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Pathogens, Volume 7, Issue 2 (June 2018)

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Open AccessArticle Antifungal Activity and Synergism with Azoles of Polish Propolis
Received: 7 May 2018 / Revised: 5 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
The aim of our work was to check if one of the products of natural origin, namely honey bee propolis, may be an alternative or supplement to currently used antifungal agents. The activity of 50 ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEPs), harvested in Polish
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The aim of our work was to check if one of the products of natural origin, namely honey bee propolis, may be an alternative or supplement to currently used antifungal agents. The activity of 50 ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEPs), harvested in Polish apiaries, was tested on a group of 69 clinical isolates of C. albicans. Most of the EEPs showed satisfactory activity, with minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) mainly in the range of 0.08–1.25% (v/v). Eradication of biofilm from polystyrene microtitration plates in 50% (MBEC50, Minimum Biofilm Eradication Concentration) required concentrations in the range of 0.04% (v/v) to more than 1.25% (v/v). High activity was also observed in eradication of biofilm formed by C. glabrata and C. krusei on the surfaces of PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) and silicone catheters. EEPs at subinhibitory concentrations inhibited yeast-to-mycelia morphological transformation of C. albicans in liquid medium and mycelial growth on solid medium. A synergistic effect was observed for the action of EEP in combination with fluconazole (FLU) and voriconazole (VOR) against C. albicans. In the presence of EEP at concentrations as low as 0.02%, the MICs of FLU and VOR were 256 to 32 times lower in comparison to those of the drug alone. Evidence for the fungal cell membrane as the most probable target of EEPs are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis and Virulence of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Listeria Monocytogenes: A Model Pathogen Continues to Refine Our Knowledge of the CD8 T Cell Response
Received: 22 April 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
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Abstract
Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) infection induces robust CD8 T cell responses, which play a critical role in resolving Lm during primary infection and provide protective immunity to re-infections. Comprehensive studies have been conducted to delineate the CD8 T cell response after Lm
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Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) infection induces robust CD8 T cell responses, which play a critical role in resolving Lm during primary infection and provide protective immunity to re-infections. Comprehensive studies have been conducted to delineate the CD8 T cell response after Lm infection. In this review, the generation of the CD8 T cell response to Lm infection will be discussed. The role of dendritic cell subsets in acquiring and presenting Lm antigens to CD8 T cells and the events that occur during T cell priming and activation will be addressed. CD8 T cell expansion, differentiation and contraction as well as the signals that regulate these processes during Lm infection will be explored. Finally, the formation of memory CD8 T cell subsets in the circulation and in the intestine will be analyzed. Recently, the study of CD8 T cell responses to Lm infection has begun to shift focus from the intravenous infection model to a natural oral infection model as the humanized mouse and murinized Lm have become readily available. Recent findings in the generation of CD8 T cell responses to oral infection using murinized Lm will be explored throughout the review. Finally, CD8 T cell-mediated protective immunity against Lm infection and the use of Lm as a vaccine vector for cancer immunotherapy will be highlighted. Overall, this review will provide detailed knowledge on the biology of CD8 T cell responses after Lm infection that may shed light on improving rational vaccine design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Listeria monocytogenes and Its Interactions with the Host)
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Open AccessArticle Fetal Hepatic Response to Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Infection in Utero
Received: 27 March 2018 / Revised: 30 April 2018 / Accepted: 30 May 2018 / Published: 6 June 2018
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Abstract
Non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncp BVDV) can cause persistent infection (PI) in animals infected in utero during early gestation. PI animals shed the virus for life and are the major source of the virus in herds. The mechanism responsible for BVDV immune
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Non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncp BVDV) can cause persistent infection (PI) in animals infected in utero during early gestation. PI animals shed the virus for life and are the major source of the virus in herds. The mechanism responsible for BVDV immune tolerance in the PI fetus is unknown. We assessed the impact of BVDV infection on the fetal liver. Dams were inoculated with ncp BVDV at gestational day 75. Fetal liver samples were collected at necropsy, 7 and 14 days post-maternal-BVDV inoculation. BVDV antigen was not detected in the liver at gestational day 82 (7 days post-maternal inoculation). However, at 14 days post-maternal inoculation, BVDV was detected by immunohistochemistry in fetal Kupffer cells. Flow cytometry analysis showed a higher percentage of hepatic immune cells expressed MHC I and MHC II in BVDV-infected fetal liver (as compared to uninfected controls). Immunofluorescence was used to identify Kupffer cells, which were positive for BVDV antigen, near populations of CD3+ lymphocytes. The identification of BVDV in the fetal liver Kupffer cells at 14 days post inoculation is interesting in the context of establishment of tolerance in persistent infection. These data indicate the presence of a hepatic immune response to fetal infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bovine Viral Diarrhea virus)
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Open AccessReview Manipulation of Innate and Adaptive Immunity by Staphylococcal Superantigens
Received: 25 April 2018 / Revised: 15 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 29 May 2018
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Abstract
Staphylococcal superantigens (SAgs) constitute a family of potent exotoxins secreted by Staphylococcus aureus and other select staphylococcal species. SAgs function to cross-link major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules with T cell receptors (TCRs) to stimulate the uncontrolled activation of T lymphocytes, potentially
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Staphylococcal superantigens (SAgs) constitute a family of potent exotoxins secreted by Staphylococcus aureus and other select staphylococcal species. SAgs function to cross-link major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules with T cell receptors (TCRs) to stimulate the uncontrolled activation of T lymphocytes, potentially leading to severe human illnesses such as toxic shock syndrome. The ubiquity of SAgs in clinical S. aureus isolates suggests that they likely make an important contribution to the evolutionary fitness of S. aureus. Although the apparent redundancy of SAgs in S. aureus has not been explained, the high level of sequence diversity within this toxin family may allow for SAgs to recognize an assorted range of TCR and MHC class II molecules, as well as aid in the avoidance of humoral immunity. Herein, we outline the major diseases associated with the staphylococcal SAgs and how a dysregulated immune system may contribute to pathology. We then highlight recent research that considers the importance of SAgs in the pathogenesis of S. aureus infections, demonstrating that SAgs are more than simply an immunological diversion. We suggest that SAgs can act as targeted modulators that drive the immune response away from an effective response, and thus aid in S. aureus persistence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Pathogenesis of Staphylococcal Infections)
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Open AccessReview Vertical Transmission of Listeria monocytogenes: Probing the Balance between Protection from Pathogens and Fetal Tolerance
Received: 4 March 2018 / Revised: 16 May 2018 / Accepted: 22 May 2018 / Published: 25 May 2018
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Abstract
Protection of the developing fetus from pathogens is one of the many critical roles of the placenta. Listeria monocytogenes is one of a select number of pathogens that can cross the placental barrier and cause significant harm to the fetus, leading to spontaneous
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Protection of the developing fetus from pathogens is one of the many critical roles of the placenta. Listeria monocytogenes is one of a select number of pathogens that can cross the placental barrier and cause significant harm to the fetus, leading to spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, preterm labor, and disseminated neonate infection despite antibiotic treatment. Such severe outcomes serve to highlight the importance of understanding how L. monocytogenes mediates infiltration of the placental barrier. Here, we review what is currently known regarding vertical transmission of L. monocytogenes as a result of cell culture and animal models of infection. In vitro cell culture and organ models have been useful for the identification of L. monocytogenes virulence factors that contribute to placental invasion. Examples include members of the Internalin family of bacterial surface proteins such as Interalin (Inl)A, InlB, and InlP that promote invasion of cells at the maternal-fetal interface. A number of animal models have been used to interrogate L. monocytogenes vertical transmission, including mice, guinea pigs, gerbils, and non-human primates; each of these models has advantages while still not providing a comprehensive understanding of L. monocytogenes invasion of the human placenta and/or fetus. These models do, however, allow for the molecular investigation of the balance between fetal tolerance and immune protection from L. monocytogenes during pregnancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Listeria monocytogenes and Its Interactions with the Host)
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Open AccessReview Zika Virus Trafficking and Interactions in the Human Male Reproductive Tract
Received: 21 March 2018 / Revised: 1 May 2018 / Accepted: 2 May 2018 / Published: 11 May 2018
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Abstract
Sexual transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) is a matter of great concern. Infectious viral particles can be shed in semen for as long as six months after infection and can be transferred to male and female sexual partners during unprotected sexual intercourse. The
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Sexual transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) is a matter of great concern. Infectious viral particles can be shed in semen for as long as six months after infection and can be transferred to male and female sexual partners during unprotected sexual intercourse. The virus can be found inside spermatozoa and could be directly transferred to the oocyte during fertilization. Sexual transmission of ZIKV can contribute to the rise in number of infected individuals in endemic areas as well as in countries where the mosquito vector does not thrive. There is also the possibility, as has been demonstrated in mouse models, that the vaginal deposition of ZIKV particles present in semen could lead to congenital syndrome. In this paper, we review the current literature to understand ZIKV trafficking from the bloodstream to the human male reproductive tract and viral interactions with host cells in interstitial spaces, tubule walls, annexed glands and semen. We hope to highlight gaps to be filled by future research and potential routes for vaccine and antiviral development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus-Host Interactions of Zika Virus)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Comparing the Folds of Prions and Other Pathogenic Amyloids
Received: 16 April 2018 / Revised: 29 April 2018 / Accepted: 2 May 2018 / Published: 4 May 2018
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Abstract
Pathogenic amyloids are the main feature of several neurodegenerative disorders, such as Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease. High resolution structures of tau paired helical filaments (PHFs), amyloid-β(1-42) (Aβ(1-42)) fibrils, and α-synuclein fibrils were recently reported using cryo-electron microscopy. A high-resolution structure
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Pathogenic amyloids are the main feature of several neurodegenerative disorders, such as Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease. High resolution structures of tau paired helical filaments (PHFs), amyloid-β(1-42) (Aβ(1-42)) fibrils, and α-synuclein fibrils were recently reported using cryo-electron microscopy. A high-resolution structure for the infectious prion protein, PrPSc, is not yet available due to its insolubility and its propensity to aggregate, but cryo-electron microscopy, X-ray fiber diffraction, and other approaches have defined the overall architecture of PrPSc as a 4-rung β-solenoid. Thus, the structure of PrPSc must have a high similarity to that of the fungal prion HET-s, which is part of the fungal heterokaryon incompatibility system and contains a 2-rung β-solenoid. This review compares the structures of tau PHFs, Aβ(1-42), and α-synuclein fibrils, where the β-strands of each molecule stack on top of each other in a parallel in-register arrangement, with the β-solenoid folds of HET-s and PrPSc. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue PrPSc prions: state of the art) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Molecular Responses to the Zika Virus in Mosquitoes
Received: 24 March 2018 / Revised: 23 April 2018 / Accepted: 28 April 2018 / Published: 3 May 2018
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Abstract
The Zika virus (ZIKV), originally discovered in 1947, did not become a major concern until the virus swept across the Pacific and into the Americas in the last decade, bringing with it news of neurological complications and birth defects in ZIKV affected areas.
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The Zika virus (ZIKV), originally discovered in 1947, did not become a major concern until the virus swept across the Pacific and into the Americas in the last decade, bringing with it news of neurological complications and birth defects in ZIKV affected areas. This prompted researchers to dissect the molecular interactions between ZIKV and the mosquito vector in an attempt to better understand not only the changes that occur upon infection, but to also identify molecules that may potentially enhance or suppress a mosquito’s ability to become infected and/or transmit the virus. Here, we review what is currently known regarding ZIKV-mosquito molecular interactions, focusing on ZIKV infection of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, the primary species implicated in transmitting ZIKV during the recent outbreaks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus-Host Interactions of Zika Virus)
Open AccessFeature PaperReview Adenylate Cyclases of Trypanosoma brucei, Environmental Sensors and Controllers of Host Innate Immune Response
Received: 6 February 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 20 April 2018 / Published: 25 April 2018
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Abstract
Trypanosoma brucei, etiological agent of Sleeping Sickness in Africa, is the prototype of African trypanosomes, protozoan extracellular flagellate parasites transmitted by saliva (Salivaria). In these parasites the molecular controls of the cell cycle and environmental sensing are elaborate and concentrated
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Trypanosoma brucei, etiological agent of Sleeping Sickness in Africa, is the prototype of African trypanosomes, protozoan extracellular flagellate parasites transmitted by saliva (Salivaria). In these parasites the molecular controls of the cell cycle and environmental sensing are elaborate and concentrated at the flagellum. Genomic analyses suggest that these parasites appear to differ considerably from the host in signaling mechanisms, with the exception of receptor-type adenylate cyclases (AC) that are topologically similar to receptor-type guanylate cyclase (GC) of higher eukaryotes but control a new class of cAMP targets of unknown function, the cAMP response proteins (CARPs), rather than the classical protein kinase A cAMP effector (PKA). T. brucei possesses a large polymorphic family of ACs, mainly associated with the flagellar membrane, and these are involved in inhibition of the innate immune response of the host prior to the massive release of immunomodulatory factors at the first peak of parasitemia. Recent evidence suggests that in T. brucei several insect-specific AC isoforms are involved in social motility, whereas only a few AC isoforms are involved in cytokinesis control of bloodstream forms, attesting that a complex signaling pathway is required for environmental sensing. In this review, after a general update on cAMP signaling pathway and the multiple roles of cAMP, I summarize the existing knowledge of the mechanisms by which pathogenic microorganisms modulate cAMP levels to escape immune defense. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trypanosoma brucei)
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Open AccessArticle Different Dose-Dependent Modes of Action of C-Type Natriuretic Peptide on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Formation
Received: 1 February 2018 / Revised: 16 April 2018 / Accepted: 20 April 2018 / Published: 24 April 2018
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Abstract
We have previously shown that the C-type Natriuretic Peptide (CNP), a peptide produced by lungs, is able to impact Pseudomonas aeruginosa physiology. In the present work, the effect of CNP at different concentrations on P. aeruginosa biofilm formation was studied and the mechanisms
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We have previously shown that the C-type Natriuretic Peptide (CNP), a peptide produced by lungs, is able to impact Pseudomonas aeruginosa physiology. In the present work, the effect of CNP at different concentrations on P. aeruginosa biofilm formation was studied and the mechanisms of action of this human hormone on P. aeruginosa were deciphered. CNP was shown to inhibit dynamic biofilm formation in a dose-dependent manner without affecting the bacterial growth at any tested concentrations. The most effective concentrations were 1 and 0.1 µM. At 0.1 µM, the biofilm formation inhibition was fully dependent on the CNP sensor protein AmiC, whereas it was only partially AmiC-dependent at 1 µM, revealing the existence of a second AmiC-independent mode of action of CNP on P. aeruginosa. At 1 µM, CNP reduced both P. aeruginosa adhesion on glass and di-rhamnolipid production and also increased the bacterial membrane fluidity. The various effects of CNP at 1 µM and 0.1 µM on P. aeruginosa shown here should have major consequences to design drugs for biofilm treatment or prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signaling Systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm)
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Open AccessArticle Genome Characterization of a Pathogenic Porcine Rotavirus B Strain Identified in Buryat Republic, Russia in 2015
Received: 5 March 2018 / Revised: 13 April 2018 / Accepted: 13 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
An outbreak of enteric disease of unknown etiology with 60% morbidity and 8% mortality in weaning piglets occurred in November 2015 on a farm in Buryat Republic, Russia. Metagenomic sequencing revealed the presence of rotavirus B in feces from diseased piglets while no
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An outbreak of enteric disease of unknown etiology with 60% morbidity and 8% mortality in weaning piglets occurred in November 2015 on a farm in Buryat Republic, Russia. Metagenomic sequencing revealed the presence of rotavirus B in feces from diseased piglets while no other pathogens were identified. Clinical disease was reproduced in experimentally infected piglets, yielding the 11 RVB gene segments for strain Buryat15, with an RVB genotype constellation of G12-P[4]-I13-R4-C4-M4-A8-N10-T4-E4-H7. This genotype constellation has also been identified in the United States. While the Buryat15 VP7 protein lacked unique amino acid differences in the predicted neutralizing epitopes compared to the previously published swine RVB G12 strains, this report of RVB in Russian swine increases our epidemiological knowledge on the global prevalence and genetic diversity of RVB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rotavirus Epidemiology: Host, Climate and Vaccine Influences)
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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Kauppinen, A.; Miettinen, I.T. Persistence of Norovirus GII Genome in Drinking Water and Wastewater at Different Temperatures. Pathogens 2017, 6(4), 48
Received: 4 April 2018 / Revised: 18 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
The authors wish to make the following corrections to their paper [1]: [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Whole Genome Classification and Phylogenetic Analyses of Rotavirus B strains from the United States
Received: 16 March 2018 / Revised: 13 April 2018 / Accepted: 14 April 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
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Abstract
Rotaviruses (RVs) are a major etiological agent of acute viral gastroenteritis in humans and young animals, with rotavirus B (RVB) often detected in suckling and weaned pigs. Group A rotavirus classification is currently based on the two outer capsid proteins, VP7 and VP4,
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Rotaviruses (RVs) are a major etiological agent of acute viral gastroenteritis in humans and young animals, with rotavirus B (RVB) often detected in suckling and weaned pigs. Group A rotavirus classification is currently based on the two outer capsid proteins, VP7 and VP4, and the middle layer protein, VP6. Using RVB strains generated in this study and reference sequences from GenBank, pairwise identity frequency graphs and phylogenetic trees were constructed for the eleven gene segments of RVB to estimate the nucleotide identity cutoff values for different genotypes and determine the genotype diversity per gene segment. Phylogenetic analysis of VP7, VP4, VP6, VP1–VP3, and NSP1–NSP5 identified 26G, 5P, 13I, 5R, 5C, 5M, 8A, 10N, 6T, 4E, and 7H genotypes, respectively. The analysis supports the previously proposed cutoff values for the VP7, VP6, NSP1, and NSP3 gene segments (80%, 81%, 76% and 78%, respectively) and suggests new cutoff values for the VP4, VP1, VP2, VP3, NSP2, NSP4, and NSP5 (80%, 78%, 79%, 77% 83%, 76%, and 79%, respectively). Reassortment events were detected between the porcine RVB strains from our study. This research describes the genome constellations for the complete genome of Group B rotaviruses in different host species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rotavirus Epidemiology: Host, Climate and Vaccine Influences)
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Open AccessArticle Multifocal Equine Influenza Outbreak with Vaccination Breakdown in Thoroughbred Racehorses
Received: 23 March 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 13 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
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Abstract
Equine influenza (EI) outbreaks occurred on 19 premises in Ireland during 2014. Disease affected thoroughbred (TB) and non-TB horses/ponies on a variety of premises including four racing yards. Initial clinical signs presented on 16 premises within a two-month period. Extensive field investigations were
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Equine influenza (EI) outbreaks occurred on 19 premises in Ireland during 2014. Disease affected thoroughbred (TB) and non-TB horses/ponies on a variety of premises including four racing yards. Initial clinical signs presented on 16 premises within a two-month period. Extensive field investigations were undertaken, and the diagnostic effectiveness of a TaqMan RT-PCR assay was demonstrated in regularly-vaccinated and sub-clinically-affected horses. Epidemiological data and repeat clinical samples were collected from 305 horses, of which 40% were reported as clinically affected, 39% were identified as confirmed cases and 11% were sub-clinically affected. Multivariable analysis demonstrated a significant association between clinical signs and age, vaccination status and number of vaccine doses received. Vaccine breakdown was identified in 31% of horses with up to date vaccination records. This included 27 horses in four different racing yards. Genetic and antigenic analysis identified causal viruses as belonging to Clade 2 of the Florida sublineage (FCL2). At the time of this study, no commercially available EI vaccine in Ireland had been updated in line with World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) recommendations to include a FCL2 virus. The findings of this study highlight the potential ease with which EI can spread among partially immune equine populations. Full article
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Open AccessLetter First Detection of the CTXM-15 Producing Escherichia coli O25-ST131 Pandemic Clone in Ecuador
Received: 17 February 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 11 April 2018 / Published: 16 April 2018
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Abstract
Our aim was identify of the pandemic B2-ST131 Escherichia coli clone by to the Institute Pasteur and Achtman scheme, and investigate the resistance profile phenotypic-genotypic, with identification of class 1 integron. Of thirty-five ESBL-producing isolates recovered of patients with diagnosis of urinary tract
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Our aim was identify of the pandemic B2-ST131 Escherichia coli clone by to the Institute Pasteur and Achtman scheme, and investigate the resistance profile phenotypic-genotypic, with identification of class 1 integron. Of thirty-five ESBL-producing isolates recovered of patients with diagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTI), six E. coli strains serotype O25 were identified with resistance antimicrobial to several groups of antibiotics such as broad-spectrum cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides, harboring blaSHV, blaCTX-M genes in all isolates and blaTEM in two isolates. Sequencing of blaCTX-M revealed CTX-M-15 in all strains. The PMQR aac(6´)-Ib-cr and qnrB19 genes were presented in five and four isolates respectively, AMEs genes aac(6´)-Ib and aac(3)-IIa were presented in strain amikacin-gentamicin-resistant. Sequencing of the variable regions of the class 1 integron revealed dfrA and aadA genes cassette. The analysis of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) confirms the presence of the pandemic B2-ST131 E. coli clone by Achtman scheme in all ST43 isolates obtained by of the Institute Pasteur scheme. The results presented herein, reveal the presence of B2-ST131 E. coli clone in Ecuador, disseminated in hospitals and community settings. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Association and Expression of Virulence from Plasmids of the Group B Strain in Pseudomonas syringae pv. eriobotryae
Received: 5 February 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 12 April 2018 / Published: 14 April 2018
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Abstract
Pseudomonas syringae pv. eriobotryae causes serious stem canker in loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) trees. This study was conducted to determine whether plasmids are involved with its virulence. The strain NAE89, which belonged to the B group, harbored two plasmids at approximately 6.2
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Pseudomonas syringae pv. eriobotryae causes serious stem canker in loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) trees. This study was conducted to determine whether plasmids are involved with its virulence. The strain NAE89, which belonged to the B group, harbored two plasmids at approximately 6.2 and 50 Mdal that caused stem canker and halo leaf spots on loquat plants. Following digestion with BamHI and ligation into the BamHI cloning site of the broad range host cosmid pLAFR3, four DNA fragments at 3.8, 6.6, 12.3, and 22.8 kb were generated. Although the plasmid-encoded virulence gene psvA was undigested with the BamHI, the halo leaf spot gene may be adjacent to the psvA gene was digested. A pLAFR3 cosmid clone was introduced into the non-pathogenic PE0 and NAE89-1 strains by triparental matings and the pathogenicity was recovered. As a result, the pLAFR3 cosmid clone was introduced into the largest size DNA fragment of 22.8 kb and determined to be the causal agent of canker on the stem of the loquat. This study revealed that the psvA gene, previously found in the 50 Mdal plasmid, was also observed in the 22.8 kb DNA fragment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Pathogens)
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Open AccessReview The Microenvironment in Epstein–Barr Virus-Associated Malignancies
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 8 April 2018 / Accepted: 11 April 2018 / Published: 13 April 2018
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Abstract
The Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) can cause a wide variety of cancers upon infection of different cell types and induces a highly variable composition of the tumor microenvironment (TME). This TME consists of both innate and adaptive immune cells and is not merely an
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The Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) can cause a wide variety of cancers upon infection of different cell types and induces a highly variable composition of the tumor microenvironment (TME). This TME consists of both innate and adaptive immune cells and is not merely an aspecific reaction to the tumor cells. In fact, latent EBV-infected tumor cells utilize several specific mechanisms to form and shape the TME to their own benefit. These mechanisms have been studied largely in the context of EBV+ Hodgkin lymphoma, undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and EBV+ gastric cancer. This review describes the composition, immune escape mechanisms, and tumor cell promoting properties of the TME in these three malignancies. Mechanisms of susceptibility which regularly involve genes related to immune system function are also discussed, as only a small proportion of EBV-infected individuals develops an EBV-associated malignancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Topics in Epstein-Barr virus-Associated Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle Cerebrospinal Fluid Concentrations of Biogenic Amines: Potential Biomarkers for Diagnosis of Bacterial and Viral Meningitis
Received: 1 March 2018 / Revised: 2 April 2018 / Accepted: 8 April 2018 / Published: 13 April 2018
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Abstract
Catecholamine and serotonin are biogenic amines (BAs) that serve as neurotransmitters and play an important role in the regulation of cardinal functions that are mainly altered during central nervous system (CNS) infections. A total 92 samples of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were classified into
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Catecholamine and serotonin are biogenic amines (BAs) that serve as neurotransmitters and play an important role in the regulation of cardinal functions that are mainly altered during central nervous system (CNS) infections. A total 92 samples of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were classified into 4 groups based on their etiology. In these samples, BAs/neurotransmitters i.e., dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) were detected and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-EC) to determine the neurophysiology of the CNS infections by bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) and Neisseria meningitidis (Nm)) and herpes simplex virus (HSV). CSF concentration of DA, DOPAC, HVA, and 5HIAA were found significantly elevated in all test cohorts. Present study highlights that the analysis of BAs is pivotal for the early diagnosis of bacterial and viral meningitis. In addition, coinfections of varied etiology can also be diagnosed by their quantification. Thus, BAs can serve as potential biomarkers of these CNS infections. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Presence of Human Enteric Viruses, Protozoa, and Indicators of Pathogens in the Bagmati River, Nepal
Received: 10 March 2018 / Revised: 2 April 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 6 April 2018
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Abstract
Quantification of waterborne pathogens in water sources is essential for alerting the community about health hazards. This study determined the presence of human enteric viruses and protozoa in the Bagmati River, Nepal, and detected fecal indicator bacteria (total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and
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Quantification of waterborne pathogens in water sources is essential for alerting the community about health hazards. This study determined the presence of human enteric viruses and protozoa in the Bagmati River, Nepal, and detected fecal indicator bacteria (total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus spp.), human-fecal markers (human Bacteroidales and JC and BK polyomaviruses), and index viruses (tobacco mosaic virus and pepper mild mottle virus). During a one-year period between October 2015 and September 2016, a total of 18 surface water samples were collected periodically from three sites along the river. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, all eight types of human enteric viruses tested—including adenoviruses, noroviruses, and enteroviruses, were detected frequently at the midstream and downstream sites, with concentrations of 4.4–8.3 log copies/L. Enteroviruses and saliviruses were the most frequently detected enteric viruses, which were present in 72% (13/18) of the tested samples. Giardia spp. were detected by fluorescence microscopy in 78% (14/18) of the samples, with a lower detection ratio at the upstream site. Cryptosporidium spp. were detected only at the midstream and downstream sites, with a positive ratio of 39% (7/18). The high concentrations of enteric viruses suggest that the midstream and downstream regions are heavily contaminated with human feces and that there are alarming possibilities of waterborne diseases. The concentrations of enteric viruses were significantly higher in the dry season than the wet season (p < 0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between the concentrations of human enteric viruses and the tested indicators for the presence of pathogens (IPP) (p < 0.05), suggesting that these IPP can be used to estimate the presence of enteric viruses in the Bagmati River water. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperBrief Report Identification and In Silico Characterization of a Genetically Distinct Avian Rotavirus D Capsid Gene, VP7
Received: 11 March 2018 / Revised: 31 March 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 4 April 2018
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Abstract
Rotavirus D (RV-D) is gaining importance as a cause of gastroenteritis and runting and stunting syndrome (RSS) in poultry. To date, information is scarce on the molecular analysis of RV-D isolates worldwide. In this study, the VP7 gene, a major constituent of outer
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Rotavirus D (RV-D) is gaining importance as a cause of gastroenteritis and runting and stunting syndrome (RSS) in poultry. To date, information is scarce on the molecular analysis of RV-D isolates worldwide. In this study, the VP7 gene, a major constituent of outer capsid structural protein, from a RV-D isolate (UKD48) obtained from Uttarakhand state was analyzed. Phylogenetically, the RV-D isolate was found to be closely related to a South Korean strain, and the nucleotide percent identity varied from 80.4–84.2% with other RV-D strains available globally. Furthermore, domain investigation within 21 aligned amino acid sequences of the VP7 gene affirmed that this gene has several domains: a conserved glycosylation site (N–I–T) having an important role in protein folding; a N-terminal signal peptide (“ITG”) for endoplasmic reticulum retention; and two hydrophobic sites for elucidating transmembrane portions, antigenic structures, and so forth. The findings suggest that the VP7 gene of the Indian RV-D isolate is genetically distinct from those of other avian RV-Ds. Although biological evidence is still needed to prove the functional characteristics of these domains in outer capsid structural proteins, the present study adds new knowledge and derives the need for further investigation. Full article
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Open AccessReview The Uptake and Metabolism of Amino Acids, and Their Unique Role in the Biology of Pathogenic Trypanosomatids
Received: 5 March 2018 / Revised: 28 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 1 April 2018
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Abstract
Trypanosoma brucei, as well as Trypanosoma cruzi and more than 20 species of the genus Leishmania, form a group of flagellated protists that threaten human health. These organisms are transmitted by insects that, together with mammals, are their natural hosts. This
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Trypanosoma brucei, as well as Trypanosoma cruzi and more than 20 species of the genus Leishmania, form a group of flagellated protists that threaten human health. These organisms are transmitted by insects that, together with mammals, are their natural hosts. This implies that during their life cycles each of them faces environments with different physical, chemical, biochemical, and biological characteristics. In this work we review how amino acids are obtained from such environments, how they are metabolized, and how they and some of their intermediate metabolites are used as a survival toolbox to cope with the different conditions in which these parasites should establish the infections in the insects and mammalian hosts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trypanosoma brucei)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Intestinal Microbiota Transplantation and NleH Expression on Citrobacter rodentium Colonization of Mice
Received: 6 March 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
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Abstract
The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in regulating host resistance to enteric pathogens. The relative abundance of the microbiota is dependent upon both genetic and environmental factors. The attaching and effacing pathogens enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, enterohemorrhagic E. coli, and Citrobacter
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The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in regulating host resistance to enteric pathogens. The relative abundance of the microbiota is dependent upon both genetic and environmental factors. The attaching and effacing pathogens enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, enterohemorrhagic E. coli, and Citrobacter rodentium cause diarrheal disease and translocate type III secretion system effector proteins into host cells to inhibit pro-inflammatory host responses. Here we determined the influence of both the intestinal microbiota and the expression of the C. rodentium NleH effector on C. rodentium colonization in different mouse models. We performed fecal transplantation experiments between C57BL/6J and C57BL/10ScNJ mice and found that such microbiota transfers altered both the host resistance to C. rodentium infection as well as the benefit or detriment of expressing NleH to C. rodentium intestinal colonization. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Early-Life Treatment of Piglets with Long-Acting Ceftiofur on Colonization of Streptococcus suis Serotype 7 and Elicitation of Specific Humoral Immunity in a Farm Dealing with Streptococcal Diseases
Received: 4 March 2018 / Revised: 18 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
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Abstract
In newborn piglets treatment with long-acting ceftiofur is a common approach to reduce losses due to streptococcal diseases on farms, even if problems start after weaning. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of a single early-life treatment on Streptococcus
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In newborn piglets treatment with long-acting ceftiofur is a common approach to reduce losses due to streptococcal diseases on farms, even if problems start after weaning. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of a single early-life treatment on Streptococcus (S.) suis colonization, transmission, immunoreaction, and drug resistance over an observation period of 14 weeks. In a farm with a history of streptococcal disease and isolation of a S. suis cps 7 mrp+, arcA+ isolate from diseased piglets, half of each litter was treated with a long-acting ceftiofur on day 1. S. suis-isolates were profiled and serum samples were tested for opsonizing antibodies. Treated and untreated pigs did not differ according to average daily weight gains, S. suis-isolation rates and level of opsonizing antibodies. Although the invasive cps 7 strain was not detected in a single piglet over 14 weeks, all animals developed bactericidal activity. No resistance to ceftiofur, but resistance to tetracyclins (100%), and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (53%) was shown. Our results indicate that early treatment with ceftiofur does not prevent colonization and transmission of S. suis or the induction of bactericidal humoral immunity in nursery and fattening pigs. The necessity of continuous usage should be reconsidered. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Acidocalcisome-Mitochondrion Membrane Contact Sites in Trypanosoma brucei
Received: 6 February 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
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Abstract
Membrane contact sites are regions of close apposition between two organelles, typically less than 30 nanometers apart, that facilitate transfer of biomolecules. The presence of contact sites has been demonstrated in yeast, plants, and mammalian cells. Here, we investigated the presence of such
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Membrane contact sites are regions of close apposition between two organelles, typically less than 30 nanometers apart, that facilitate transfer of biomolecules. The presence of contact sites has been demonstrated in yeast, plants, and mammalian cells. Here, we investigated the presence of such contact sites in Trypanosoma brucei. In mammalian cells, endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria contact sites facilitate mitochondrial uptake of Ca2+ released by the ER-located inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R). However, the InsP3R in trypanosomes localizes to acidocalcisomes, which serve as major Ca2+ stores in these parasites. In this work, we have used super-resolution structured illumination microscopy and electron microscopy to identify membrane contact sites that exist between acidocalcisomes and mitochondria. Furthermore, we have confirmed the close association of these organelles using proximity ligation assays. Characterization of these contact sites may be a necessary starting point towards unraveling the role of Ca2+ in regulating trypanosome bioenergetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trypanosoma brucei)
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