breeding colony. The basic diet of monkey chow pellets remained the same, while the supplementary provisioning of bread was replaced by grains and vegetables. This study is a retrospective evaluation, based on electronic health records, that investigated whether this minor dietary change had a beneficial effect on relative adiposity and overweight-related health parameters in 44 non-diabetic, group-housed, female long-tailed macaques. Relative adiposity was measured with a weight-for-height index and blood samples were collected during yearly health checks. Glycemic response and lipid metabolism were evaluated using several biochemical parameters. Relative adiposity and overweight status did not differ after dietary change. Yet, relatively heavy individuals generally lost body weight, while relatively lean individuals gained body weight, leading to a more balanced body weight dynamic. Dietary change did not affect HbA1c and triglyceride levels, while fructosamine and cholesterol levels were significantly reduced. Thus, the minor dietary change had no significant effect on overweight status, but some biochemical parameters related to the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease were positively affected. This study emphasizes the importance of evaluating husbandry changes and that critically reviewing husbandry practices can provide valuable insights to improve animal health and welfare. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Problems of Obesity in Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Identification and Evaluation of African Lion (Panthera leo) Cub Welfare in Wildlife-Interaction Tourism
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2748; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092748 - 20 Sep 2021
Viewed by 1033
Abstract
African lion (Panthera leo) cubs are extensively used in South Africa in wildlife-interaction tourist activities. Facilities provide close interaction opportunities, but the welfare impacts on the cubs are unclear. A workshop was held with 15 lion-experienced stakeholders, including government officials, nature [...] Read more.
African lion (Panthera leo) cubs are extensively used in South Africa in wildlife-interaction tourist activities. Facilities provide close interaction opportunities, but the welfare impacts on the cubs are unclear. A workshop was held with 15 lion-experienced stakeholders, including government officials, nature conservationists, animal welfare organisations, lion breeders, lion handlers, an animal ethologist, wildlife veterinarian, wildlife rehabilitation specialist and an animal rights advocacy group representative. Individual representatives nominated a range of welfare concerns, and 15 were identified for discussion and prioritisation. The leading welfare concern was a lack of governance and regulation within the industry. Participants agreed on nine non-negotiable practices affecting welfare concerns, which included ethical concerns, such as cubs exiting into the ranching industry (farming of lions for hunting) and the bone trade (lions being slaughtered for their bones, which are exported for lion bone wine) once petting age has passed. Welfare concerns representative of current management practices within the lion cub interaction industry were compared for importance using an online adaptive conjoint analysis survey of 60 stakeholders in the industry. The survey identified the most important welfare concerns to be poor social grouping of cubs, an inability for cubs to choose their own environment and retreat from a forced interaction, a lack of trained and dedicated caretakers, and poor breeding practices. The conjoint analysis survey results produced a value model, which can be used as a tool to score cubs’ welfare in interaction facilities, and it identified unacceptable practices lacking welfare consideration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Welfare)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effects of Betaine-Biotin-Chromium Supplementation and Concentrate to Roughage Ratio on Nutrient Utilization Efficiency in Thai Native Cattle
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2747; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092747 - 20 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 888
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation with a feed additive containing a combination of betaine, biotin, and chromium (BBC) and concentrate-to-roughage ratio (C:R ratio) on nutrient digestibility, blood metabolites, ruminal fermentation, nitrogen balance, and energy utilization in [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation with a feed additive containing a combination of betaine, biotin, and chromium (BBC) and concentrate-to-roughage ratio (C:R ratio) on nutrient digestibility, blood metabolites, ruminal fermentation, nitrogen balance, and energy utilization in Thai native beef cattle. Five Thai feedlot native beef bulls at one year old of age and 87.6 ± 15.7 kg of body weight were assigned in a (2 × 2) + 1 augmented factorial experiment according to a 5 × 5 Latin square design with five periods of 21 days. The two levels of BBC were 3 g/kg DM and 6 g/kg DM, and the two ratios of C:R were 60C:40R and 70C:30R. A C:R ratio of 70C:30R without BBC supplementation was used as a negative control. The cattle were offered feed at 3% BW, which provides sufficient energy and protein to support a weight gain of 500 g/day. The results showed that dry matter intake (DMI) and organic matter intake (OMI) were not different (p > 0.05), but the intake of crude protein (CP) and ether extract (EE) was higher (p < 0.05), whereas neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were lower (p < 0.05) in the 70C:30R ratio diets compared to the 60:40R ratio diets. Energy balance and nitrogen balance were not influenced (p > 0.05) by the C:R ratio or the addition of BBC. Rumen pH and ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) did not differ (p > 0.05) among treatments groups. Total volatile fatty acid (VFA) production was higher (p < 0.05) in bulls fed with the 70C:30R ratio diet. The addition of BBC resulted in a lower (p < 0.01) glucose-to-insulin ratio compared to cattle fed with the control diet. Energy and protein utilization efficiency did not differ (p > 0.05) among the experimental treatment groups, which were higher (p > 0.05) than the control group. In conclusion, BBC supplementation showed greater growth performance of cattle compared to the control. BBC supplementation appeared to improve glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity and energy and protein utilization efficiency. Whether BBC supplementation increases glucose production in the liver remains to be determined in future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Nutrition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Effect of Forage-to-Concentrate Ratio on Schizochytrium spp.-Supplemented Goats: Modifying Rumen Microbiota
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2746; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092746 - 20 Sep 2021
Viewed by 842
Abstract
The inclusion of feed additives and the implementation of various nutritional strategies are studied to modify the rumen microbiome and consequently its function. Nevertheless, rumen enzymatic activity and its intermediate products are not always matched with the microbiome structure. To further elucidate such [...] Read more.
The inclusion of feed additives and the implementation of various nutritional strategies are studied to modify the rumen microbiome and consequently its function. Nevertheless, rumen enzymatic activity and its intermediate products are not always matched with the microbiome structure. To further elucidate such differences a two-phase trial using twenty-two dairy goats was carried out. During the first phase, both groups (20HF n = 11; high forage and 20HG n = 11; high grain) were supplemented with 20 g Schizochytrium spp./goat/day. The 20HF group consumed a diet with a forage:concentrate (F:C) ratio of 60:40 and the 20HG-diet consisted of a F:C = 40:60. In the second phase, the supplementation level of Schizochytrium spp. was increased to 40 g/day/goat while the F:C ratio between the two groups were remained identical (40HF n = 11; high forage and 40HG n = 11; high grain). By utilizing a next-generation sequencing technology, we monitored that the high microalgae inclusion level and foremost in combination with a high grains diet increased the unmapped bacteria within the rumen. Bacteroidetes and Prevotella brevis were increased in the 40HG -fed goats as observed by using a qPCR platform. Additionally, methanogens and Methanomassiliicoccales were increased in high microalgae-fed goats, while Methanobrevibacter and Methanobacteriales were decreased. Fibrolytic bacteria were decreased in high microalgae-fed goats, while cellulolytic activity was increased. Ammonia was decreased in high grains-fed goats, while docosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids showed a lower degradation rate in the rumen of high forage-fed goats. The alteration of the F:C ratio in goats supplemented with Schizochytrium spp. levels modified both ruminal microbiota and enzymatic activity. However, there was no significant consistency in the relations between them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Feed Additives in Modulating Rumen Microbiome)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Pet–Human Relationships: Dogs versus Cats
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2745; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092745 - 20 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2223
Abstract
The study of human–animal interactions has increased, focusing on the dog–owner relationship, leaving a lag in research on the cat–owner relationship and practically a total absence of studies that compare the dog–owner relationship with the cat-owner relationship. Therefore, the objective of the present [...] Read more.
The study of human–animal interactions has increased, focusing on the dog–owner relationship, leaving a lag in research on the cat–owner relationship and practically a total absence of studies that compare the dog–owner relationship with the cat-owner relationship. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to make this comparison based on the perception of people living with both dogs and cats, considering interaction, emotional closeness, and perceived cost of the relationship. A total of 132 residents in Mexico participated. To evaluate the pet–human relationship, the dog and cat versions of the Monash dog owner relationship scale were used, thus obtaining comparable scores for the relationship with dogs and cats. Based on what the owners reported, significant differences were found. Relationships with cats were better than relationships with dogs, a finding that was confirmed when comparing male dogs and cats and when comparing female dogs and cats. It was concluded that relationships with cats are better because the perceived cost of such a relationship is lower. However, emotional closeness is greater with dogs than with cats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Human-Animal Interactions, Animal Behaviour and Emotion)
Article
Characterization of Suspected Crimes against Companion Animals in Portugal
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2744; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092744 - 20 Sep 2021
Viewed by 1443
Abstract
Animal crimes are a widespread phenomenon with serious implications for animal welfare, individual well-being and for society in general. These crimes are universal and represent a major problem in human/animal interaction. In Portugal, current law 69/2014 criminalizes the mistreatment and abandonment of companion [...] Read more.
Animal crimes are a widespread phenomenon with serious implications for animal welfare, individual well-being and for society in general. These crimes are universal and represent a major problem in human/animal interaction. In Portugal, current law 69/2014 criminalizes the mistreatment and abandonment of companion animals. This study characterizes forensic cases received at the Laboratory of Pathology of the National Institute of Agrarian and Veterinary Investigation (Vairão) since the enforcement of the aforementioned legislation. A retrospective study was carried out based on the consult of 160 data files of forensic necropsies from 127 dogs and 33 cats. Necropsies confirmed prior crime suspicion in 38 cases (24%), from which 33 were dogs and five were cats. Among confirmed cases, most of assaulted animals were medium-size (57%), crossbreed (55%) male (58%) dogs (87%), which were the victims of blunt force trauma (31%), firearms (27%), poisoning (27%) and asphyxiation (15%). In cats, most of the assaulted animals were juvenile (60%) females (60%) of unknown breed (40%), which suffered blunt force trauma (100%) as the only cause of death. The present study shows that violence against animals is a reality, and complaints about these crimes are gradually increasing due to the population’s raising awareness about animal rights. Greater communication and coordination between clinicians, veterinary pathologists, and law enforcement officers are essential to validate and legally support these cases and subject them to trial. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Towards a Framework for High-Performance Simulation of Livestock Disease Outbreak: A Case Study of Spread of African Swine Fever in Vietnam
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2743; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092743 - 19 Sep 2021
Viewed by 1072
Abstract
The spread of disease in livestock is an important research topic of veterinary epidemiology because it provides warnings or advice to organizations responsible for the protection of animal health in particular and public health in general. Disease transmission simulation programs are often deployed [...] Read more.
The spread of disease in livestock is an important research topic of veterinary epidemiology because it provides warnings or advice to organizations responsible for the protection of animal health in particular and public health in general. Disease transmission simulation programs are often deployed with different species, disease types, or epidemiological models, and each research team manages its own set of parameters relevant to their target diseases and concerns, resulting in limited cooperation and reuse of research results. Furthermore, these simulation and decision support tools often require a large amount of computational power, especially for models involving tens of thousands of herds with millions of individuals spread over a large geographical area such as a region or a country. It is a matter of fact that epidemic simulation programs are often heterogeneous, but they often share some common workflows including processing of input data and execution of simulation, as well as storage, analysis, and visualization of results. In this article, we propose a novel architectural framework for simultaneously deploying any epidemic simulation program both on premises and on the cloud to improve performance and scalability. We also conduct some experiments to evaluate the proposed architectural framework on some aspects when applying it to simulate the spread of African swine fever in Vietnam. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue African Swine Fever – Knowledge, Theses, Facts)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Impact of Campylobacter spp. on the Integrity of the Porcine Gut
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2742; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092742 - 19 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 943
Abstract
Campylobacter (C.) is the most common food-borne zoonosis in humans, which mainly manifests with watery to bloody diarrhoea. While C. jejuni is responsible for most cases of infection, C. coli is less frequently encountered. The object of the study was to [...] Read more.
Campylobacter (C.) is the most common food-borne zoonosis in humans, which mainly manifests with watery to bloody diarrhoea. While C. jejuni is responsible for most cases of infection, C. coli is less frequently encountered. The object of the study was to prove the clinical impact of mono- and co-colonisation of C. coli and C. jejuni on weaned piglets in an infection model and to investigate the impact on transepithelial transport processes in the jejunum and caecum. At an age of eight weeks, eight pigs were infected with C. coli (ST-5777), 10 pigs with C. jejuni (ST-122), eight pigs with both strains, and 11 piglets served as control. During the four-week observation period, no clinical signs were observed. During dissection, both strains could be isolated from the jejunum and the caecum, but no alteration of the tissue could be determined histopathologically. Mono-infection with C. jejuni showed an impact on transepithelial ion transport processes of the caecum. An increase in the short circuit current (Isc) was observed in the Ussing chamber resulting from carbachol- and forskolin-mediated Cl secretion. Therefore, we speculate that caecal colonisation of C. jejuni might affect the transport mechanisms of the intestinal mucosa without detectable inflammatory reaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pigs)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Insights into the Genetic Evolution of Duck Hepatitis A Virus in Egypt
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2741; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092741 - 19 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1298
Abstract
Duck hepatitis virus (DHV) is one of the commercially important diseases of ducklings worldwide. It is an acute and highly infectious disease of ducklings caused by three different serotypes (1–3) of duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV), and serotype 1 is the most common [...] Read more.
Duck hepatitis virus (DHV) is one of the commercially important diseases of ducklings worldwide. It is an acute and highly infectious disease of ducklings caused by three different serotypes (1–3) of duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV), and serotype 1 is the most common in poultry. To date, little is known about the prevalence and genetic characterisation of DHAV-1 in Egypt. In the current study, isolation and complete genomic analyses of DHAVs circulating in commercial duck farms in different Egyptian governorates were conducted. A total of eighteen samples were collected from six Egyptian governorates of 3–11 days old ducklings (Pekin and Mullard) with a history of nervous signs and high mortality rates. Five out of eighteen (5/18) samples were screened positive for the DHAV-1 based on the VP1 gene. These samples were individually used for virus isolation in embryonated duck embryos (EDE), followed by complete genome sequencing. Phylogenomic analyses showed that DHAV serotype I; genotype I were diversified into four different groups (1–4). Most of the recent circulating Egyptian DHAV strains are clustered within group 4, while isolates characterised within this study were clustered within group 1. Recombination analyses revealed that the emergence of a new recombinant virus—DHAV-1 strain Egypt-10/2019—through recombination. Likewise, the selective pressure analyses showed the existence, inside or near areas of the viral attachment or related functions, of positive scores highlighting the importance of natural selection and viral evolution mechanism at different protein domains. The findings of this study provide updated information on the epidemiological and genetic features of DHAV-1 strains and underscore the importance of DHAV surveillance as well as re-evaluation for currently used vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Avian Diseases Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Effect of Freezing Sheep’s Milk on the Meltability, Texture, Melting and Fat Crystallization Profiles of Fresh Pasta Filata Cheese
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2740; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092740 - 19 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 775
Abstract
Sheep’s milk is produced in smallholdings, which hinders the continuity of production. Therefore, freezing during periods of high production can be a solution. Herein, we examined the effect of freezing on sheep’s milk and a mixture of sheep and cow’s milk (70:30, v/v [...] Read more.
Sheep’s milk is produced in smallholdings, which hinders the continuity of production. Therefore, freezing during periods of high production can be a solution. Herein, we examined the effect of freezing on sheep’s milk and a mixture of sheep and cow’s milk (70:30, v/v) on the quality of fresh pasta filata cheeses produced from the milk. Frozen/thawed sheep’s milk contributes little to the development of innovative and reformulated cheeses. This was due to 24% higher hardness and greater extensibility and cutting force, as well as lower stretching and elasticity. Although their flowability increased (Oiling-off from 3 to 12%), the meltability (tube test, and Schreiber test) decreased. Additionally, the use of frozen milk caused consumer dissatisfaction. The consumer penalty analysis of the just–about–right showed that freezing of the milk caused the loss of the refreshing, elasticity and shininess of pasta filata cheeses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Small Ruminants)
Article
In Vitro Supplementation of Copper Modulates the Functional Th1/Th2 Phenotype of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Cattle
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2739; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092739 - 19 Sep 2021
Viewed by 609
Abstract
This study investigated the association of copper levels and monocyte plasticity between M1 (CD14+ CD16) and M2 (CD14 CD16++) phenotypes. Five samples of female bovine PBMCs were incubated in 0, 4, 8 and 16 μM copper and [...] Read more.
This study investigated the association of copper levels and monocyte plasticity between M1 (CD14+ CD16) and M2 (CD14 CD16++) phenotypes. Five samples of female bovine PBMCs were incubated in 0, 4, 8 and 16 μM copper and stimulated (PPD-A, TLR- 2 ligand (Pam3CSK4), or media alone) before they were washed and stained for cell surface expression analysis by flow cytometry. M1 function was measured through nitric oxide production using a Griess assay. Flow cytometry analysis showed a significant reduction in viability with increased copper (p < 0.001). Increasing copper had a significant impact on CD14 expression (p = 0.026) and in cows older than 4 years copper levels positively affected CD14 expression (p = 0.001), whereas in animals of four years or younger, Cu did not affect the CD14 expression (p = 0.701 and 0.939, respectively). CD14 expression affected both CD16 expression and NO production. For CD16 expression, there was a further significant negative effect of copper levels in cows older than 4 years, NO was not affected by varying copper levels. In our small sample, monocytes in the presence of a higher copper environment showed a stronger M1 support for better cellular immunity which might contain intracellular infections more effectively. To test this, a randomised clinical trial will be required to determine whether copper supplementation could prevent progression to Johne’s disease in MAP infected cows. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Investigations on Transfer of Pathogens between Foster Cows and Calves during the Suckling Period
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2738; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092738 - 19 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 958
Abstract
To date, there have been few studies on the health effects of foster cow systems, including the transmission of mastitis-associated pathogens during suckling. The present study aimed to compare the pathogens detected in the mammary glands of the foster cow with those in [...] Read more.
To date, there have been few studies on the health effects of foster cow systems, including the transmission of mastitis-associated pathogens during suckling. The present study aimed to compare the pathogens detected in the mammary glands of the foster cow with those in the oral cavities of the associated foster calves and to evaluate the resulting consequences for udder health, calf health and internal biosecurity. Quarter milk sampling of 99 foster cows from an organic dairy farm was conducted twice during the foster period. Oral cavity swabs were taken from 345 foster calves. Furthermore, quarter milk samples were collected from 124 biological dams to investigate possible transmission to the foster cows via the suckling calves. All samples were microbiologically examined and confirmed by MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass-spectrometry). Using RAPD-PCR (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction), strain similarities were detected for Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus aureus, S. sciuri and Streptococcus (Sc.) suis. Transmission of P. multocida and S. aureus probably occurred during suckling. For S. sciuri and Sc. suis, environmental origins were assumed. Transmission from dam to foster cow with the suckling calf as vector could not be clearly demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Mastitis and Intramammary Infections in Dairy Farms)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Judgement Bias in Miniature Donkeys: Conditioning Factors and Personality Links
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2737; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092737 - 19 Sep 2021
Viewed by 1016
Abstract
Expectation-related bias may configure individuals’ perception of their surrounding environment and of the elements present in it. This study aimed to determine the repercussions of environmental (weather elements) or subject-inherent factors (sex, age, or personality features) on judgment bias. A cognitive bias test [...] Read more.
Expectation-related bias may configure individuals’ perception of their surrounding environment and of the elements present in it. This study aimed to determine the repercussions of environmental (weather elements) or subject-inherent factors (sex, age, or personality features) on judgment bias. A cognitive bias test was performed in eight Miniature jennies and four jacks. Test comprised habituation, training and testing phases during which subjects were trained on how to complete the test and scored based on their latency to approach an ambiguous stimulus. A questionnaire evaluating eleven personality features was parallelly completed by three caretakers, five operators and two care assistants to determine the links between personality features and judgment bias. Adjusted latencies did not significantly differ between sexes (Mann–Whitney test, p > 0.05). Although Miniature donkeys can discriminate positive/negative stimuli, inter-individual variability evidences were found. Such discrimination is evidenced by significant latency differences to approach positive/negative stimuli (33.7 ± 43.1 vs. 145.5 ± 53.1 s) (Mann–Whitney test, p < 0.05). Latencies significantly increased with patience, indicative of an expression of pessimism. Better understanding judgement bias mechanisms and implications may help optimize routine handling practices in the framework of animal welfare. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Influence of Different Regimes of Moderate Maternal Feed Restriction during Pregnancy of Primiparous Rabbit Does on Long-Term Metabolic Energy Homeostasis, Productive Performance and Welfare
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2736; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092736 - 19 Sep 2021
Viewed by 779
Abstract
In this study, a maternal feed restriction (MFR; 105 g/d) in primiparous rabbit does was applied from day 0 to 7 post artificial insemination (AI) (R07, n = 96), from day 7 to 21 post AI (R721, n = 92), from day 0 [...] Read more.
In this study, a maternal feed restriction (MFR; 105 g/d) in primiparous rabbit does was applied from day 0 to 7 post artificial insemination (AI) (R07, n = 96), from day 7 to 21 post AI (R721, n = 92), from day 0 to 21 post AI (R021, n = 94) or fed ad libitum during whole pregnancy (Control, n= 92). Feed intake (FI) was measured after MFR was over. On day 28 of gestation, fetoplacental development was evaluated (n = 11/group) and the productive parameters of the remaining dams were analyzed. Plasma free tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine, glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and corticosterone were analyzed during gestation and lactation (n = 5/group). After MFR, all groups significantly increased their voluntary FI. The longer MFR was, the lower the weight and length of the fetuses, but no long-term effects over litter performance were observed. R021 groups had the lowest T3 and the highest NEFA concentrations during pregnancy and showed insulin resistance at the end of gestation, but during lactation, energy homeostasis was balanced in all groups. MFR did not affect corticosterone concentrations. In conclusion, the ration setting applied slightly involved the energy homeostasis and metabolism of the animals, but their overall metabolic condition, productive performance and welfare were not compromised. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges and New Strategies on Rabbit Breeding)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effects of Garlic Allium sativum Powder on Nutrient Digestibility, Haematology, and Immune and Stress Responses in Eurasian Perch Perca fluviatilis Juveniles
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2735; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092735 - 19 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 949
Abstract
The supplementation of fish diets with phytogenics can increase growth performance and can modulate immune system response. European perch Perca fluviatilis (initial weight 25.0 ± 0.4 g) were fed a diet including 0 (Control), 10 (G10), 20 (G20), and 30 (G30) g kg [...] Read more.
The supplementation of fish diets with phytogenics can increase growth performance and can modulate immune system response. European perch Perca fluviatilis (initial weight 25.0 ± 0.4 g) were fed a diet including 0 (Control), 10 (G10), 20 (G20), and 30 (G30) g kg−1 garlic powder. No significant difference in the growth parameters and somatic indices were observed. Significantly higher fat digestibility was observed in G10 and G30 diets compared to in the control and G20 diets(p < 0.05). Significantly greater red blood cell and white blood cell counts were observed with the G10 diet (p < 0.05). Garlic significantly decreased serum cholesterol in all of the experimental groups. Serum albumin was significantly higher in the G10 and G20 diets (p < 0.05). Immediately after the overcrowding stress challenge, the garlic groups showed significantly higher cortisol levels than the control group, while no significant difference was observed in the glucose concentration among groups. At 1 h post-stress, all of the groups that had been fed a garlic-supplemented diet showed lower cortisol levels than the control group, and this trend was maintained at 6 and 24 h post stress (p < 0.05), and glucose level in all garlic groups was significantly lower than control (p < 0.05). Garlic at 10 g kg−1 in feed can improve apparent fat digestibility and selected blood parameters and can enhance resistance against high-density and net handling stress in Eurasian perch. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Level of Selected Bacterial Phyla on the Skin Surface of Small Ruminants According to the Breed and Species
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2734; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092734 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1037
Abstract
For decades, skin has been assigned the main role of an insulator of the inside of the body from the external environment, but it also plays a role in maintaining homeostasis. In this study, the level of selected bacterial phyla (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria [...] Read more.
For decades, skin has been assigned the main role of an insulator of the inside of the body from the external environment, but it also plays a role in maintaining homeostasis. In this study, the level of selected bacterial phyla (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria) was assessed in three sheep breeds (Świniarka sheep, Uhruska sheep and BCP line (synthetic sheep breed; n = 6) and in two breeds of goats (Boer, Saenian; n = 6) living in the same environment and fed on the same feed, where the aim was to identify differences in terms of race, species and individual differences. Significant differences were found in Firmicute, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria phyla (p ≤ 0.05). Statistically significant and positive correlations were demonstrated between Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes or Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. The obtained results suggest that the species and racial differences in the level of the studied bacterial phyla may also result from the physicochemical differences of the skin surface, as they could exacerbate the variations in humidity, temperature, composition of antimicrobial peptides (AMP) and lipid content. In addition, individual differences were observed, which indicate a similar effect of an individual on the microbiological composition of its organism. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Number of Offspring Weaned from Ewe Lambs Is Affected Differently by Liveweight and Age at Breeding
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2733; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092733 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1518
Abstract
In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that ewe lambs that are heavier and older at breeding will wean more offspring, due to increased reproductive rate and offspring survival and lower maternal mortality. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed data from more than [...] Read more.
In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that ewe lambs that are heavier and older at breeding will wean more offspring, due to increased reproductive rate and offspring survival and lower maternal mortality. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed data from more than 11,500 maternal composite ewe lambs collected over eight years. The ewe lambs had full pedigree records including birth type, age and liveweight at breeding plus records of the birthweight and survival of their offspring and the dam. The average liveweight and age at breeding was 40.2 kg and 228 days. The reproductive rate and weaning rate responses to liveweight at breeding were curvilinear (p < 0.001), and if ewe lambs achieved 45 kg by the start of breeding, their reproductive rate and weaning rate were within 5% of their maximum. By contrast, the effects of age at breeding on weaning rate was linear and increased by 0.4% per day, despite a quadratic (p < 0.01) effect of age at breeding on reproductive rate which increased only marginally when ewe lambs were older than 8 months at breeding. Increasing liveweight (p < 0.05) or age (p < 0.001) at breeding increased survival of their offspring, however an extra 10 kg of liveweight or 30 days of age at breeding increased offspring survival by less than 5%. Both liveweight (p < 0.001) and age (p < 0.01) at breeding also influenced survival of the ewe lamb dam but survival rates exceeded 95% across the range in liveweights from 30 to 55 kg and ages from 6 to 9 months. This understanding of the trade-off between age and liveweight at breeding will assist farmers to optimize the management of their ewe lambs, given the earlier they can be bred successfully the easier they can be integrated with the breeding of the adult ewe flock the following year. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hogget Production and Longevity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Hormonal and Neurological Aspects of Dog Walking for Dog Owners and Pet Dogs
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2732; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092732 - 18 Sep 2021
Viewed by 1549
Abstract
The hormone oxytocin is involved in various aspects of the relationship between humans and animals. Dog walking is a common activity for dog owners and their dogs. The walk, of course, should be good for the health of the dog as well as [...] Read more.
The hormone oxytocin is involved in various aspects of the relationship between humans and animals. Dog walking is a common activity for dog owners and their dogs. The walk, of course, should be good for the health of the dog as well as its owner. In Experiment I, we assessed whether salivary oxytocin and cortisol in dog owners changed because of walking their dogs. Ten owners walked with their dogs and walked alone. Similar to other previous research, walking with a dog did not significantly change oxytocin and cortisol. Therefore, in Experiment II, we investigated the effect of dog walking on brain noradrenergic and GABAergic neural activity, as indicated by salivary MHPG and GABA, in 14 dog owners. Walking with a dog reduced salivary MHPG compared to walking alone, and MHPG was correlated negatively with GABA. Thus, dog walking activated GABAergic nerves in the brain and suppressed noradrenergic nerves, effectively relieving stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Mental Health: Human–Animal Interaction)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Identifying Risk Factors for Low Piglet Birth Weight, High Within-Litter Variation and Occurrence of Intrauterine Growth-Restricted Piglets in Hyperprolific Sows
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2731; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092731 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1145
Abstract
This study aimed to identify risk factors affecting PBW, high CVPBW and the occurrence of IUGR piglets in 12 commercial Danish herds with hyperprolific sows using free-access stalls, floor or electronic sow feeding systems in the gestation unit. The following factors were [...] Read more.
This study aimed to identify risk factors affecting PBW, high CVPBW and the occurrence of IUGR piglets in 12 commercial Danish herds with hyperprolific sows using free-access stalls, floor or electronic sow feeding systems in the gestation unit. The following factors were investigated: the duration of previous lactation, the length of the interval from weaning to insemination, the length of gestation, litter size, parity, sow backfat thickness in late gestation and the type of feeding system in the gestation unit. The study included newborn piglets from 452 litters with the following production indicator averages: 21.3 piglets/L, 1235 g PBW, 22.9% CVPBW and 10.9% and 11.8% within-litter occurrence of severe and mild IUGR piglets, respectively. Increasing length of weaning-to-insemination interval decreased PBW by 25.8 g/day. For 2nd to 9th parity sows, each additional piglet in the litter increased CVPBW by 0.38%, the occurrence of severe IUGR piglets by 0.68% and mild IUGR piglets by 0.50%. Sows of 5th parity and older had a 1.39% higher CVPBW and 49.1 g lighter piglets compared with sows of 2nd to 4th parity. PBW was lower in one ESF herd, suggesting complex interactions that need to be further elucidated. The main critical risk factor observed was litter size. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Conservation of Native Domestic Animal Breeds in Nordic Countries: From Genetic Resources to Cultural Heritage and Good Governance
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2730; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092730 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1412
Abstract
Native breeds are domestic animal populations that have adapted to their habitats. The genetic value of breeds has been known for a long time, and recently more attention has been paid to their cultural value. Due to both ecological and cultural significance, it [...] Read more.
Native breeds are domestic animal populations that have adapted to their habitats. The genetic value of breeds has been known for a long time, and recently more attention has been paid to their cultural value. Due to both ecological and cultural significance, it is important that native breeds continue to be bred in their native environments. This is supported by various financial support schemes. Support schemes rarely cover the financial gap in output compared to commercial breeds. A solution to this has been sought in special products, such as cheese or wool, and other businesses, such as animal-assisted care and tourism. Less attention has been paid to the role of administration and good governance in the maintenance of native breeds. In this study, a questionnaire was sent to all registered keepers of native breeds in Finland. This survey clarified their reasons for keeping native breeds and their ideas for improving governance structures and practices. The results were discussed in stakeholder workshops, and in a Nordic context. The results show that genetic and cultural values are recognised in several documents and programmes, but farmers need to be engaged more in the design of support schemes and practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Genetic Resources Conservation: From Optimal to Feasible)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Feed Intake Parameters of Horses Fed Soaked or Steamed Hay and Hygienic Quality of Hay Stored following Treatment
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2729; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092729 - 18 Sep 2021
Viewed by 929
Abstract
Horses suffering from equine asthma must consume low-dust forage, with soaking and steaming being suitable methods of hay treatment. The impacts of this treated hay’s subsequent storage and effects on the horses’ chewing activity are largely unknown. Meadow hay was soaked (10–15 °C, [...] Read more.
Horses suffering from equine asthma must consume low-dust forage, with soaking and steaming being suitable methods of hay treatment. The impacts of this treated hay’s subsequent storage and effects on the horses’ chewing activity are largely unknown. Meadow hay was soaked (10–15 °C, 15 min) or steamed (100 °C, 60 min). Microbial counts (colony forming units (CFU)) were determined by culture before and after soaking or steaming, and subsequent storage at 10 and 25 °C for 6, 12 and 24 h (three replicates each). Six horses were fed native, soaked and steamed hay, according to a cross-over design, and chewing parameters were measured. Steaming reduced (p < 0.05) typical mold vs. soaking (0 vs. 50 CFU/g) and yeasts vs. native and steamed hay (0 vs. 102 and 90 CFU/g). Storing soaked hay elevated bacteria, mold, and yeasts (p < 0.05). Within the first 60 min of hay intake, the steamed hay and soaked hay were eaten slower (19.5 and 21.5 g dry matter/min, respectively; p < 0.05) and the steamed hay was chewed more intensely (steamed hay: 3537; native: 2622; and soaked: 2521 chewing cycles/kg dry matter, p < 0.05). Steaming particularly improves the hygienic quality of hay. Soaked hay is not stable when stored and is less accepted by horses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Equids)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
High Numbers of CD163-Positive Macrophages in the Fibrotic Region of Exuberant Granulation Tissue in Horses
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2728; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092728 - 18 Sep 2021
Viewed by 902
Abstract
Exuberant granulation tissue (EGT) is a frequently encountered complication during second intention healing in equine distal limb wounds. Although it is still unknown what exactly triggers the formation of this tissue, previous research has revealed a persistent inflammatory response in these wounds. In [...] Read more.
Exuberant granulation tissue (EGT) is a frequently encountered complication during second intention healing in equine distal limb wounds. Although it is still unknown what exactly triggers the formation of this tissue, previous research has revealed a persistent inflammatory response in these wounds. In this preliminary study we examined this inflammatory response in EGT-developing wounds as well as in experimental induced wounds. Immunohistological stainings were performed to detect primary inflammatory immune cells (MAC387 staining) as well as pro-resolution immune cells (CD163 staining). Our results show a significantly higher amount of MAC387+ and CD163+ cells in the fibrotic regions of EGT compared with the 19-day-old experimental wounds. This persistent high amount of fibrosis-promoting CD163+ cells in EGT suggests that the wound healing processes in EGT-developing wounds are arrested at the level of the proliferation phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Response in the Horse)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Rumen (Calicophoron/Paramphistomum spp.) and Liver Flukes (Fasciola hepatica) in Cattle—Prevalence, Distribution, and Impact of Management Factors in Germany
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2727; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092727 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1052
Abstract
This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of rumen flukes on German cattle farms via the sedimentation technique, and to identify the rumen fluke species occurring in Germany. Additionally, the prevalence of patent Fasciola hepatica infections was determined. Furthermore, a short [...] Read more.
This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of rumen flukes on German cattle farms via the sedimentation technique, and to identify the rumen fluke species occurring in Germany. Additionally, the prevalence of patent Fasciola hepatica infections was determined. Furthermore, a short questionnaire was answered by the farmers. A prevalence of 5.5% and 9.5% was detected for rumen flukes and liver flukes, respectively. Coinfections occurred on 2.1% of farms. In northern Germany, the rumen fluke prevalence was higher than in southern Germany, while for liver fluke the distribution was reversed. Rumen flukes were mostly identified as Calicophoron daubneyi, but in four cases, sequencing revealed Paramphistomum leydeni for the first time in Germany. Grazing and feeding of fresh grass, as well as organic farming, were significantly associated with rumen and liver fluke occurrence. In contrast, suckler cow husbandry only had an influence on the occurrence of rumen flukes, but not liver flukes. Trematode eggs could be detected in both, farms with and without deworming. Since there were only a few studies about Paramphistomidosis in Germany, more attention should be paid to these parasitic diseases for animal welfare and animal health reasons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasitic Diseases of Cattle)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop