Next Issue
Volume 12, August
Previous Issue
Volume 12, June
 
 

Pathogens, Volume 12, Issue 7 (July 2023) – 117 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): A major roadblock to achieving a cure for HIV-1 is the persistence of latent viral infections. Given the host-specificity, there are few animal models that replicate the natural course of HIV infection with precision, underlining the importance of humanized mouse models for viral latency and its elimination studies. The hu-PBL model is tested for quick screening of antiretroviral therapies lasting 4–5 weeks. The hu-BLT model involves the transplantation of human HSCs, fetal liver, and thymus tissue into immunocompromised mice and has been tested for HIV infection and latency studies lasting up to three months. The hu-HSC model utilizes transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells to generate a functional human immune system, lasting up to one year, allowing long-term HIV infection and therapeutic studies, including the first report of an HIV cure. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
20 pages, 1592 KiB  
Article
Assessing Onchocerca volvulus Intensity of Infection and Genetic Diversity Using Mitochondrial Genome Sequencing of Single Microfilariae Obtained before and after Ivermectin Treatment
Pathogens 2023, 12(7), 971; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12070971 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1321
Abstract
Onchocerciasis is a neglected tropical disease targeted for elimination using ivermectin mass administration. Ivermectin kills the microfilariae and temporarily arrests microfilariae production by the macrofilariae. We genotyped 436 microfilariae from 10 people each in Ituri, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and Maridi [...] Read more.
Onchocerciasis is a neglected tropical disease targeted for elimination using ivermectin mass administration. Ivermectin kills the microfilariae and temporarily arrests microfilariae production by the macrofilariae. We genotyped 436 microfilariae from 10 people each in Ituri, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and Maridi County, South Sudan, collected before and 4–5 months after ivermectin treatment. Population genetic analyses identified 52 and 103 mitochondrial DNA haplotypes among the microfilariae from DRC and South Sudan, respectively, with few haplotypes shared between people. The percentage of genotype-based correct assignment to person within DRC was ~88% and within South Sudan ~64%. Rarefaction and extrapolation analysis showed that the genetic diversity in DRC, and even more so in South Sudan, was captured incompletely. The results indicate that the per-person adult worm burden is likely higher in South Sudan than DRC. Analyses of haplotype data from a subsample (n = 4) did not discriminate genetically between pre- and post-treatment microfilariae, confirming that post-treatment microfilariae are not the result of new infections. With appropriate sampling, mitochondrial haplotype analysis could help monitor changes in the number of macrofilariae in a population as a result of treatment, identify cases of potential treatment failure, and detect new infections as an indicator of continuing transmission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Parasitic Pathogens)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 5290 KiB  
Article
Molecular Identification and Characterization of Fusarium Associated with Walnut Branch Blight Disease in China
Pathogens 2023, 12(7), 970; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12070970 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1328
Abstract
In October 2020, samples of walnut branch blight were collected from Longnan. Pathogens were isolated and identified based on morphological and molecular features, and their characteristics were analyzed by pathogenicity. Pathogenicity testing revealed that seven strains (LN-1, LN-3, LN-6, LN-19, LN-27, QY3-1, and [...] Read more.
In October 2020, samples of walnut branch blight were collected from Longnan. Pathogens were isolated and identified based on morphological and molecular features, and their characteristics were analyzed by pathogenicity. Pathogenicity testing revealed that seven strains (LN-1, LN-3, LN-6, LN-19, LN-27, QY3-1, and QY9-1) induced symptoms of walnut branch blight that were consistent with those observed in the field after inoculation. Furthermore, some Fusarium-type conidia and spherical chlamydospores were visible indicating that they were Fusarium spp. A molecular characterization including sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the ITS, TEF-1α, βTUB, Fu, and LSU gene regions revealed that LN-1 and LN-19 belonged to F. avenaceum, LN-3 and LN-6 to F. acuminatum, LN-27 to F. sporotrichioides, and QY3-1 and QY9-1 to F. tricinctum. This is the first time that F. acuminatum-, F. sporotrichioides-, and F. tricinctum-caused walnut branch blight has been reported in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Fungal Pathogens)
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 1861 KiB  
Review
From Infection to Death: An Overview of the Pathogenesis of Visceral Leishmaniasis
Pathogens 2023, 12(7), 969; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12070969 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 3356
Abstract
Kala-azar, also known as visceral leishmaniasis (VL), is a disease caused by Leishmania infantum and L. donovani. Patients experience symptoms such as fever, weight loss, paleness, and enlarged liver and spleen. The disease also affects immunosuppressed individuals and has an overall mortality [...] Read more.
Kala-azar, also known as visceral leishmaniasis (VL), is a disease caused by Leishmania infantum and L. donovani. Patients experience symptoms such as fever, weight loss, paleness, and enlarged liver and spleen. The disease also affects immunosuppressed individuals and has an overall mortality rate of up to 10%. This overview explores the literature on the pathogenesis of preclinical and clinical stages, including studies in vitro and in animal models, as well as complications and death. Asymptomatic infection can result in long-lasting immunity. VL develops in a minority of infected individuals when parasites overcome host defenses and multiply in tissues such as the spleen, liver, and bone marrow. Hepatosplenomegaly occurs due to hyperplasia, resulting from parasite proliferation. A systemic inflammation mediated by cytokines develops, triggering acute phase reactants from the liver. These cytokines can reach the brain, causing fever, cachexia and vomiting. Similar to sepsis, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) occurs due to tissue factor overexpression. Anemia, hypergammaglobulinemia, and edema result from the acute phase response. A regulatory response and lymphocyte depletion increase the risk of bacterial superinfections, which, combined with DIC, are thought to cause death. Our understanding of VL’s pathogenesis is limited, and further research is needed to elucidate the preclinical events and clinical manifestations in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leishmania & Leishmaniasis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2247 KiB  
Review
Exposure to Biological Fluids in Dental Practice—Narrative Review on Appropriate Risk Assessment to Guide Post-Exposure Management
Pathogens 2023, 12(7), 968; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12070968 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1008
Abstract
Accidental exposure to blood or other biological fluids is a common occurrence in dentistry, and its post-exposure management is a key component of infection prevention and control programs designed to prevent the transmission of blood-borne pathogens such as hepatitis B and C viruses [...] Read more.
Accidental exposure to blood or other biological fluids is a common occurrence in dentistry, and its post-exposure management is a key component of infection prevention and control programs designed to prevent the transmission of blood-borne pathogens such as hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV, HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This narrative review aims to comprehensively review the risk assessment process for each of these pathogens at all steps of the epidemiological process, i.e., source–exposure route–receptive person, in order to provide a better understanding of the delicate differences that influence the transmission risk and that drive the individualized post-exposure management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Infectious Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 1970 KiB  
Article
Analyses of Mosquito Species Composition, Blood-Feeding Habits and Infection with Insect-Specific Flaviviruses in Two Arid, Pastoralist-Dominated Counties in Kenya
Pathogens 2023, 12(7), 967; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12070967 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1164
Abstract
Insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs), although not known to be pathogenic to humans and animals, can modulate the transmission of arboviruses by mosquitoes. In this study, we screened 6665 host-seeking, gravid and blood-fed mosquitoes for infection with flaviviruses and assessed the vertebrate hosts of the [...] Read more.
Insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs), although not known to be pathogenic to humans and animals, can modulate the transmission of arboviruses by mosquitoes. In this study, we screened 6665 host-seeking, gravid and blood-fed mosquitoes for infection with flaviviruses and assessed the vertebrate hosts of the blood-fed mosquitoes sampled in Baringo and Kajiado counties; both dryland ecosystem counties in the Kenyan Rift Valley. Sequence fragments of two ISFs were detected. Cuacua virus (CuCuV) was found in three blood-fed Mansonia (Ma.) africana. The genome was sequenced by next-generation sequencing (NGS), confirming 95.8% nucleotide sequence identity to CuCuV detected in Mansonia sp. in Mozambique. Sequence fragments of a potential novel ISF showing nucleotide identity of 72% to Aedes flavivirus virus were detected in individual blood-fed Aedes aegypti, Anopheles gambiae s.l., Ma. africana and Culex (Cx.) univittatus, all having fed on human blood. Blood-meal analysis revealed that the collected mosquitoes fed on diverse hosts, primarily humans and livestock, with a minor representation of wild mammals, amphibians and birds. The potential impact of the detected ISFs on arbovirus transmission requires further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Detection and Characterisation of Viral Pathogens)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 964 KiB  
Review
Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Analysis of Bovine Associated Staphylococcus aureus: A Review
Pathogens 2023, 12(7), 966; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12070966 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1903
Abstract
For decades now, DNA fingerprinting by means of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) continues to be the most widely used to separate large DNA molecules and distinguish between different strains in alternating pulses. This is done by isolating intact chromosomal DNA and using restriction [...] Read more.
For decades now, DNA fingerprinting by means of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) continues to be the most widely used to separate large DNA molecules and distinguish between different strains in alternating pulses. This is done by isolating intact chromosomal DNA and using restriction enzymes with specific restriction sites to generate less than 30 restriction fragments from 50 Kb to 10 Mbp. These results make clone-specific band profiles easy to compare. Specialized equipment is required for the optimization of DNA separation and resolution, among which a contour-clamped homogeneous electric field (CHEF) apparatus is the most commonly used. As a result, the PFGE analysis of a bacterial genome provides useful information in terms of epidemiological investigations of different bacterial pathogens. For Staphylococcus aureus subtyping, despite its limitations and the emergence of alternative methods, PFGE analysis has proven to be an adequate choice and the gold standard for determining genetic relatedness, especially in outbreak detection and short-term surveillance in the veterinary field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Epidemiology of Zoonotic Bacterial Pathogens)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 1084 KiB  
Article
Microbiological Survey and Antimicrobial Resistance of Foodborne Bacteria in Select Meat Products and Ethnic Food Products Procured from Food Desert Retail Outlets in Central Virginia, USA
Pathogens 2023, 12(7), 965; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12070965 - 23 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1135
Abstract
In food desert areas, low-income households without convenient transportation often shop at small, independently owned corner markets and convenience stores (SIOMs). Studies indicate a higher potential for reduced product quality and safety of foods sold at SIOMs, with more critical and non-critical code [...] Read more.
In food desert areas, low-income households without convenient transportation often shop at small, independently owned corner markets and convenience stores (SIOMs). Studies indicate a higher potential for reduced product quality and safety of foods sold at SIOMs, with more critical and non-critical code violations in the region. This study aimed to assess the difference in market scale on the microbiological quality in select food products procured from food deserts in Central Virginia. A total of 326 samples consisting of meat products (i.e., ground beef, chicken, and sausage), ethnic food products (i.e., ox tail, stock fish bite, egusi ground, and saffron powder), and food packaging surfaces procured from ten registered SIOMs and nine large chain supermarkets (LCSMs) between August 2018 and March 2020 were evaluated. Higher levels of aerobic mesophile and coliform counts were found in SIOMs-acquired samples than in LCSMs-acquired samples, as demonstrated by the lower food safety compliance rate of SIOMs. Regardless of SIOMs or LCSMs, Campylobacter, E. coli, Listeria, and Salmonella were detected in 3.6%, 20.9%, 5.5%, and 2.7% of samples, respectively. The majorities of Campylobacter (75%, 6/8) and Salmonella (83.3%, 5/6) detected were from SIOMs-acquired samples including ethnic food products. Among the tested antimicrobials, AMP (100%) and TOB (100%) showed the highest frequency of resistance among Campylobacter, TCY (69.9%) among E. coli, NAL (100%) among Listeria, and TCY (50%) among Salmonella, respectively. The prevalence of multi-drug resistance (MDR) and non-susceptibility in Campylobacter and non-susceptibility in Listeria isolated from SIOMs-acquired food products were lower than those isolated from LCSMs-acquired samples. A higher price of the same brand name commodity sold at SIOMs than those sold at LCSMs was also observed, indicating an increased financial burden to economically challenged residents in food desert areas, in addition to food safety concerns. Elaborated and in-depth research on a larger-scale sample size with a greater diversity of products is needed to determine and intervene in the cause(s) of the observed differences in the prevalence of the pathogens and AMR profiles. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 1400 KiB  
Review
PARPs and ADP-Ribosylation in Chronic Inflammation: A Focus on Macrophages
Pathogens 2023, 12(7), 964; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12070964 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2234
Abstract
Aberrant adenosine diphosphate-ribose (ADP)-ribosylation of proteins and nucleic acids is associated with multiple disease processes such as infections and chronic inflammatory diseases. The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)/ADP-ribosyltransferase (ART) family members promote mono- or poly-ADP-ribosylation. Although evidence has linked PARPs/ARTs and macrophages in the context [...] Read more.
Aberrant adenosine diphosphate-ribose (ADP)-ribosylation of proteins and nucleic acids is associated with multiple disease processes such as infections and chronic inflammatory diseases. The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)/ADP-ribosyltransferase (ART) family members promote mono- or poly-ADP-ribosylation. Although evidence has linked PARPs/ARTs and macrophages in the context of chronic inflammation, the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. This review provides an overview of literature focusing on the roles of PARP1/ARTD1, PARP7/ARTD14, PARP9/ARTD9, and PARP14/ARTD8 in macrophages. PARPs/ARTs regulate changes in macrophages during chronic inflammatory processes not only via catalytic modifications but also via non-catalytic mechanisms. Untangling complex mechanisms, by which PARPs/ARTs modulate macrophage phenotype, and providing molecular bases for the development of new therapeutics require the development and implementation of innovative technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ADP-Ribosylation in Pathogens)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 254 KiB  
Communication
Food Safety Monitoring of Salmonella spp. in Northern Italy 2019–2021
Pathogens 2023, 12(7), 963; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12070963 - 22 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 909
Abstract
Salmonella is the second most frequent bacterial pathogen involved in human gastrointestinal outbreaks in the European Union; it can enter the food-production chain from animal or environmental sources or from asymptomatic food operators. European food legislation has established microbiological criteria to ensure consumer [...] Read more.
Salmonella is the second most frequent bacterial pathogen involved in human gastrointestinal outbreaks in the European Union; it can enter the food-production chain from animal or environmental sources or from asymptomatic food operators. European food legislation has established microbiological criteria to ensure consumer protection. Salmonella is listed under both process hygiene criteria and food safety criteria. Each EU member state designates an agency to organize or perform controls and other official activities. This paper describes the official control plans performed by competent authorities in Northern Italy in the three-year period 2019–2021. A total of 4413 food samples were delivered to the IZS Food Safety laboratories for Salmonella detection, of which 36 (0.8%) tested positive. Salmonella was most frequently detected in poultry meat samples (25/36 positive samples) followed by other meat products and pork products. The official controls for the protection of consumer health apply the EU’s farm-to-fork approach: the samples were collected during production (food production plants), from products on the market, and from collective catering (restaurants, cafeterias, canteens). This manuscript will provide information about the presence of Salmonella in foodstuffs that can help competent authorities to set control plans based on risk assessments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women’s Special Issue Series: Pathogens)
9 pages, 587 KiB  
Article
Lactate Dehydrogenase Inhibitors Suppress Borrelia burgdorferi Growth In Vitro
Pathogens 2023, 12(7), 962; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12070962 - 22 Jul 2023
Viewed by 4854
Abstract
Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, has a highly reduced genome and relies heavily on glycolysis for carbon metabolism. As such, established inhibitors of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were evaluated in cultures to determine the extent of their impacts on B. [...] Read more.
Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, has a highly reduced genome and relies heavily on glycolysis for carbon metabolism. As such, established inhibitors of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were evaluated in cultures to determine the extent of their impacts on B. burgdorferi growth. Both racemic and enantiopure (AT-101) gossypol, as well as oxamate, galloflavin, and stiripentol, caused the dose-dependent suppression of B. burgdorferi growth in vitro. Racemic gossypol and AT-101 were shown to fully inhibit spirochetal growth at concentrations of 70.5 and 187.5 μM, respectively. Differences between racemic gossypol and AT-101 efficacy may indicate that the dextrorotatory enantiomer of gossypol is a more effective inhibitor of B. burgdorferi growth than the levorotatory enantiomer. As a whole, LDH inhibition appears to be a promising mechanism for suppressing Borrelia growth, particularly with bulky LDH inhibitors like gossypol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ticks)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 714 KiB  
Case Report
Novel Metallo-β-Lactamase blaCVI-1 Isolated from a Chromobaterium violaceum Clinical Strain Resistant to Colistin
Pathogens 2023, 12(7), 961; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12070961 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1022
Abstract
Objective: We aimed to describe a colistin (COL)-resistant (R) Chromobacterium violaceum (Cvi) isolate from a septic patient in Argentina expressing a previously unknown gene, blaCVI-1. Methods: In 2019, a 12 year old child was injured with a thorn in a lagoon. [...] Read more.
Objective: We aimed to describe a colistin (COL)-resistant (R) Chromobacterium violaceum (Cvi) isolate from a septic patient in Argentina expressing a previously unknown gene, blaCVI-1. Methods: In 2019, a 12 year old child was injured with a thorn in a lagoon. The child was hospitalized due to sepsis and multiple abscesses. Cvi was isolated from skin and soft tissue and tracheal aspirate. The patient was successfully treated with imipenem (IMI) plus amikacin. Antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed by disk diffusion, broth microdilution, and the E-test. Carbapenemase activity was assayed by double-disk synergy and microbiological tests. Resistance, virulence, and additional gene searches were performed by in silico analysis of sequences obtained by whole-genome sequencing (WGS). A maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree was built with public Cvi genomes. Results: R was seen for IMI and COL. Expression of a metallo-β-lactamase was confirmed. Genome analysis revealed blaCVI-1, a subclass B2 metallo-β-lactamase with 62.66% ID with CphA from A. hydrophila (WP081086394). R to COL could be attributed to the arnC and arnT genes. Virulence factors required for invasion and toxicity were also found. No plasmids were detected. The phylogeny tree showed two main clades with geographical distinction, and the isolate studied here stands alone in a branch closely related to two clinical isolates from the USA. Conclusions: This is the second report of infection by Cvi in Argentina. This pathogen carried a new gene, blaCVI-1, a metallo-β-lactamase that can be detected by routine methods. Prompt suspicion of C. violaceum infection is crucial to treating this rare pathogen rapidly and properly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Pathogens)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 3710 KiB  
Article
Transcriptome Analysis of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli during Cold Stress
Pathogens 2023, 12(7), 960; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12070960 - 21 Jul 2023
Viewed by 934
Abstract
Campylobacter spp. are known to cause campylobacteriosis, a bacterial disease that remains a public health threat. Campylobacter spp. are prevalent in retail meat and liver products, and the prolonged survival of Campylobacter in the low temperatures needed for storage is a challenge for [...] Read more.
Campylobacter spp. are known to cause campylobacteriosis, a bacterial disease that remains a public health threat. Campylobacter spp. are prevalent in retail meat and liver products, and the prolonged survival of Campylobacter in the low temperatures needed for storage is a challenge for food safety. In this study, RNA-seq was used for the analysis of the C. coli HC2-48 (Cc48) and C. jejuni OD2-67 (Cj67) transcriptomes at 4 °C in a nutrient-rich medium (chicken juice, CJ) and Mueller–Hinton broth (MHB) for 0 h, 0.5 h, 24 h and 48 h. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in flagellar assembly were highly impacted by low temperatures (4 °C) in C. coli HC2-48, whereas genes related to the ribosome and ribonucleoprotein complex were modulated for C. jejuni OD2-67 at 4 °C. Most of the DEGs in cells grown at 4 °C in the two medium formulations were not significantly expressed at different incubation times. Although more DEGs were observed in CJ as compared to MHB in both Campylobacter strains, the absence of common genes expressed at all incubation times indicates that the food matrix environment is not the sole determinant of differential expression in Campylobacter spp. at low temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogens in 2023)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 4860 KiB  
Article
A Prior Usutu Virus Infection Can Protect Geese from Severe West Nile Disease
Pathogens 2023, 12(7), 959; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12070959 - 20 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 999
Abstract
Usutu virus (USUV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are closely related pathogens circulating between mosquitoes and birds, but also infecting mammals as dead-end hosts. Both viruses share the same susceptible hosts, vectors, and even distribution areas in Central Europe. The aim of the [...] Read more.
Usutu virus (USUV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are closely related pathogens circulating between mosquitoes and birds, but also infecting mammals as dead-end hosts. Both viruses share the same susceptible hosts, vectors, and even distribution areas in Central Europe. The aim of the study was, therefore, to understand their amplification potential and interference upon a successive infection. Two-week old geese were initially infected with an USUV isolate from Germany and with a German WNV isolate17 days later. The geese were susceptible to the USUV and the WNV infections, as evidenced by specific flavivirus antibodies in all of the birds. Furthermore, in half of the USUV-inoculated geese, USUV genomes were detected in the blood and swab samples 2–4 days post-infection. Additionally, most of the examined organs contained USUV genomes and showed signs of encephalitis and ganglioneuritis. Interestingly, upon a sequential infection with WNV, the genome copy numbers in all of the examined samples were significantly lower and less frequent than after a WNV mono-infection. Similarly, the histopathological lesions were less severe. Therefore, it can be concluded that a previous USUV infection can protect birds from clinical disease in a subsequent WNV infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue West Nile Virus and Other Zoonotic Infections)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1674 KiB  
Article
Estimating the Prevalence of Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter jejuni in Chicken and Its Control via Sorghum Extracts
Pathogens 2023, 12(7), 958; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12070958 - 20 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1034
Abstract
Campylobacter jejuni is a Gram-negative bacterium which is considered as the most reported cause of foodborne infection, especially for poultry species. The object of this work is to evaluate the occurrence of C. jejuni in chicken meat as well its control via three [...] Read more.
Campylobacter jejuni is a Gram-negative bacterium which is considered as the most reported cause of foodborne infection, especially for poultry species. The object of this work is to evaluate the occurrence of C. jejuni in chicken meat as well its control via three types of sorghum extracts (white sorghum (WS), yellow sorghum (YS), and red sorghum (RS)); antibacterial activity, antioxidant power, and cytotoxicity of sorghum extracts were also assessed. It was found that C. jejuni is very abundant in chicken meat, especially breast and thigh. WS extract showed more effectiveness than both yellow and red ones. Lyophilized WS extract offered high total phenolic compounds (TPCs) and total flavonoid compounds (TFCs) of 64.2 ± 0.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g) and 33.9 ± 0.4 mg catechol equivalent (CE)/g, respectively. Concerning the antibacterial and antioxidant activities, WS showed high and significant antibacterial activity (p < 0.001); hence, WS displayed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 6.25%, and revealed an inhibition zone of 7.8 ± 0.3 mm; it also showed an IC50 at a concentration of 34.6 μg/mL. In our study, different samples of chicken fillet were collected and inoculated with pathogenic C. jejuni and stored at 4 °C. Inoculated samples were treated with lyophilized WS extract at (2%, 4%, and 6%), the 2% treatment showed a full reduction in C. jejuni on the 10th day, the 4% treatment showed a full reduction in C. jejuni on the 8th day, while the 6% treatment showed a full reduction in C. jejuni on the 6th day. Additionally, 2%, 4%, and 6% WS extracts were applied on un-inoculated grilled chicken fillet, which enhanced its sensory attributes. In sum, WS extract is a promising natural preservative for chicken meat with accepted sensory evaluation results thanks to its high antibacterial and antioxidant potentials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surveillance and Control of Foodborne Pathogens)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

17 pages, 1919 KiB  
Systematic Review
Entomopathogens and Parasitoids Allied in Biocontrol: A Systematic Review
Pathogens 2023, 12(7), 957; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12070957 - 20 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1222
Abstract
Biological pest control is an environmentally friendly alternative to synthetic pesticides, using organisms such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasitoids. However, efficacy is variable and combining different biocontrol agents could improve success rates. We conducted a systematic review of studies combining a parasitoid [...] Read more.
Biological pest control is an environmentally friendly alternative to synthetic pesticides, using organisms such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasitoids. However, efficacy is variable and combining different biocontrol agents could improve success rates. We conducted a systematic review of studies combining a parasitoid with an entomopathogenic microorganism, the first of its kind. We searched in Web of Science and extracted data from 49 publications matching the pre-defined inclusion criteria. Combinations of 36 hymenopteran parasitoids with 17 entomopathogenic microorganisms used to control 31 target pests were found. Trichogramma pretiosum and Encarsia formosa were the most frequently studied parasitoids, while Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Lecanicillium muscarium, Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki, the Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus, and the Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus were the main microbial agents assessed. Out of 49 parasitoid–microorganism combinations assessed in the laboratory experiments, thirty-eight were reported as compatible and six as incompatible. Timing and dosage of biopesticides played a crucial role, with later application and appropriate dosage minimizing adverse effects on parasitoid development. More research is needed to assess compatibility and efficacy under real-world conditions. Our review provides valuable insights for researchers and practitioners to optimize the combined use of micro- and macroorganisms for effective pest control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Parasitic Pathogens)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 5585 KiB  
Brief Report
G6P[8] Rotavirus a Possessing a Wa-like VP3 Gene from a Child with Acute Gastroenteritis Living in the Northwest Amazon Region
Pathogens 2023, 12(7), 956; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12070956 - 20 Jul 2023
Viewed by 873
Abstract
The introduction of rotavirus A (RVA) vaccines has considerably reduced the RVA-associated mortality among children under 5 years of age worldwide. The ability of RVA to reassort gives rise to different combinations of surface proteins G (glycoprotein, VP7) and P (protease sensitive, VP4) [...] Read more.
The introduction of rotavirus A (RVA) vaccines has considerably reduced the RVA-associated mortality among children under 5 years of age worldwide. The ability of RVA to reassort gives rise to different combinations of surface proteins G (glycoprotein, VP7) and P (protease sensitive, VP4) RVA types infecting children. During the epidemiological surveillance of RVA in the Northwest Amazon region, an unusual rotavirus genotype G6P[8] was detected in feces of a 2-year-old child with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) that had been vaccinated with one dose of Rotarix® (RV1). The G6P[8] sample had a DS-1-like constellation with a Wa-like VP3 gene mono-reassortment similar to equine-like G3P[8] that has been frequently detected in Brazil previously. The results presented here reinforce the evolutionary dynamics of RVA and the importance of constant molecular surveillance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Gastroenteritis and Related Viral Infections)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 604 KiB  
Article
Community Health-Education Intervention Trial against Human Taenia solium Taeniasis/Cysticercosis in Central and Southern Zones of Tanzania
Pathogens 2023, 12(7), 955; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12070955 - 20 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1099
Abstract
Poor knowledge of human T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis and insufficient sanitary and hygienic practices have been associated with the persistence of human T. solium infections in endemic areas. Community health education intervention measures were implemented in 42 villages of Kongwa and Songwe Districts to [...] Read more.
Poor knowledge of human T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis and insufficient sanitary and hygienic practices have been associated with the persistence of human T. solium infections in endemic areas. Community health education intervention measures were implemented in 42 villages of Kongwa and Songwe Districts to increase knowledge, improve good practices against infection and reduce incidences of human cysticercosis transmission using a health education package. The health education package comprised of leaflet, poster and a booklet The 42 villages were allocated into intervention group and control group, and each group consisted of 21 villages. Baseline and post-intervention information on social demography, knowledge, safe practices and incidences of human cysticercosis was collected from both village groups. The impact of the intervention was evaluated by comparing changes in knowledge, preventive practices related to human T. solium infections and the cumulative incidence of human cysticercosis between intervention and control villages. There was no significant difference in mean knowledge scores and preventive practice mean scores between the control and intervention groups at baseline. However, there were significantly higher knowledge mean scores in the intervention group compared to the control group at one year post-intervention (2.06 ± 1.45 vs. 0.94 ± 1.18, p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the mean practice scores between the intervention and the control group at one year post-intervention (2.49 ± 1.13 vs. 2.40 ± 1.13, p = 0.31). Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of human T. solium cysticercosis between the intervention and the control group at the baseline (1.4% vs. 1.4%, p = 0.97) by Ag-Elisa, and at one year post-intervention the cumulative incidence of human cysticercosis was 1.9 and 1.2 per cent in the control and intervention group, respectively. There was no significant difference in the cumulative incidence of human cysticercosis between the intervention and the control group at one year post-intervention (p > 0.05). Community health-education intervention is effective at improving the knowledge of human T. solium infections. The improvement in preventive practices and reduction in incidences of human cysticercosis are a gradual process, they may require sanitary and hygienic improvement and more time after the intervention to see improved changes. The study recommends a sustainable public health education on T. solium infections using the health education package through one health approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasites: Epidemiology, Treatment and Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1073 KiB  
Article
Impact of the Food-Related Stress Conditions on the Expression of Enterotoxin Genes among Staphylococcus aureus
Pathogens 2023, 12(7), 954; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12070954 - 19 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 961
Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important foodborne pathogens. S. aureus has the capability to produce a variety of toxins, including staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival rate of S. aureus cells and analyze enterotoxins [...] Read more.
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important foodborne pathogens. S. aureus has the capability to produce a variety of toxins, including staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival rate of S. aureus cells and analyze enterotoxins gene expression after exposure to osmotic stress and acidic/alkaline stress. To determine survival rates, the traditional plate counting method and flow cytometry were used. The expression levels of the enterotoxin genes were performed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR). Expression changes differed depending on the stressors chosen. The obtained results in this study showed the effect of critical food-related stress conditions on SE gene expression in S. aureus. The study showed different expression levels of the tested enterotoxins genes depending on the stress. The most tested enterotoxin genes (seg, sei, and selo) after exposure to pH = 4.5 stress have similar expression as in the optimal condition. After alkaline treatment (pH = 9.6), a similar expression gene value as for the optimal condition was observed. The analysis of gene expression in response to stress caused by NaCl, showed that the expression of selp decreased, whereas selu, selm, and selo genes increased. A significantly decreased expression of the sea gene was observed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 1237 KiB  
Review
Mouse Models for Human Herpesviruses
Pathogens 2023, 12(7), 953; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12070953 - 19 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1964
Abstract
More than one hundred herpesviruses have been isolated from different species so far, with nine infecting humans. Infections with herpesviruses are characterized by life-long latency and represent a significant challenge for human health. To investigate the consequences of infections and identify novel treatment [...] Read more.
More than one hundred herpesviruses have been isolated from different species so far, with nine infecting humans. Infections with herpesviruses are characterized by life-long latency and represent a significant challenge for human health. To investigate the consequences of infections and identify novel treatment options, in vivo models are of particular relevance. The mouse has emerged as an economical small animal model to investigate herpesvirus infections. However, except for herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1, HSV-2), human herpesviruses cannot infect mice. Three natural herpesviruses have been identified in mice: mouse-derived cytomegalovirus (MCMV), mouse herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68), and mouse roseolovirus (MRV). These orthologues are broadly used to investigate herpesvirus infections within the natural host. In the last few decades, immunocompromised mouse models have been developed, allowing the functional engraftment of various human cells and tissues. These xenograft mice represent valuable model systems to investigate human-restricted viruses, making them particularly relevant for herpesvirus research. In this review, we describe the various mouse models used to study human herpesviruses, thereby highlighting their potential and limitations. Emphasis is laid on xenograft mouse models, covering the development and refinement of immune-compromised mice and their application in herpesvirus research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Models for Human Viruses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 13797 KiB  
Article
Art of the Kill: Designing and Testing Viral Inactivation Procedures for Highly Pathogenic Negative Sense RNA Viruses
Pathogens 2023, 12(7), 952; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12070952 - 19 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2183
Abstract
The study of highly pathogenic viruses handled under BSL-4 conditions and classified as Select Agents frequently involves the transfer of inactivated materials to lower containment levels for downstream analyses. Adhering to Select Agent and BSL-4 safety regulations requires validation or verification of the [...] Read more.
The study of highly pathogenic viruses handled under BSL-4 conditions and classified as Select Agents frequently involves the transfer of inactivated materials to lower containment levels for downstream analyses. Adhering to Select Agent and BSL-4 safety regulations requires validation or verification of the inactivation procedures, which comes with an array of challenges for each method. This includes the use of cytotoxic reagents for chemical inactivation and defining the precise inactivation parameters for physical inactivation. Here, we provide a workflow for various inactivation methods using Ebola, Nipah, and Lassa viruses as our examples. We choose three distinct inactivation methods (TRIzol/TRIzol LS, aldehyde fixation using different fixatives, and heat) to highlight the challenges of each method and provide possible solutions. We show that, whereas published chemical inactivation methods are highly reliable, the parameters for heat inactivation must be clearly defined to ensure complete inactivation. In addition to the inactivation data, we also provide examples and templates for the documentation required for approval and use of inactivation SOPs, including an inactivation report, the procedure sections of developed SOPs, and an electronic inactivation certificate that accompanies inactivated samples. The provided information can be used as a roadmap for similar studies at high and maximum containment laboratories. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2275 KiB  
Article
Novel Molecular Consortia of Cannabidiol with Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Inhibit Emerging Coronaviruses’ Entry
Pathogens 2023, 12(7), 951; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12070951 - 18 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1958
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic provoked a global health crisis and highlighted the need for new therapeutic strategies. In this study, we explore the potential of the molecular consortia of cannabidiol (CBD) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as novel antiviral dual-target agents against SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19. CBD [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic provoked a global health crisis and highlighted the need for new therapeutic strategies. In this study, we explore the potential of the molecular consortia of cannabidiol (CBD) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as novel antiviral dual-target agents against SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19. CBD is a natural compound with a wide range of therapeutic activities, including antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties, while NSAIDs are commonly used to mitigate the symptoms of viral infections. Chemical modifications of CBD with NSAIDs were performed to obtain dual-target agents with enhanced activity against SARS-CoV-2. The synthesised compounds were characterised using spectroscopic techniques. The biological activity of three molecular consortia (CBD–ibuprofen, CBD–ketoprofen, and CBD–naproxen) was evaluated in cell lines transduced with vesicular stomatitis virus-based pseudotypes bearing the SARS-CoV-1 or SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins or infected with influenza virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34. The results showed that some CBD–NSAID molecular consortia have superior antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2, but not against the influenza A virus. This may suggest a potential therapeutic role for these compounds in the treatment of emerging coronavirus infections. Further studies are needed to investigate the efficacy of these compounds in vivo, and their potential use in clinical settings. Our findings provide a promising new approach to combatting current and future viral emergencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2: From Virus Replication Cycle to Antiviral Strategies)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

20 pages, 2998 KiB  
Article
Viability and Desiccation Resistance of Bartonella henselae in Biological and Non-Biological Fluids: Evidence for Pathogen Environmental Stability
Pathogens 2023, 12(7), 950; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12070950 - 18 Jul 2023
Viewed by 2719
Abstract
Pathogen environmental stability is an often-neglected research priority for pathogens that are known to be vector-transmitted. Bartonella henselae, the etiologic agent of Cat Scratch Disease, has become a “pathogen of interest” in several serious human illnesses, which include neoplastic, cardiovascular, neurocognitive, and [...] Read more.
Pathogen environmental stability is an often-neglected research priority for pathogens that are known to be vector-transmitted. Bartonella henselae, the etiologic agent of Cat Scratch Disease, has become a “pathogen of interest” in several serious human illnesses, which include neoplastic, cardiovascular, neurocognitive, and rheumatologic conditions. Survival in the flea gut and feces as well as the association with a biofilm in culture-negative endocarditis provides insight into this organism’s ability to adjust to environmental extremes. The detection of B. henselae DNA in blood and tissues from marine mammals also raises questions about environmental stability and modes of pathogen transmission. We investigated the ability of B. henselae to survive in fluid matrices chosen to mimic potential environmental sources of infective materials. Feline whole blood, serum and urine, bovine milk, and physiologic saline inoculated with a laboratory strain of B. henselae San Antonio 2 were subsequently evaluated by culture and qPCR at specified time intervals. Bacterial viability was also assessed following desiccation and reconstitution of each inoculated fluid matrix. Bartonella henselae SA2 was cultured from feline urine up to 24 h after inoculation, and from blood, serum, cow’s milk, and physiologic saline for up to 7 days after inoculation. Of potential medical importance, bacteria were cultured following air-desiccation of all fluid inoculates. The viability and stability of Bartonella within biological and non-biological fluids in the environment may represent a previously unrecognized source of infection for animals and human beings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Expanding Clinical Spectrum of Bartonelloses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 2551 KiB  
Article
Cystatins from the Human Liver Fluke Opisthorchis viverrini: Molecular Characterization and Functional Analysis
Pathogens 2023, 12(7), 949; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12070949 - 18 Jul 2023
Viewed by 944
Abstract
A high incidence of cholangiocarcinoma (bile duct cancer) has been observed in Thailand. This usually rare cancer has been associated with infection with the human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini. Secretions of the parasite that interact with the host are thought to be [...] Read more.
A high incidence of cholangiocarcinoma (bile duct cancer) has been observed in Thailand. This usually rare cancer has been associated with infection with the human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini. Secretions of the parasite that interact with the host are thought to be a major component of its pathogenicity and proteolysis is a key biological activity of the secreted molecules. In this study, we present a molecular analysis of cysteine proteinase inhibitors (cystatins) of Opisthorchis viverrini. Six cDNA coding sequences of Opisthorchis viverrini cystatins, OvCys1–6, were cloned from the adult stage of the parasite using RT-PCR. Based on their sequences, OvCys1 and OvCys2 are classified as type 1 cystatins, while OvCys3–6 are classified as type 2 cystatins, with each containing a signal peptide and only one C-terminal disulfide bond. Their C-terminal region sequences are diverse compared with other cystatin members. Cystatins OvCys1, 3 and 4 were found in crude worm extracts and excretory-secretory (ES) products from the adult parasite using Western blot detection, while the other isoforms were not. Thus, OvCys1, 3 and 4 were selected for inhibition analysis and immune reactivity with Opisthorchis viverrini-infected hamster sera. OvCys1, 3, and 4 inhibited mammalian cathepsin L more effectively than cathepsin B. The pH range for their full activity was very wide (pH 3–9) and they were heat stable for at least 3 h. Unlike Fasciola gigantica cystatins, they showed no immune reactivity with infected hamster sera based on indirect ELISA. Our findings suggest that Opisthorchis viverrini cystatins are not major antigenic components in the ES product of this parasite and that other effects of Opisthorchis viverrini cystatins should be investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasite Infection and Tropical Infectious Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

6 pages, 228 KiB  
Brief Report
In Vitro Activity of Isavuconazole and Amphotericin B in Association against Mucorales
Pathogens 2023, 12(7), 948; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12070948 - 18 Jul 2023
Viewed by 676
Abstract
Mucormycoses can be treated with the combination of Amphotericin B and Isavuconazole. This study evaluates the effects of these drugs in vitro against 59 strains representing 12 Mucorales. In vitro testing of the two drugs together and alone was performed using the MIC [...] Read more.
Mucormycoses can be treated with the combination of Amphotericin B and Isavuconazole. This study evaluates the effects of these drugs in vitro against 59 strains representing 12 Mucorales. In vitro testing of the two drugs together and alone was performed using the MIC Test stripEpsilon test synergy-method” (ETSM), which is more standard in clinical practice than microbroth dilution testing. Amphotericin B and Isavuconazole have synergistic/additive effects against L. corymbifera, R. arrhizus and M. circinelloides. Different effects have been shown for other Mucorales. ETSM can help the clinical management of mucormycosis from a practical point of view, due to its feasibility in the laboratory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Fungal Pathogens)
23 pages, 1272 KiB  
Review
Human Monkeypox: A Comprehensive Overview of Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention Strategies
Pathogens 2023, 12(7), 947; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12070947 - 18 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2477
Abstract
Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is an emerging zoonotic virus that belongs to the Orthopoxvirus genus and presents clinical symptoms similar to those of smallpox, such as fever and vesicular–pustular skin lesions. However, the differential diagnosis between smallpox and monkeypox is that smallpox does not [...] Read more.
Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is an emerging zoonotic virus that belongs to the Orthopoxvirus genus and presents clinical symptoms similar to those of smallpox, such as fever and vesicular–pustular skin lesions. However, the differential diagnosis between smallpox and monkeypox is that smallpox does not cause lymphadenopathy but monkeypox generates swelling in the lymph nodes. Since the eradication of smallpox, MPXV has been identified as the most common Orthopoxvirus to cause human disease. Despite MPXV being endemic to certain regions of Africa, the current MPXV outbreak, which began in early 2022, has spread to numerous countries worldwide, raising global concern. As of the end of May 2023, over 87,545 cases and 141 deaths have been reported, with most cases identified in non-endemic countries, primarily due to human-to-human transmission. To better understand this emerging threat, this review presents an overview of key aspects of MPXV infection, including its animal reservoirs, modes of transmission, animal models, epidemiology, clinical and immunological features, diagnosis, treatments, vaccines, and prevention strategies. The material presented here provides a comprehensive understanding of MPXV as a disease, while emphasizing the significance and unique characteristics of the 2022 outbreak. This offers valuable information that can inform future research and aid in the development of effective interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host-Virus Interactions in Viral Infectious Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 794 KiB  
Article
Spatiotemporal Distribution of Salmonella enterica in European Hedgehogs in Northern Italy
Pathogens 2023, 12(7), 946; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12070946 - 17 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 852
Abstract
Growing attention is being given to the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) because of its synanthropic behaviour and its potential role in harbouring parasites, viruses, fungi and bacteria and disseminating them to several animals and humans. Salmonella are the most frequently detected [...] Read more.
Growing attention is being given to the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) because of its synanthropic behaviour and its potential role in harbouring parasites, viruses, fungi and bacteria and disseminating them to several animals and humans. Salmonella are the most frequently detected zoonotic bacteria that hedgehogs could transmit through contaminating water and food sources with faeces. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and distribution of Salmonella spp. in wild hedgehogs in the Emilia-Romagna region (northern Italy). From 2019 to 2022, 212 European hedgehogs that died naturally were tested for Salmonella spp. through culture isolation. Positive samples were subjected to serological typing. A total of 82 samples tested positive for Salmonella spp., with the overall Bayesian posterior estimated prevalence ranging from 35% (95% CI: 23–47%) to a maximum of 45% (95% CI: 31–59%) during the years considered and with an overall prevalence calculated at 39% (95% CI: 33–45%). Salmonella enterica Enteritidis and Veneziana were the most prevalent detected serovars in 65% and 17% of the positive samples, respectively. Since 2021, S. Typhimurium, S. Typhimurium Monofasica, S. Zaiman, S. Hessarek, S. Muenster, S. Isangi serovars, S. enterica subsp. Diarizonae and S. enterica subsp. Houtenae have been detected. These findings show a high prevalence of Salmonella spp. in tested hedgehogs, suggesting an important role of this animal species in the epidemiology of potentially zoonotic serovars circulating in the Emilia-Romagna region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surveillance of Zoonotic Pathogens Carried by Wildlife)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 567 KiB  
Review
Occurrence, Prevalence, and Distribution of Haemoparasites of Poultry in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Scoping Review
Pathogens 2023, 12(7), 945; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12070945 - 17 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1141
Abstract
This review collated existing data on the occurrence, distribution, and prevalence of haemoparasites of poultry in sub-Saharan Africa. A literature search was conducted on three electronic search databases using search terms and Boolean operators (AND, OR). The results recorded 16 haemoparasites, viz., Leucocytozoon [...] Read more.
This review collated existing data on the occurrence, distribution, and prevalence of haemoparasites of poultry in sub-Saharan Africa. A literature search was conducted on three electronic search databases using search terms and Boolean operators (AND, OR). The results recorded 16 haemoparasites, viz., Leucocytozoon spp., L. marchouxi, L. neavei, L. sabrazesi, L. schoutedeni, Haemoproteus columbae, H. pratasi, Haemoproteus spp., Plasmodium spp., P. gallinaceum, P. circumflexum, P. juxtanucleare, Trypanosoma avium, T. gallinarum, T. numidae, and Hepatozoon spp. from a wide range of poultry species distributed across Nigeria, Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Ghana, Cameroon, and Zambia. Infections due to Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon species were the most common and documented in eight of the ten reviewed countries. The presence of mixed infections was observed in quails, pigeons, chickens, ducks, turkeys, and guineafowls, but predominantly in chickens. Co-infections by Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. were the most common, which may be attributed to the distribution of these species, coupled with the availability of vectors they are associated with in areas from which they were documented. The information generated in this review is essential for improving existing preventive and control measures of these parasites in sub-Saharan Africa. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2464 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Lung Microbiome in COVID-19 Patients during Time of Hospitalization
Pathogens 2023, 12(7), 944; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12070944 - 17 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1848
Abstract
Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is the pathogenic agent of the rapidly spreading pneumonia called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), primarily infects the respiratory and digestive tract. Several studies have indicated the alterations of the bacterial microbiome in the lower [...] Read more.
Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is the pathogenic agent of the rapidly spreading pneumonia called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), primarily infects the respiratory and digestive tract. Several studies have indicated the alterations of the bacterial microbiome in the lower respiratory tract during viral infection. However, both bacterial and fungal microbiota in the lung of COVID-19 patients remained to be explored. Methods: In this study, we conducted nanopore sequencing analyses of the lower respiratory tract samples from 38 COVID-19 patients and 26 non-COVID-19 pneumonia controls. Both bacterial and fungal microbiome diversities and microbiota abundances in the lung were compared. Results: Our results revealed significant differences in lung microbiome between COVID-19 patients and non-COVID-19 controls, which were strongly associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and clinical status. COVID-19 patients exhibited a notably higher abundance of opportunistic pathogens, particularly Acinetobacter baumannii and Candida spp. Furthermore, the potential pathogens enriched in COVID-19 patients were positively correlated with inflammation indicators. Conclusions: Our study highlights the differences in lung microbiome diversity and composition between COVID-19 patients and non-COVID-19 patients. This may contribute to predicting co-pathogens and selecting optimal treatments for respiratory infections caused by SARS-CoV-2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterizing Infectious Diseases Using a 'Total Infectome' Approach)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1698 KiB  
Article
Molecular Epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae Detected in Hospitalized Pediatric Acute Respiratory Infection Cases in Central Vietnam
Pathogens 2023, 12(7), 943; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12070943 - 17 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1590
Abstract
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the major bacterial pathogen causing high pneumonia morbidity and mortality in children <5 years of age. This study aimed to determine the molecular epidemiology of S. pneumoniae detected among hospitalized pediatric ARI cases at Khanh Hoa General Hospital, Nha Trang, [...] Read more.
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the major bacterial pathogen causing high pneumonia morbidity and mortality in children <5 years of age. This study aimed to determine the molecular epidemiology of S. pneumoniae detected among hospitalized pediatric ARI cases at Khanh Hoa General Hospital, Nha Trang, Vietnam, from October 2015 to September 2016 (pre-PCV). We performed semi-quantitative culture to isolate S. pneumoniae. Serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, resistance gene detection and multi-locus sequence typing were also performed. During the study period, 1300 cases were enrolled and 413 (31.8%) S. pneumoniae were isolated. School attendance, age <3 years old and prior antibiotic use before admission were positively associated with S. pneumoniae isolation. Major serotypes were 6A/B (35.9%), 19F (23.7%) and 23F (12.7%), which accounted for 80.3% of vaccine-type pneumococci. High resistance to Clarithromycin, Erythromycin and Clindamycin (86.7%, 85%, 78.2%) and the mutant drug-resistant genes pbp1A (98.1%), pbp2b (98.8%), pbp2x (99.6%) ermB (96.6%) and mefA (30.3%) were detected. MLST data showed high genetic diversity among the isolates with dominant ST 320 (21.2%) and ST 13223 (19.3%), which were mainly found in Vietnam. Non-typeables accounted for most of the new STs found in the study. Vaccine-type pneumococcus and macrolide resistance were commonly detected among hospitalized pediatric ARI cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Pathogens)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 2555 KiB  
Article
Diversity of the Bacterial and Viral Communities in the Tropical Horse Tick, Dermacentor nitens, in Colombia
Pathogens 2023, 12(7), 942; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12070942 - 16 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1533
Abstract
Ticks are obligatory hematophagous ectoparasites that transmit pathogens among various vertebrates, including humans. The microbial and viral communities of ticks, including pathogenic microorganisms, are known to be highly diverse. However, the factors driving this diversity are not well understood. The tropical horse tick, [...] Read more.
Ticks are obligatory hematophagous ectoparasites that transmit pathogens among various vertebrates, including humans. The microbial and viral communities of ticks, including pathogenic microorganisms, are known to be highly diverse. However, the factors driving this diversity are not well understood. The tropical horse tick, Dermacentor nitens, is distributed throughout the Americas and it is recognized as a natural vector of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi, the causal agents of equine piroplasmosis. In this study, we characterized the bacterial and viral communities associated with partially fed Dermacentor nitens females collected using a passive survey on horses from field sites representing three distinct geographical areas in the country of Colombia (Bolivar, Antioquia, and Cordoba). RNA-seq and sequencing of the V3 and V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene were performed using the Illumina-Miseq platform (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA). A total of 356 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified, in which the presumed endosymbiont, Francisellaceae/Francisella spp., was predominantly found. Nine contigs corresponding to six different viruses were identified in three viral families: Chuviridae, Rhabdoviridae, and Flaviviridae. Differences in the relative abundance of the microbial composition among the geographical regions were found to be independent of the presence of Francisella-like endosymbiont (FLE). The most prevalent bacteria found in each region were Corynebacterium in Bolivar, Staphylococcus in Antioquia, and Pseudomonas in Cordoba. Rickettsia-like endosymbionts, mainly recognized as the etiological agent of rickettsioses in Colombia, were detected in the Cordoba samples. Metatranscriptomics revealed 13 contigs containing FLE genes, suggesting a trend of regional differences. These findings suggest regional distinctions among the ticks and their bacterial compositions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop