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Soc. Sci., Volume 7, Issue 10 (October 2018)

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Open AccessArticle Using the Lens of ‘Possible Selves’ to Explore Access to Higher Education: A New Conceptual Model for Practice, Policy, and Research
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100209
Received: 13 August 2018 / Revised: 30 September 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
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Abstract
The concept of ‘aspiration-raising’ has been ubiquitous in the discussion of differential rates of participation in higher education in England for many years. Potential students from disadvantaged backgrounds are constructed as setting their sights too low and therefore not considering higher education or
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The concept of ‘aspiration-raising’ has been ubiquitous in the discussion of differential rates of participation in higher education in England for many years. Potential students from disadvantaged backgrounds are constructed as setting their sights too low and therefore not considering higher education or ignoring elite universities that they could access. However, it is increasingly understood that aspiration-raising is unable to explain patterns of participation and that it risks ‘blaming the victim’ by failing to appreciate the structural constraints forged through their sociocultural context. The purpose of this paper is to present an alternative lens in the form of ‘possible selves’. This is drawn from the discipline of psychology and aims to explain how we all conceive and develop visions of ourselves in future states. These images create a motivational impetus for actions in the present in order to achieve a like-to-be self—or evade a like-to-avoid self. Notably, the theory takes specific account of the individual’s expectations and the importance of having a clear pathway towards a long-term destination. This paper provides an overview of the foundational theory and empirical evidence for a general readership, before presenting a new conceptual model focused on access to higher education. This is then used to explore the principles that might underpin interventions to support participation from disadvantaged groups within highly stratified systems, as well as suggesting a new policy agenda and priorities for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Stratification and Inequality in Access to Higher Education)
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Open AccessArticle The Relationships of School-Based Discrimination and Ethnic-Racial Socialization to African American Adolescents’ Achievement Outcomes
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100208
Received: 11 August 2018 / Revised: 1 October 2018 / Accepted: 2 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
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Abstract
Schools provide a place of learning for adolescents and can be considered safe havens. However, in some cases, African American adolescents are subjected to discrimination by peers and teachers, which can impact their own academic engagement and abilities. Applying a risk and resilience
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Schools provide a place of learning for adolescents and can be considered safe havens. However, in some cases, African American adolescents are subjected to discrimination by peers and teachers, which can impact their own academic engagement and abilities. Applying a risk and resilience framework, the present study examined the relationship between adolescents’ perceptions of school-based discrimination and academic outcomes in a sample of African American middle school students. Adolescents’ reports of perceived school-based discrimination and racial socialization were identified as predictors of academic outcomes (i.e., academic persistence, academic self-efficacy, and academic self-concept). The study also investigated whether racial socialization moderated the relationship between school-based discrimination and achievement outcomes. The study sample comprised 74 African American adolescents (49% female) and one of their parents. Hierarchical regressions showed that racial discrimination by peers was negatively related to academic outcomes. Furthermore, we found that dimensions of racial socialization buffered the effects of school-based discrimination on academic outcomes. Implications for the importance of investigating race-related factors in the academic outcomes of African American youth will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Community and Urban Sociology)
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Open AccessArticle Violence as an Environmentally Warranted Norm amongst Working-Class Teenage Boys in Glasgow
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100207
Received: 16 August 2018 / Revised: 24 September 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
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Abstract
This study aimed to contribute to knowledge about contexts of violent assault perpetrated by white working-class teenage boys in Scotland. Despite studies exploring Scotland’s adolescent street gangs, there remains a gap in research where the collateral damage caused by gangs to others of
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This study aimed to contribute to knowledge about contexts of violent assault perpetrated by white working-class teenage boys in Scotland. Despite studies exploring Scotland’s adolescent street gangs, there remains a gap in research where the collateral damage caused by gangs to others of the same class, age, and gender has gone unrecognized. Drawing upon insights from qualitative interviews with young, male, former offenders in Scotland we found that violence contained a strategic logic designed to foster bonding to a delinquent group, whilst offering a celebrity status and manliness. The co-presence of a violent culture worsened the likelihood of ameliorating mentalities associated with anti-social behaviors, which appear endemic to masculinity. That context of violence is associated with the criminal offending of boys who, though they may not be gang members, were nevertheless ‘contaminated’ by the aggressive shadow cast by the protest masculinity of gang-conflicted territories in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Queen Phiona and Princess Shuri—Alternative Africana “Royalty” in Disney’s Royal Realm: An Intersectional Analysis
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100206
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 13 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
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Abstract
This paper explores the representations of two of Disney’s Africana royals, Phiona from the Queen of Katwe and Princess Shuri from Black Panther. Taking into consideration the pedagogical impact of media to reinforce ideologies of White supremacy and privilege, the depictions of these
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This paper explores the representations of two of Disney’s Africana royals, Phiona from the Queen of Katwe and Princess Shuri from Black Panther. Taking into consideration the pedagogical impact of media to reinforce ideologies of White supremacy and privilege, the depictions of these alternative royals in Disney’s royal realm are analyzed using intersectionality theory. The girls’ intersecting identities are juxtaposed with Collins’ matrix of domination concept. The analysis revealed that, while both Phiona and Shuri are challenged by the legacy of colonialization, capitalism, and globalization that constitute the matrix of domination, their approaches to these challenges are different as a result of the unique ways that their identities intersect. The author stresses that while it is commendable of Disney, and Hollywood, to allow for the affirming portrayals of these Africana girls on screen, the gesture is baseless unless a tipping point is reached where such films, and those depicting other non-dominant groups, become the norm rather than the exceptions. In other words, the challenge for those in the industry is not to resist the matrix of domination that stymies the creation of films that reflect the spectrum of the lived and fantastical experiences of Africana, and people of color; rather, the challenge is to dismantle it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Psychosocial Implications of Disney Movies)
Open AccessArticle Institutional Expectations and Students’ Responses to the College Application Essay
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100205
Received: 27 July 2018 / Revised: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
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Abstract
This paper explores inequality along the path to college through an analysis of college admissions essays and institutional documents that shape admissions expectations in the United States. The research considers how successful applicants from two different universities and students who are the first
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This paper explores inequality along the path to college through an analysis of college admissions essays and institutional documents that shape admissions expectations in the United States. The research considers how successful applicants from two different universities and students who are the first in their families to go to college compared to those who are not, approach the college essay in relation to the presented institutional expectations. The sample consists of institutional materials from two universities, one a small private university and one a large public institution. Institutional materials also include documents from college preparatory agencies (such as Kaplan and Khan Academy). Thirty-five student essays were collected from the same two universities mentioned above. Through values analysis, a narrative analysis method, I ask how students with less exposure to the culture of college (taken for granted knowledge about college that is passed down from families) perform the college essay genre. Findings show that students with less exposure to the culture of college focus more on challenges and narrate less expression of their “true selves” in their college admissions essays. Findings can help stakeholders create a more equitable college admissions process that more clearly illuminates institutional expectations for students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Stratification and Inequality in Access to Higher Education)
Open AccessArticle Animating ‘The Blank Page’: Exhibitions as Feminist Community Adult Education
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100204
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 10 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
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Abstract
Public museums and art galleries in Canada are highly authoritative, and trusted knowledge and identity mobilising institutions, whose exhibitions are frequently a ‘blank page’ of erasure, silencing, and marginalisation, in terms of women’s histories, experiences, and contributions. Feminist exhibitions are a response to
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Public museums and art galleries in Canada are highly authoritative, and trusted knowledge and identity mobilising institutions, whose exhibitions are frequently a ‘blank page’ of erasure, silencing, and marginalisation, in terms of women’s histories, experiences, and contributions. Feminist exhibitions are a response to this, but few in Canada have been explored as practices of feminist community adult education. I begin to address this gap with an analysis of two feminist exhibitions: In Defiance: Indigenous Women Define Themselves, curated by Mohawk-Iroquois artist, Lindsay Katsitsakatste Delaronde, at the Legacy Gallery, University of Victoria; and Fashion Victims: The Pleasures & Perils of Dress in the 19th Century, curated by Ryerson Professor Alison Matthews David, at the Bata Shoe Museum, Toronto. Although dissimilar in form, focus, and era, these exhibitions act as powerful intentional pedagogical processes of disruption and reclamation, using images and storytelling to animate, re-write and reimagine the ‘blank pages’ of particular and particularised histories and identities. Through the centrality of women’s bodies and practices of violence, victimization, and women’s power, these exhibitions encourage the feminist oppositional imagination, dialogic looking, gender consciousness, and a visual literacy of hope and possibility. Yet, as women’s stories become audible through the very representational vehicles and institutional spaces used to silence them, challenges remain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community Adult Education and Lifelong Learning)
Open AccessArticle Resilience: Examining the Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill on the Gulf Coast Vietnamese American Community
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100203
Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 12 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
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Abstract
The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH) was one of the largest hydrocarbon disasters in US history. The estimated 5 million barrels of oil that poured into the Gulf of Mexico had a devastating impact on the natural environment, as well as on
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The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH) was one of the largest hydrocarbon disasters in US history. The estimated 5 million barrels of oil that poured into the Gulf of Mexico had a devastating impact on the natural environment, as well as on the livelihoods of communities residing along the coastal region. This paper explores resilience in individuals that identify as Vietnamese, presenting findings from a study of three Gulf Coast communities impacted by the DWH oil spill. A 60-min, in-person survey was administered to a total of 326 residents from the Gulf Coast communities of Port Sulphur, LA, Galliano, LA, and Bayou La Batre, AL. Logistic regression outcome and key predictors models were used to determine the probability of having higher levels of resilience. The results of this study highlight the role of age, education, and racial/ethnic identification in fostering resilience following disaster exposure. Identifying as Vietnamese was associated with a decrease in the odds of achieving above-threshold levels of resilience. This study may be viewed as the foundation from which to further explore the unique risk and protective profiles of the Vietnamese population, particularly in regard to those residing in critically vulnerable and disaster-prone areas. Full article
Open AccessArticle Leaving the Village but Not the Rice Field: Role of Female Migrants in Agricultural Production and Household Autonomy in Red River Delta, Vietnam
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100202
Received: 16 August 2018 / Revised: 5 October 2018 / Accepted: 9 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
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Abstract
The research investigates the impacts of female migrants on household’s farming and its implications on rural household autonomy under the context of economic reform in Vietnam. The different forms of internal and external household arrangements related to the production and distribution processes of
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The research investigates the impacts of female migrants on household’s farming and its implications on rural household autonomy under the context of economic reform in Vietnam. The different forms of internal and external household arrangements related to the production and distribution processes of turning land to livelihood are designed to understand the land tenure change under the context of migration. This research focuses on the migration patterns, the volume and usages of remittance to understand the ways in which the different households allocate their resources on farm and non-farm sectors. The findings suggest that female migrants have a greater contribution in agriculture production both in remittance investment and time spending on agricultural maintenance while male migrants increase household earnings by accumulating capital from non-farm business. Migration, therefore, rather than creating agricultural regression, amplifies the autonomy of peasant families and their units of production as they respond to the modernization process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Social Class Inequalities in Graduates’ Labour Market Outcomes: The Role of Spatial Job Opportunities
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100201
Received: 4 August 2018 / Revised: 21 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
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Abstract
This paper provides new important evidence on the spatial dimension of social class inequalities in graduates’ labour market outcomes, an aspect largely overlooked within the existing literature. Using data from the HESA Destinations of Leavers from Higher Education Early and Longitudinal Survey (DLHE)
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This paper provides new important evidence on the spatial dimension of social class inequalities in graduates’ labour market outcomes, an aspect largely overlooked within the existing literature. Using data from the HESA Destinations of Leavers from Higher Education Early and Longitudinal Survey (DLHE) for the 2008/09 graduate cohort and applying multilevel logistic regression models, we investigate whether and the extent to which social class inequalities in graduates’ occupational outcomes vary depending on the job opportunities in the geographical area where they find employment. By examining different macro-level indicators, we find wider social inequalities by parental social class in areas with fewer opportunities in high professional and managerial occupations and smaller inequalities in areas with more opportunities. Interestingly, this pattern applies only to graduates who moved away from their place of origin. We interpret this finding as the result of selective migration, that is, areas with more opportunities attract the better-qualified graduates irrespective of their social origin. Finally, graduates’ HE experiences—in particular, their field of study—and sector of employment explain most of the social class gap in areas with fewer job opportunities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Stratification and Inequality in Access to Higher Education)
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Open AccessArticle The Relationship between Soccer Club Coaches’ Decision-Making Style, Basic Psychological Needs, and Intention to Continue to Exercise: Based on Amateur Male Soccer Club Members in Korea
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100200
Received: 19 August 2018 / Revised: 12 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
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Abstract
Numerous studies in sports science have investigated the relationships between coaching behavior, basic psychological needs, and intention to continue to exercise in sport participants in order to promote their continued exercise participation. However, little is known about the effect of the coach’s decision-making
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Numerous studies in sports science have investigated the relationships between coaching behavior, basic psychological needs, and intention to continue to exercise in sport participants in order to promote their continued exercise participation. However, little is known about the effect of the coach’s decision-making style on sport participants’ basic psychological needs and intention to continue to exercise. Thus, this study empirically investigated the relationship between these three variables. For this purpose, a survey was given to a convenience sample of 200 members of amateur male soccer clubs in Seoul and Gyeonggi, Korea. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that the type of coach that makes decisions based on a thorough analysis and reasonable evaluation of all possible solutions had a greater effect on the satisfaction of basic psychological needs and a greater effect on intention to continue to exercise in soccer club members than the types of coaches who use other styles of decision making in coaching. In addition, the intention to continue to exercise in soccer club members was higher when they voluntarily participated in soccer activities and when they made a strong emotional bond with the people they were exercising with. The findings of this study may provide the basic data on the coaches’ decision-making style needed to improve sport participants’ internal motivation and to stimulate their intention to continue to exercise. Full article
Open AccessArticle Death and Coping Mechanisms in Animated Disney Movies: A Content Analysis of Disney Films (1937–2003) and Disney/Pixar Films (2003–2016)
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100199
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 11 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
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Abstract
The purpose of this content analysis was to examine how death depictions in animated Disney films has changed in the past 14 years and the coping mechanisms used to process death within these films. A content analysis from 2005 was used to investigate
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The purpose of this content analysis was to examine how death depictions in animated Disney films has changed in the past 14 years and the coping mechanisms used to process death within these films. A content analysis from 2005 was used to investigate the influence of Disney films on children’s concepts of death based on 23 death scenes from 10 full-length Disney Classic animated films from 1937 to 2003 and 10 death scenes from 8 selected full-length Disney and Pixar animated films from 2003 to 2016. Our goal was to compare the findings across the two studies. Similar to the original study, the portrayal of death focused on five categories: character status; depiction of death; death status; emotional reaction; and causality. We expanded on the original study and more research by examining coping mechanisms used to process death within a selection of these films. Our findings indicated that some scenes from animated Disney and Pixar films obscure the permanence and irreversibility of death and often fail to acknowledge deaths emotionally. Our conclusions showed that Disney’s and Pixar’s portrayal of death in newer films might have more positive implications for children’s understanding of death than Disney Classic animated films. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Psychosocial Implications of Disney Movies)
Open AccessArticle Business Lobbying: Mapping Policy Networks in Brazil in Mercosur
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100198
Received: 16 August 2018 / Revised: 5 October 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 15 October 2018
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Abstract
In the creation of trade policy, business actors have the most influence in setting policy. This article identifies and explains variations in how economic interest groups use policy networks to affect trade policymaking. This article uses formal social network analysis (SNA) to explore
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In the creation of trade policy, business actors have the most influence in setting policy. This article identifies and explains variations in how economic interest groups use policy networks to affect trade policymaking. This article uses formal social network analysis (SNA) to explore the patterns of articulation or a policy network between the government and business at the national level within regional trade agreements. The empirical discussion herein focuses on Brazil and the setting of exceptions list to Mercosur’s common external tariff. It specifically concentrates on the relations between the Brazilian executive branch and ten economic subsectors. The article finds that the patterns of articulation of these policy networks matter and that sectors with stronger ties to key government decision-makers have a structural advantage in influencing trade policy and obtaining and/or maintaining their desired, privileged trade policies, compared with sectors that are connected to government actors with weak decision-making power, but might have numerous and diversified connections. Therefore, sectors that have a strong pluralist–clientelist policy structure with connections to government actors with decision-making power have greater potential for achieving their target policies compared with more corporatist policy networks. Full article
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Open AccessArticle When in Rome, Feel as the Romans Feel: An Emotional Model of Organizational Socialization
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100197
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 5 October 2018 / Accepted: 11 October 2018 / Published: 13 October 2018
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Abstract
Organizational socialization literature has long emphasized learning organizational culture upon entry. However, most previous socialization studies have largely focused on learning job skills, such as role clarity and task mastery. Focusing on emotional culture, the author provides a review about the roles of
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Organizational socialization literature has long emphasized learning organizational culture upon entry. However, most previous socialization studies have largely focused on learning job skills, such as role clarity and task mastery. Focusing on emotional culture, the author provides a review about the roles of emotions in an organizational socialization context. Further, drawing upon the organizational socialization and emotion literature, the author builds a theoretical model, an emotional model of organizational socialization highlighting how newcomers adjust to the emotional culture within an organization, which ultimately leads to successful organizational socialization. This article provides new conceptual insights into the roles of newcomers’ adjustment to an emotional culture in a socialization context, providing fruitful ways for future empirical testing. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Understanding Mental Health: What Are the Issues for Black and Ethnic Minority Students at University?
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100196
Received: 12 August 2018 / Revised: 5 October 2018 / Accepted: 8 October 2018 / Published: 13 October 2018
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Abstract
Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) communities continue to experience inequalities within the United Kingdom (UK) mental health system despite major government policy initiatives. Access to higher education for many ethnic minorities remains problematic. Within higher education, BME students consistently face barriers in terms
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Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) communities continue to experience inequalities within the United Kingdom (UK) mental health system despite major government policy initiatives. Access to higher education for many ethnic minorities remains problematic. Within higher education, BME students consistently face barriers in terms of accessing culturally appropriate services including a lack of cultural understanding, communication issues, and where and how to seek help. This paper attempts to address the problems facing ethnic minorities with regard to accessing mental health services at university. Importantly, this paper highlights that barriers to accessing mental health support for ethnic minorities directly impact upon attainment outcomes and psychological well-being. This study utilizes the narratives of 32 BME university students to examine the impact of negotiating racial inequality and discrimination at university and the impact upon mental health. Aspects examined considered the impact of belonging, isolation, and marginalization on mental health and how this consequently affects university participation for BME students. Utilizing a thematic analysis paradigm, the key findings presented point towards differential healthcare outcomes for ethnic minority university students experiencing mental illness. The empirical findings in this paper suggest that currently ethnic minority service users experience overt discrimination and a lack of access to culturally appropriate services that are cognizant of the racialized plights faced by BME individuals. These findings inform an overarching dialogue, which suggests that mental health service providers need to work more collegially with people from BME communities prior to service design and delivery. Furthermore, the findings suggest that, upon presenting mental health issues, information should be made available in appropriate languages for ethnic minorities to support understanding about their illnesses and how they can seek professional intervention and help. Conclusions and recommendations provided advocate greater diversification of mental health support systems for ethnic minority students within universities. Conclusions drawn will also consider how existing systems can function to dismantle racial inequality within the mental health profession. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Stratification and Inequality in Access to Higher Education)
Open AccessArticle Signalling the ‘Multi-Local’ University? The Place of the City in the Growth of London-Based Satellite Campuses, and the Implications for Social Stratification
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100195
Received: 19 July 2018 / Revised: 25 September 2018 / Accepted: 8 October 2018 / Published: 13 October 2018
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Abstract
Around 2009 some UK universities (based outside of the capital) began to open ‘satellite campuses’ in London. There are currently 14 such campuses at present, which have been developed primarily with an international student market in mind. Concerns have been raised, however, about
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Around 2009 some UK universities (based outside of the capital) began to open ‘satellite campuses’ in London. There are currently 14 such campuses at present, which have been developed primarily with an international student market in mind. Concerns have been raised, however, about the quality of teaching on these campuses and the fact that student attainment is ostensibly falling significantly below that for the ‘home’ campus. This project is the first of its kind to investigate, systematically, the ways in which universities are representing themselves in relation to these campuses (data include an analysis of prospectuses, YouTube content, websites and material garnered at open days). Using these data, we discuss the role that the City of London plays as a pivotal backdrop to these developments: the way it serves to substitute and compensate for lower levels of resources provided directly to the student from the university (here we consider accommodation, the outsourcing of teaching, the absence of a substantive campus environment and a general lack of focus on ‘pedagogical’ matters in almost all marketing materials). Instead, the universities place London at the front and centre of attempts to ‘sell’ the campus to potential students. The paper makes some innovative conceptual links between work in migration studies on the role and function of global cities in attracting workers and the way in which the city operates in this case to attract international students. These campuses feed into debates around the increasing inequalities evidenced as a consequence of the internationalisation of higher education, even when such developments are ostensibly ‘domestic’. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Stratification and Inequality in Access to Higher Education)
Open AccessArticle Housing Discrimination and Health: Understanding Potential Linking Pathways Using a Mixed-Methods Approach
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100194
Received: 15 September 2018 / Revised: 8 October 2018 / Accepted: 9 October 2018 / Published: 12 October 2018
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Abstract
Few studies have examined the impact of housing discrimination on health. This study explores potential pathways linking housing discrimination and health using concept mapping, a mixed-method approach. Participants included employees from twenty Fair Housing Organizations nationwide who participated in two online sessions, brainstorming,
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Few studies have examined the impact of housing discrimination on health. This study explores potential pathways linking housing discrimination and health using concept mapping, a mixed-method approach. Participants included employees from twenty Fair Housing Organizations nationwide who participated in two online sessions, brainstorming, and structuring. Responses were generated representing biological, social, economic, and physical connections between housing discrimination and health. Using hierarchical cluster analysis, five clusters were identified: (1) Access and barriers; (2) Opportunities for growth; (3) Neighborhood and communities; (4) Physical effects of housing discrimination; and (5) Mental health. Clusters 1 (4.09) and 2 (4.08) were rated as most important for health, while clusters 2 (3.93) and 3 (3.90) were rated as most frequently occurring. These findings add to the limited evidence connecting housing discrimination to health and highlight the need for studies focusing on the long-term health effects of housing discrimination on individuals and neighborhoods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Race/Ethnicity, Crime and Social Control)
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Open AccessArticle Stripping the Wallpaper of Practice: Empowering Social Workers to Tackle Poverty
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100193
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 10 October 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 12 October 2018
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Abstract
The relationship between deprivation and health and educational inequalities has been well evidenced in the literature. Recent UK research has now established a similar social gradient in child welfare interventions (Bywaters et al. 2018) with children living in the most deprived areas in
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The relationship between deprivation and health and educational inequalities has been well evidenced in the literature. Recent UK research has now established a similar social gradient in child welfare interventions (Bywaters et al. 2018) with children living in the most deprived areas in the UK facing a much higher chance of being placed on the child protection register or in out-of-home care. There is an emerging narrative that poverty has become the wallpaper of practice, “too big to tackle and too familiar to notice” (Morris et al. 2018) and invisible amid lack of public support and political will to increase welfare spending. This paper will examine poverty-related inequalities and how these affect families. It will discuss the importance of recognising that poverty is a social justice issue and a core task for social work and outline the range of supports that may be available for families to help lift them out of poverty. Finally, it will describe the development of a new practice framework for social work in Northern Ireland that challenges social workers to embed anti-poverty approaches in their practice. The framework emphasises that poverty is a social justice issue, seeks to provide practical support and guidance to re-focus attention, debate, and action on poverty in times of global economic uncertainty and give social workers the tools to make it central to their practice once again. It reinforces the need for social workers to understand and acknowledge the impact of poverty, and to advocate for and support those most in need. It aims to challenge and empower professionals to tackle poverty and inequality as an aspect of ethical and effective practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Protection and Social Inequality)
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Open AccessArticle Climate Politics and Race in the Pacific Northwest
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100192
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 23 September 2018 / Accepted: 5 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
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Abstract
The collective politics of climate justice makes the important claim that lowering emissions is not enough; society must also undertake radical transformation to address both the climate and inequality crises. Owing to its roots in the environmental justice movement, addressing systemic racism is
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The collective politics of climate justice makes the important claim that lowering emissions is not enough; society must also undertake radical transformation to address both the climate and inequality crises. Owing to its roots in the environmental justice movement, addressing systemic racism is central to climate justice praxis in the United States, which is a necessary intervention in typically technocratic climate politics. What emerges from US climate justice is a moral appeal to ‘relationship’ as politics, the procedural demand that communities of color (the ‘frontline’) lead the movement, and a distributive claim on carbon pricing revenue. However, this praxis precludes a critique of racial capitalism, the process that relies on structural racism to enhance accumulation, alienating, exploiting, and immiserating black, brown, and white, while carrying out ecocide. The lack of an analysis of how class and race produce the crises climate justice confronts prevents the movement from demanding that global north fossil fuel abolition occur in tandem with the reassertion of the public over the private and de-growth. Drawing on research conducted primarily in Oregon and Washington, I argue that race works to both create and limit the transformative possibilities of climate politics. Full article
Open AccessArticle Privacy Threats and Protection Recommendations for the Use of Geosocial Network Data in Research
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100191
Received: 8 August 2018 / Revised: 21 September 2018 / Accepted: 9 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
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Abstract
Inference attacks and protection measures are two sides of the same coin. Although the former aims to reveal information while the latter aims to hide it, they both increase awareness regarding the risks and threats from social media apps. On the one hand,
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Inference attacks and protection measures are two sides of the same coin. Although the former aims to reveal information while the latter aims to hide it, they both increase awareness regarding the risks and threats from social media apps. On the one hand, inference attack studies explore the types of personal information that can be revealed and the methods used to extract it. An additional risk is that geosocial media data are collected massively for research purposes, and the processing or publication of these data may further compromise individual privacy. On the other hand, consistent and increasing research on location protection measures promises solutions that mitigate disclosure risks. In this paper, we examine recent research efforts on the spectrum of privacy issues related to geosocial network data and identify the contributions and limitations of these research efforts. Furthermore, we provide protection recommendations to researchers that share, anonymise, and store social media data or publish scientific results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Do Police Officers in the USA Protect and Serve All Citizens Equally?
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100190
Received: 2 September 2018 / Revised: 26 September 2018 / Accepted: 8 October 2018 / Published: 9 October 2018
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Abstract
Survey research has clarified the extent to which racial minorities and majority white Americans disagree about whether police should be trusted. Racial minorities are generally far more suspicious of the police officers who serve their communities. Other forms of evidence would appear to
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Survey research has clarified the extent to which racial minorities and majority white Americans disagree about whether police should be trusted. Racial minorities are generally far more suspicious of the police officers who serve their communities. Other forms of evidence would appear to corroborate the views of minority citizens in the USA. This requires scholars and others interested in policing to think about reforms that may create a fairer system of law enforcement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Race/Ethnicity, Crime and Social Control)
Open AccessArticle Student Choice in Higher Education—Reducing or Reproducing Social Inequalities?
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100189
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 9 October 2018
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Abstract
A hallmark of recent higher education policy in developed economies is the move towards quasi-markets involving greater student choice and provider competition, underpinned by cost-sharing policies. This paper examines the idealizations and illusions of student choice and marketization in higher education policy in
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A hallmark of recent higher education policy in developed economies is the move towards quasi-markets involving greater student choice and provider competition, underpinned by cost-sharing policies. This paper examines the idealizations and illusions of student choice and marketization in higher education policy in England, although the overall conclusions have relevance for other countries whose higher education systems are shaped by neoliberal thinking. First, it charts the evolution of the student-choice rationale through an analysis of government commissioned reports, white papers, and legislation, focusing on policy rhetoric and the purported benefits of increasing student choice and provider competition. Second, the paper tests the predictions advanced by the student-choice rationale—increased and wider access, improved institutional quality, and greater provider responsiveness to the labour market—and finds them largely not met. Finally, the paper explores how conceptual deficiencies in the student-choice model explain why the idealization of student choice has largely proved illusionary. Government officials have narrowly conceptualized students as rational calculators primarily weighing the economic costs and benefits of higher education and the relative quality of institutions and programs. There is little awareness that student choices are shaped by several other factors as well and that these vary considerably by social background. The paper concludes that students’ choices are socially constrained and stratified, reproducing and legitimating social inequality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Stratification and Inequality in Access to Higher Education)
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Open AccessArticle How to Divide Paid Work and Unpaid Care between Parents? Comparison of Attitudes in 22 Western Countries
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100188
Received: 14 August 2018 / Revised: 1 October 2018 / Accepted: 3 October 2018 / Published: 7 October 2018
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Abstract
Sharing responsibilities for paid work and unpaid care between men and women is recognised as one of the challenges that Western countries face in the 21st century. This article examines attitudes towards sharing paid work and unpaid care responsibilities in 22 Western countries
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Sharing responsibilities for paid work and unpaid care between men and women is recognised as one of the challenges that Western countries face in the 21st century. This article examines attitudes towards sharing paid work and unpaid care responsibilities in 22 Western countries by addressing the following questions. (1) How do attitudes towards different earner-carer models vary across countries? (2) Which socio-demographic and country-level factors explain differences in attitudes to an equal division of paid work and unpaid care responsibilities? International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) data 2012 is used as the data source and research methods include logistic multi-level regression analysis. Results reveal that cross-national variations in attitudes are significant: Most traditional attitudes are found in many Eastern European countries, whereas Nordic countries are the least traditional. At the individual level, those who are highly educated, in paid work, single, childless, and religiously non-active support the equal division of paid work and unpaid care responsibilities more often than other respondents. At the country level, longer father-specific parental leave, a stronger tradition of women’s paid work, and less traditional gender roles are related to stronger support for an equal division of paid work and unpaid care. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Translation and Linguistic Validation of a Swedish Study-Specific Questionnaire for Use among Norwegian Parents Who Lost a Child to Cancer
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100187
Received: 28 May 2018 / Revised: 25 September 2018 / Accepted: 1 October 2018 / Published: 3 October 2018
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Abstract
Background: Research is needed on how to help cancer-bereaved parents, as they are considered to be a vulnerable population and they are at risk of developing ill health following the loss of a child to cancer. The purpose of the present study was
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Background: Research is needed on how to help cancer-bereaved parents, as they are considered to be a vulnerable population and they are at risk of developing ill health following the loss of a child to cancer. The purpose of the present study was to translate and linguistically validate a Swedish study-specific questionnaire that was developed for Swedish cancer-bereaved parents. The translated questionnaire will be used in a nationwide study in Norway. Methods: Forward and backward translations of the Swedish study-specific questionnaire were conducted, followed by linguistic validation based on telephone interviews with six Norwegian cancer-bereaved parents. Result: It was found that several medical terms and conceptual issues were difficult for the Norwegian parents to understand. There were also four issues regarding the response alternatives. Conclusions: Although Sweden and Norway have quite similar cultures and languages, the results off this pilot study show that, to ensure the quality of a translated questionnaire, linguistic validation as well as translation is necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Rights and Social Protection of the Vulnerable)
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Open AccessArticle Revisiting the Issues of Access to Higher Education and Social Stratification through the Case of Refugees: A Comparative Study of Spaces of Opportunity for Refugee Students in Germany and England
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100186
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 20 September 2018 / Accepted: 29 September 2018 / Published: 3 October 2018
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Abstract
This paper presents new insights into the relationship between inequality in access to higher education and social stratification through the analytical lens of refugees’ access to high participation systems of higher education (HPS). Taking stock of the growing numbers of refugees and their
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This paper presents new insights into the relationship between inequality in access to higher education and social stratification through the analytical lens of refugees’ access to high participation systems of higher education (HPS). Taking stock of the growing numbers of refugees and their increasing—yet still marginal—demand for accessing higher education, the paper analyses the specific statuses and rights they are granted, and how they combine in two European Higher Education Area HPS, England and Germany. The comparative analysis draws on the desk-based study of immigration and access to higher education policies and mechanisms for refugees in the two countries. The concept of assemblage is called upon to highlight how complex combinations of asylum, welfare and access to higher education policies lead to differential rights which create different spaces of opportunity for refugees with higher education aspirations. More generally, analysing how these rights intersect allows for a better understanding of inequalities in access to higher education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Stratification and Inequality in Access to Higher Education)
Open AccessArticle Child Protection and Social Inequality: Understanding Child Prostitution in Malawi
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100185
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 20 September 2018 / Accepted: 27 September 2018 / Published: 2 October 2018
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Abstract
This article draws on empirical research to develop understandings of child prostitution, previously theorised on the basis of children’s rights, feminist, and structure/agency debates, largely ignoring children’s own understandings of their involvement in prostitution. Conducted in Malawi, which is one of the economically
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This article draws on empirical research to develop understandings of child prostitution, previously theorised on the basis of children’s rights, feminist, and structure/agency debates, largely ignoring children’s own understandings of their involvement in prostitution. Conducted in Malawi, which is one of the economically poorest countries in the world, the study goes to the heart of questions of inequality and child protection. Within a participatory research framework, nineteen girls and young women used visual methods to generate images representing their experiences of prostitution. Individual and group discussions were used to illuminate the meanings and significance of their images. With the exception of the youngest, participants understood their initial involvement in prostitution as a means of survival in the face of poverty and/or parental death, or escape from violent relationships, experiences that were subsequently mirrored by exploitation and violence within prostitution. Using the lens of the capability approach, we capture the complexity of child prostitution, demonstrating the ambiguous agency of participants in the face of deeply embedded patriarchal cultural norms that constrained their choices and limited their freedom to pursue valued lives. We end by reflecting critically on the theoretical and methodological contributions of the study, making policy and practice recommendations and identifying opportunities for further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Protection and Social Inequality)
Open AccessArticle The Effects of Poverty and Prison on British Muslim Men Who Offend
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100184
Received: 16 August 2018 / Revised: 20 September 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 2 October 2018
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Abstract
Focusing on the lives of British Muslim young men, this article examines the links between their social and economic relations and their prison experiences, desistance, and identity. In understanding the meanings they place on their prison experiences and their social and economic marginalization,
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Focusing on the lives of British Muslim young men, this article examines the links between their social and economic relations and their prison experiences, desistance, and identity. In understanding the meanings they place on their prison experiences and their social and economic marginalization, the article theorises about social integration, and their place in British society. An intergenerational shift from the availability of local high-waged, skilled, and secure textile work to low-waged, precarious, service work presented them with a series of problems and opportunities, leading them to reject licit wage labour and embrace illicit entrepreneurial criminality. The article concludes that their social and economic relations drove criminal solutions, not ethnicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Race/Ethnicity, Crime and Social Control)
Open AccessArticle Poverty and Economic Growth in Mexico
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100183
Received: 22 August 2018 / Revised: 25 September 2018 / Accepted: 28 September 2018 / Published: 30 September 2018
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Abstract
The relationship between poverty and economic growth has been widely discussed in the economic development literature during the past few decades. However, most of this research has been based on cross-sectional studies and very few studies have used time-series techniques to analyze this
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The relationship between poverty and economic growth has been widely discussed in the economic development literature during the past few decades. However, most of this research has been based on cross-sectional studies and very few studies have used time-series techniques to analyze this important issue. At the same time, there are also only a few studies analyzing this issue for the case of Mexico. Therefore, the objective of this paper was to analyze the relationship between poverty and economic growth in Mexico, using a cointegration analysis with structural change for the period 1960–2016. The Gregory-Hansen cointegration test confirmed the existence of a long-term equilibrium relationship between poverty reduction and economic growth, both in the short run and in the long run. Using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM), we find that, in the long run, a 1% increase in economic growth leads to a 2.4% increase in per capita consumption (and therefore poverty reduction). This estimate is similar to those obtained in other studies for the case of Mexico and for other developing countries. Also, using the Granger causality test, it was found that there is a bidirectional causality relationship between poverty reduction and economic growth in Mexico. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inequality and Poverty)
Open AccessArticle Feminists against Sexual Violence in War: The Question of Perpetrators and Victims Revisited
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100182
Received: 26 June 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 30 September 2018
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Abstract
This article reflects upon feminist activism and analyses of sexual victimisation of women in war during the 1990s. It critically examines the reasons for the continuation of this type of violence against women, despite its recognition as a war crime; the recognition that
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This article reflects upon feminist activism and analyses of sexual victimisation of women in war during the 1990s. It critically examines the reasons for the continuation of this type of violence against women, despite its recognition as a war crime; the recognition that marked one of the significant achievements of feminist activism during the last decade of the 20th century. The discussion points to the centrality of sexual violence in war for the system of gender based violence (GBV) against both women and men in war. It argues that a relational understanding of the gendered processes of victimisation in war is critical. This approach enables an acknowledgement that sexual violence in war and rape, as one of its expressions, is a violent political act that is highly gendered both in its causes and consequences, and, as such, it affects both women and men. This article provides an overall argument for the need of feminist scholarship and activism to engage with these differently situated experiences and practices of victimisation in war, to ‘unmake’ it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feminisms: Forwards, Backwards and Something in Between)
Open AccessArticle Evolving Responsibility or Revolving Bias? The Role of the Media in the Anti-Sugar Debate in the UK Press
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100181
Received: 13 August 2018 / Revised: 19 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 29 September 2018
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Abstract
This paper analyzed the coverage on the anti-sugar debate and the supermarket industry in the British press, in a period between 2014 and 2015. Using social responsibility of the press theory and a qualitative two-tier content analysis, we first conducted a documentary analysis
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This paper analyzed the coverage on the anti-sugar debate and the supermarket industry in the British press, in a period between 2014 and 2015. Using social responsibility of the press theory and a qualitative two-tier content analysis, we first conducted a documentary analysis of public relations materials (press releases and surveys published by Action on Sugar as a main anti-sugar advocate in the UK), and then we traced these public relations materials in the press coverage. We also analyzed whether some sources are preferred more than others by focusing on the nature of quoted sources and whether the media give a voice to everyone, both the anti-sugar activists and the relevant industry figures who claim that sugar is not the only reason for the current obesity problem in the UK. The results show that the media have not given a representative voice to the industry but only to the anti-sugar NGOs, thus opening a question of journalism standards and the extent the press could be considered as socially responsible in this particular case. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Media and Nationalism in the Network Society)
Open AccessArticle Do Female Employees at Small and Medium Enterprises Perceive Open Source Software Usefulness and Satisfaction Differently from Male Employees? A Survey Analysis
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100180
Received: 19 August 2018 / Revised: 21 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 29 September 2018
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Abstract
Many companies, particularly small and medium enterprises (SMEs), use open source software (OSS) to promote the strategic application of their information technology assets. Several studies have claimed that male and female employees in SMEs differ in their use of various information technologies. This
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Many companies, particularly small and medium enterprises (SMEs), use open source software (OSS) to promote the strategic application of their information technology assets. Several studies have claimed that male and female employees in SMEs differ in their use of various information technologies. This study investigates the factors influencing the perceived usefulness of and satisfaction with OSS among employees at SMEs in various industries, specifically comparing male and female employee perceptions. For this purpose, this study uses a proposed research model to examine the effects of quality factors—such as ease of maintenance, cost advantage, customization, and job relevance—on perceived usefulness of and satisfaction with OSS. Data were collected from 328 randomly selected survey responses of employees in various organizations using OSS. A structural equational model was created using AMOS 22.0 to test the proposed hypotheses in the research model. Results show that all OSS quality factors were significantly related to the perceived usefulness of OSS in both genders, positively affecting satisfaction. Moreover, the perceptions of male and female employees differed in relation to each research model variable. These findings suggest that employees value specific OSS qualities while perceiving its usefulness and their satisfaction. Full article
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