Reviews of Infectious Diseases

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817). This special issue belongs to the section "Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 8358

Special Issue Editor

Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
Interests: hospital acquired infections; MDR infections; STD; special populations and migrants
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The year 2022 marks the 10th anniversary of Pathogens. We would like to express our sincerest thanks to our readers, innumerable authors, anonymous peer reviewers, editors, and all the people that have worked for the journal who have made substantial contributions over the years. We are delighted and proud to celebrate this milestone with a series of Special Issues and events.

We have launched a Special Issue titled “Reviews of Infectious Diseases”. This is intended to be a collection of high-quality reviews of infectious diseases. We sincerely hope that scholars from all over the world will publish papers based on their recent research. 

Dr. Giancarlo Ceccarelli
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pathogens is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • infectious diseases
  • COVID-19
  • virus
  • bacteria
  • parasitic diseases

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Review

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25 pages, 2696 KiB  
Review
The Role of the Nuclear Factor-Kappa B (NF-κB) Pathway in SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Pathogens 2024, 13(2), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens13020164 - 12 Feb 2024
Viewed by 923
Abstract
COVID-19 is a global health threat caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and is associated with a significant increase in morbidity and mortality. The present review discusses nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation and its potential therapeutical role in treating COVID-19. [...] Read more.
COVID-19 is a global health threat caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and is associated with a significant increase in morbidity and mortality. The present review discusses nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation and its potential therapeutical role in treating COVID-19. COVID-19 pathogenesis, the major NF-κB pathways, and the involvement of NF-κB in SARS-CoV-2 have been detailed. Specifically, NF-κB activation and its impact on managing COVID-19 has been discussed. As a central player in the immune and inflammatory responses, modulating NF-κB activation could offer a strategic avenue for managing SARS-CoV-2 infection. Understanding the NF-κB pathway’s role could aid in developing treatments against SARS-CoV-2. Further investigations into the intricacies of NF-κB activation are required to reveal effective therapeutic strategies for managing and combating the SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Infectious Diseases)
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11 pages, 497 KiB  
Review
Monitoring Monkeypox: Safeguarding Global Health through Rapid Response and Global Surveillance
Pathogens 2023, 12(9), 1153; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12091153 - 11 Sep 2023
Viewed by 837
Abstract
Monkeypox, a viral zoonotic disease, has emerged as a significant global threat in recent years. This review focuses on the importance of global monitoring and rapid response to monkeypox outbreaks. The unpredictable nature of monkeypox transmissions, its potential for human-to-human spread, and its [...] Read more.
Monkeypox, a viral zoonotic disease, has emerged as a significant global threat in recent years. This review focuses on the importance of global monitoring and rapid response to monkeypox outbreaks. The unpredictable nature of monkeypox transmissions, its potential for human-to-human spread, and its high morbidity rate underscore the necessity for proactive surveillance systems. By analyzing the existing literature, including recent outbreaks, this review highlights the critical role of global surveillance in detecting, containing, and preventing the further spread of monkeypox. It also emphasizes the need for enhanced international collaboration, data sharing, and real-time information exchange to effectively respond to monkeypox outbreaks as a global health concern. Furthermore, this review discusses the challenges and opportunities of implementing robust surveillance strategies, including the use of advanced diagnostic tools and technologies. Ultimately, these findings underscore the urgency of establishing a comprehensive global monitoring framework for monkeypox, enabling early detection, prompt response, and effective control measures to protect public health worldwide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Infectious Diseases)
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14 pages, 675 KiB  
Review
Joining Forces against Antibiotic Resistance: The One Health Solution
Pathogens 2023, 12(9), 1074; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12091074 - 23 Aug 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1897
Abstract
Antibiotic resistance is a significant global health concern that affects both human and animal populations. The One Health approach acknowledges the interconnectedness of human health, animal health, and the environment. It emphasizes the importance of collaboration and coordination across these sectors to tackle [...] Read more.
Antibiotic resistance is a significant global health concern that affects both human and animal populations. The One Health approach acknowledges the interconnectedness of human health, animal health, and the environment. It emphasizes the importance of collaboration and coordination across these sectors to tackle complex health challenges such as antibiotic resistance. In the context of One Health, antibiotic resistance refers to the ability of bacteria to withstand the efficacy of antibiotics, rendering them less effective or completely ineffective in treating infections. The emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria pose a threat to human and animal health, as well as to the effectiveness of medical treatments and veterinary interventions. In particular, One Health recognizes that antibiotic use in human medicine, animal agriculture, and the environment are interconnected factors contributing to the development and spread of antibiotic resistance. For example, the misuse and overuse of antibiotics in human healthcare, including inappropriate prescribing and patient non-compliance, can contribute to the selection and spread of resistant bacteria. Similarly, the use of antibiotics in livestock production for growth promotion and disease prevention can contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance in animals and subsequent transmission to humans through the food chain. Addressing antibiotic resistance requires a collaborative One Health approach that involves multiple participants, including healthcare professionals, veterinarians, researchers, and policymakers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Infectious Diseases)
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13 pages, 2247 KiB  
Review
Exposure to Biological Fluids in Dental Practice—Narrative Review on Appropriate Risk Assessment to Guide Post-Exposure Management
Pathogens 2023, 12(7), 968; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12070968 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 997
Abstract
Accidental exposure to blood or other biological fluids is a common occurrence in dentistry, and its post-exposure management is a key component of infection prevention and control programs designed to prevent the transmission of blood-borne pathogens such as hepatitis B and C viruses [...] Read more.
Accidental exposure to blood or other biological fluids is a common occurrence in dentistry, and its post-exposure management is a key component of infection prevention and control programs designed to prevent the transmission of blood-borne pathogens such as hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV, HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This narrative review aims to comprehensively review the risk assessment process for each of these pathogens at all steps of the epidemiological process, i.e., source–exposure route–receptive person, in order to provide a better understanding of the delicate differences that influence the transmission risk and that drive the individualized post-exposure management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Infectious Diseases)
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20 pages, 739 KiB  
Review
Bioactive Antimicrobial Peptides from Food Proteins: Perspectives and Challenges for Controlling Foodborne Pathogens
Pathogens 2023, 12(3), 477; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12030477 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1988
Abstract
Bioactive peptides (BAPs) derived from food proteins have been extensively studied for their health benefits, majorly exploring their potential use as nutraceuticals and functional food components. These peptides possess a range of beneficial properties, including antihypertensive, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and antibacterial activities, and are [...] Read more.
Bioactive peptides (BAPs) derived from food proteins have been extensively studied for their health benefits, majorly exploring their potential use as nutraceuticals and functional food components. These peptides possess a range of beneficial properties, including antihypertensive, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and antibacterial activities, and are naturally present within dietary protein sequences. To release food-grade antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), enzymatic protein hydrolysis or microbial fermentation, such as with lactic acid bacteria (LAB), can be employed. The activity of AMPs is influenced by various structural characteristics, including the amino acid composition, three-dimensional conformation, liquid charge, putative domains, and resulting hydrophobicity. This review discusses the synthesis of BAPs and AMPs, their potential for controlling foodborne pathogens, their mechanisms of action, and the challenges and prospects faced by the food industry. BAPs can regulate gut microbiota by promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria or by directly inhibiting pathogenic microorganisms. LAB-promoted hydrolysis of dietary proteins occurs naturally in both the matrix and the gastrointestinal tract. However, several obstacles must be overcome before BAPs can replace antimicrobials in food production. These include the high manufacturing costs of current technologies, limited in vivo and matrix data, and the difficulties associated with standardization and commercial-scale production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Infectious Diseases)
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14 pages, 1356 KiB  
Systematic Review
Participation of Single-Nucleotide Variants in IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 in the Immune Response against SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Systematic Review
Pathogens 2023, 12(11), 1320; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12111320 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1197
Abstract
Host genetic factors significantly influence susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 severity. Among these genetic factors are single-nucleotide variants (SNVs). IFNAR2 and IFNAR1 genes have been associated with severe COVID-19 in populations from the United Kingdom, Africa, and Latin America. IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 [...] Read more.
Host genetic factors significantly influence susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 severity. Among these genetic factors are single-nucleotide variants (SNVs). IFNAR2 and IFNAR1 genes have been associated with severe COVID-19 in populations from the United Kingdom, Africa, and Latin America. IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 are subunits forming the type I interferon receptor (IFNAR). SNVs in the IFNAR genes impact protein function, affecting antiviral response and disease phenotypes. This systematic review aimed to describe IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 variants associated with COVID-19 susceptibility and severity. Accordingly, the current review focused on IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 studies published between January 2021 and February 2023, utilizing the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) protocol. The electronic search was conducted in PubMed databases using Boolean operators and inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of the 170 literature pieces, 11 studies were included. We include case reports of rare SNVs, defined by minor allele frequency (MAF) < 1%, and genome-wide associated studies (GWAS). Variants in IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 could potentially be new targets for therapies that limit the infection and the resulting inflammation by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Infectious Diseases)
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