Pediatric Gastroenteritis and Related Viral Infections

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817). This special issue belongs to the section "Viral Pathogens".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2023) | Viewed by 5938

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Health Promotion, Mother and Child Care and Internal Medicine 'G. D'Alessandro', University of Palermo, Via del Vespro 133, I-90127 Palermo, Italy
Interests: enteric viruses’ molecular characterization (Rotavirus, Norovirus, Astrovirus)

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Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Scienze per la Promozione della Salute, Materno-Infantile, di Medicina Interna e Specialistica di Eccellenza “G. D’Alessandro”, Università di Palermo, Via del Vespro 133, 90127 Palermo, Italy
Interests: rotavirus; norovirus; astrovirus
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is one of the most common illnesses in humans worldwide, accounting for over 200,000 pediatric deaths per year, mostly in developing countries. In developed countries, AGE is responsible for presentation to general practitioners or emergency departments and hospitalization. Several pathogens are recognized as etiologic agents of AGE in children, and four viruses are considered as clinically relevant, i.e. group A rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus 40/41 and astrovirus. Other enteric viruses, such as toroviruses, picobirnaviruses, aichiviruses and enteroviruses, may play a minor role. Some of the major enteric viruses are characterized by high antigenic/genetic diversity and several sero/genotypes and variants have been detected, posing challenges for their classification, but also for the development of diagnostics assays and suitable vaccines. Viral AGEs may present as sporadic cases, but are commonly detected as outbreaks, particularly within close communities. Enteric viruses are easily transmitted in close settings due to low infectious dose and their environmental persistence. Their capability of spreading into the human population and causing severe clinical manifestations may be related to viral fitness and/or host susceptibility. The aim of this Special Issue is to focus on the clinical and virological features of viral AGEs, in order to acquire relevant information on: emergence and spread of common and novel viruses; effectiveness of diagnostic approaches; the possible correlations between clinical signs or severity and laboratory findings (i.e. viral load or genotypes); implementation of infection control measures and treatment. Research studies encompassing basic virology, pathogenesis, clinical virology, molecular epidemiology, measures of prevention, etc. of viral AGE are enthusiastically encouraged to be submitted to this Special Issue. Any manuscripts that are relevant to “Pediatric Gastroenteritis and Related Viral Infections” are most welcome.

Prof. Simona De Grazia
Dr. Floriana Bonura
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • viral gastroenteritis
  • enteric viruses
  • pathogenesis
  • clinical virology
  • molecular epidemiology
  • vaccine

Published Papers (3 papers)

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14 pages, 2761 KiB  
Article
Impact of Vaccination on Rotavirus Genotype Diversity: A Nearly Two-Decade-Long Epidemiological Study before and after Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction in Sicily, Italy
by Floriana Bonura, Leonardo Mangiaracina, Chiara Filizzolo, Celestino Bonura, Vito Martella, Max Ciarlet, Giovanni M. Giammanco and Simona De Grazia
Pathogens 2022, 11(4), 424; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11040424 - 31 Mar 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2356
Abstract
Sicily was the first Italian region to introduce rotavirus (RV) vaccination with the monovalent G1P[8] vaccine Rotarix® in May 2012. In this study, the seasonal distribution and molecular characterization of RV strains detected over 19 years were compared to understand the effect [...] Read more.
Sicily was the first Italian region to introduce rotavirus (RV) vaccination with the monovalent G1P[8] vaccine Rotarix® in May 2012. In this study, the seasonal distribution and molecular characterization of RV strains detected over 19 years were compared to understand the effect of Rotarix® on the evolutionary dynamics of human RVs. A total of 7846 stool samples collected from children < 5 years of age, hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis, were tested for RV detection and genotyping. Since 2013, vaccine coverage has progressively increased, while the RV prevalence decreased from 36.1% to 13.3% with a loss of seasonality. The local distribution of RV genotypes changed over the time possibly due to vaccine introduction, with a drastic reduction in G1P[8] strains replaced by common and novel emerging RV strains, such as equine-like G3P[8] in the 2018–2019 season. Comparison of VP7 and VP4 amino acid (aa) sequences with the cognate genes of Rotarix® and RotaTeq® vaccine strains showed specific aa changes in the antigenic epitopes of VP7 and of the VP8* portion of VP4 of the Italian RV strains. Molecular epidemiological surveillance data are required to monitor the emergence of novel RV strains and ascertain if these strains may affect the efficacy of RV vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Gastroenteritis and Related Viral Infections)
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8 pages, 1111 KiB  
Article
Low Seroprevalence of Aichi Virus Infection in Taiwan
by Bao-Chen Chen, Tsi-Shu Huang, Nuan-Ya Huang, Chiao-Shan Chen, Yao-Shen Chen and Tsung-Hsien Chang
Pathogens 2021, 10(5), 553; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10050553 - 03 May 2021
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Abstract
Aichi virus (AiV) belongs to the genus Kobuvirus of the family Picornaviridae; it is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus without an envelope. AiV causes acute gastroenteritis, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever. Low incidence and high seroprevalence of AiV infections have been reported [...] Read more.
Aichi virus (AiV) belongs to the genus Kobuvirus of the family Picornaviridae; it is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus without an envelope. AiV causes acute gastroenteritis, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever. Low incidence and high seroprevalence of AiV infections have been reported in several regions of the world; however, little was known on the prevalence of AiV infections in Taiwan. This study described the first two cases of AiV infection and analyzed AiV seroprevalence in Taiwan. A total of 700 sera were collected from a single hospital in southern Taiwan. The neutralization assay was employed to assess AiV neutralization antibodies in the serum. The test identified 48 positive cases, with a seroprevalence of 6.86%. Results also showed a gradual increase in AiV seroprevalence rate with age. Compared with other countries, Taiwan had a relatively low AiV seroprevalence, suggesting a low incidence of or sporadic AiV infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Gastroenteritis and Related Viral Infections)
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12 pages, 5585 KiB  
Brief Report
G6P[8] Rotavirus a Possessing a Wa-like VP3 Gene from a Child with Acute Gastroenteritis Living in the Northwest Amazon Region
by Marcia Terezinha Baroni de Moraes, Mauro França da Silva, Yan Cardoso Pimenta, Carina Pacheco Cantelli, Rosane Maria Santos de Assis, Alexandre Madi Fialho, Marina Galvão Bueno, Alberto Ignácio Olivares Olivares, Lennart Svensson, José Paulo Gagliardi Leite and Johan Nordgren
Pathogens 2023, 12(7), 956; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12070956 - 20 Jul 2023
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Abstract
The introduction of rotavirus A (RVA) vaccines has considerably reduced the RVA-associated mortality among children under 5 years of age worldwide. The ability of RVA to reassort gives rise to different combinations of surface proteins G (glycoprotein, VP7) and P (protease sensitive, VP4) [...] Read more.
The introduction of rotavirus A (RVA) vaccines has considerably reduced the RVA-associated mortality among children under 5 years of age worldwide. The ability of RVA to reassort gives rise to different combinations of surface proteins G (glycoprotein, VP7) and P (protease sensitive, VP4) RVA types infecting children. During the epidemiological surveillance of RVA in the Northwest Amazon region, an unusual rotavirus genotype G6P[8] was detected in feces of a 2-year-old child with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) that had been vaccinated with one dose of Rotarix® (RV1). The G6P[8] sample had a DS-1-like constellation with a Wa-like VP3 gene mono-reassortment similar to equine-like G3P[8] that has been frequently detected in Brazil previously. The results presented here reinforce the evolutionary dynamics of RVA and the importance of constant molecular surveillance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Gastroenteritis and Related Viral Infections)
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