Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Soc. Sci., Volume 7, Issue 10 (October 2018)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-30
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle Death and Coping Mechanisms in Animated Disney Movies: A Content Analysis of Disney Films (1937–2003) and Disney/Pixar Films (2003–2016)
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100199 (registering DOI)
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 11 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
PDF Full-text (383 KB)
Abstract
The purpose of this content analysis was to examine how death depictions in animated Disney films has changed in the past 14 years and the coping mechanisms used to process death within these films. A content analysis from 2005 was used to investigate
[...] Read more.
The purpose of this content analysis was to examine how death depictions in animated Disney films has changed in the past 14 years and the coping mechanisms used to process death within these films. A content analysis from 2005 was used to investigate the influence of Disney films on children’s concepts of death based on 23 death scenes from 10 full-length Disney Classic animated films from 1937 to 2003 and 10 death scenes from 8 selected full-length Disney and Pixar animated films from 2003 to 2016. Our goal was to compare the findings across the two studies. Similar to the original study, the portrayal of death focused on five categories: character status; depiction of death; death status; emotional reaction; and causality. We expanded on the original study and more research by examining coping mechanisms used to process death within a selection of these films. Our findings indicated that some scenes from animated Disney and Pixar films obscure the permanence and irreversibility of death and often fail to acknowledge deaths emotionally. Our conclusions showed that Disney’s and Pixar’s portrayal of death in newer films might have more positive implications for children’s understanding of death than Disney Classic animated films. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Psychosocial Implications of Disney Movies)
Open AccessArticle Business Lobbying: Mapping Policy Networks in Brazil in Mercosur
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100198
Received: 16 August 2018 / Revised: 5 October 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 15 October 2018
PDF Full-text (2330 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the creation of trade policy, business actors have the most influence in setting policy. This article identifies and explains variations in how economic interest groups use policy networks to affect trade policymaking. This article uses formal social network analysis (SNA) to explore
[...] Read more.
In the creation of trade policy, business actors have the most influence in setting policy. This article identifies and explains variations in how economic interest groups use policy networks to affect trade policymaking. This article uses formal social network analysis (SNA) to explore the patterns of articulation or a policy network between the government and business at the national level within regional trade agreements. The empirical discussion herein focuses on Brazil and the setting of exceptions list to Mercosur’s common external tariff. It specifically concentrates on the relations between the Brazilian executive branch and ten economic subsectors. The article finds that the patterns of articulation of these policy networks matter and that sectors with stronger ties to key government decision-makers have a structural advantage in influencing trade policy and obtaining and/or maintaining their desired, privileged trade policies, compared with sectors that are connected to government actors with weak decision-making power, but might have numerous and diversified connections. Therefore, sectors that have a strong pluralist–clientelist policy structure with connections to government actors with decision-making power have greater potential for achieving their target policies compared with more corporatist policy networks. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle When in Rome, Feel as the Romans Feel: An Emotional Model of Organizational Socialization
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100197
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 5 October 2018 / Accepted: 11 October 2018 / Published: 13 October 2018
PDF Full-text (759 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Organizational socialization literature has long emphasized learning organizational culture upon entry. However, most previous socialization studies have largely focused on learning job skills, such as role clarity and task mastery. Focusing on emotional culture, the author provides a review about the roles of
[...] Read more.
Organizational socialization literature has long emphasized learning organizational culture upon entry. However, most previous socialization studies have largely focused on learning job skills, such as role clarity and task mastery. Focusing on emotional culture, the author provides a review about the roles of emotions in an organizational socialization context. Further, drawing upon the organizational socialization and emotion literature, the author builds a theoretical model, an emotional model of organizational socialization highlighting how newcomers adjust to the emotional culture within an organization, which ultimately leads to successful organizational socialization. This article provides new conceptual insights into the roles of newcomers’ adjustment to an emotional culture in a socialization context, providing fruitful ways for future empirical testing. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Understanding Mental Health: What Are the Issues for Black and Ethnic Minority Students at University?
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100196
Received: 12 August 2018 / Revised: 5 October 2018 / Accepted: 8 October 2018 / Published: 13 October 2018
PDF Full-text (297 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) communities continue to experience inequalities within the United Kingdom (UK) mental health system despite major government policy initiatives. Access to higher education for many ethnic minorities remains problematic. Within higher education, BME students consistently face barriers in terms
[...] Read more.
Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) communities continue to experience inequalities within the United Kingdom (UK) mental health system despite major government policy initiatives. Access to higher education for many ethnic minorities remains problematic. Within higher education, BME students consistently face barriers in terms of accessing culturally appropriate services including a lack of cultural understanding, communication issues, and where and how to seek help. This paper attempts to address the problems facing ethnic minorities with regard to accessing mental health services at university. Importantly, this paper highlights that barriers to accessing mental health support for ethnic minorities directly impact upon attainment outcomes and psychological well-being. This study utilizes the narratives of 32 BME university students to examine the impact of negotiating racial inequality and discrimination at university and the impact upon mental health. Aspects examined considered the impact of belonging, isolation, and marginalization on mental health and how this consequently affects university participation for BME students. Utilizing a thematic analysis paradigm, the key findings presented point towards differential healthcare outcomes for ethnic minority university students experiencing mental illness. The empirical findings in this paper suggest that currently ethnic minority service users experience overt discrimination and a lack of access to culturally appropriate services that are cognizant of the racialized plights faced by BME individuals. These findings inform an overarching dialogue, which suggests that mental health service providers need to work more collegially with people from BME communities prior to service design and delivery. Furthermore, the findings suggest that, upon presenting mental health issues, information should be made available in appropriate languages for ethnic minorities to support understanding about their illnesses and how they can seek professional intervention and help. Conclusions and recommendations provided advocate greater diversification of mental health support systems for ethnic minority students within universities. Conclusions drawn will also consider how existing systems can function to dismantle racial inequality within the mental health profession. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Stratification and Inequality in Access to Higher Education)
Open AccessArticle Signalling the ‘Multi-Local’ University? The Place of the City in the Growth of London-Based Satellite Campuses, and the Implications for Social Stratification
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100195
Received: 19 July 2018 / Revised: 25 September 2018 / Accepted: 8 October 2018 / Published: 13 October 2018
PDF Full-text (251 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Around 2009 some UK universities (based outside of the capital) began to open ‘satellite campuses’ in London. There are currently 14 such campuses at present, which have been developed primarily with an international student market in mind. Concerns have been raised, however, about
[...] Read more.
Around 2009 some UK universities (based outside of the capital) began to open ‘satellite campuses’ in London. There are currently 14 such campuses at present, which have been developed primarily with an international student market in mind. Concerns have been raised, however, about the quality of teaching on these campuses and the fact that student attainment is ostensibly falling significantly below that for the ‘home’ campus. This project is the first of its kind to investigate, systematically, the ways in which universities are representing themselves in relation to these campuses (data include an analysis of prospectuses, YouTube content, websites and material garnered at open days). Using these data, we discuss the role that the City of London plays as a pivotal backdrop to these developments: the way it serves to substitute and compensate for lower levels of resources provided directly to the student from the university (here we consider accommodation, the outsourcing of teaching, the absence of a substantive campus environment and a general lack of focus on ‘pedagogical’ matters in almost all marketing materials). Instead, the universities place London at the front and centre of attempts to ‘sell’ the campus to potential students. The paper makes some innovative conceptual links between work in migration studies on the role and function of global cities in attracting workers and the way in which the city operates in this case to attract international students. These campuses feed into debates around the increasing inequalities evidenced as a consequence of the internationalisation of higher education, even when such developments are ostensibly ‘domestic’. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Stratification and Inequality in Access to Higher Education)
Open AccessArticle Housing Discrimination and Health: Understanding Potential Linking Pathways Using a Mixed-Methods Approach
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100194
Received: 15 September 2018 / Revised: 8 October 2018 / Accepted: 9 October 2018 / Published: 12 October 2018
PDF Full-text (770 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Few studies have examined the impact of housing discrimination on health. This study explores potential pathways linking housing discrimination and health using concept mapping, a mixed-method approach. Participants included employees from twenty Fair Housing Organizations nationwide who participated in two online sessions, brainstorming,
[...] Read more.
Few studies have examined the impact of housing discrimination on health. This study explores potential pathways linking housing discrimination and health using concept mapping, a mixed-method approach. Participants included employees from twenty Fair Housing Organizations nationwide who participated in two online sessions, brainstorming, and structuring. Responses were generated representing biological, social, economic, and physical connections between housing discrimination and health. Using hierarchical cluster analysis, five clusters were identified: (1) Access and barriers; (2) Opportunities for growth; (3) Neighborhood and communities; (4) Physical effects of housing discrimination; and (5) Mental health. Clusters 1 (4.09) and 2 (4.08) were rated as most important for health, while clusters 2 (3.93) and 3 (3.90) were rated as most frequently occurring. These findings add to the limited evidence connecting housing discrimination to health and highlight the need for studies focusing on the long-term health effects of housing discrimination on individuals and neighborhoods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Race/Ethnicity, Crime and Social Control)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Stripping the Wallpaper of Practice: Empowering Social Workers to Tackle Poverty
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100193
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 10 October 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 12 October 2018
PDF Full-text (405 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The relationship between deprivation and health and educational inequalities has been well evidenced in the literature. Recent UK research has now established a similar social gradient in child welfare interventions (Bywaters et al. 2018) with children living in the most deprived areas in
[...] Read more.
The relationship between deprivation and health and educational inequalities has been well evidenced in the literature. Recent UK research has now established a similar social gradient in child welfare interventions (Bywaters et al. 2018) with children living in the most deprived areas in the UK facing a much higher chance of being placed on the child protection register or in out-of-home care. There is an emerging narrative that poverty has become the wallpaper of practice, “too big to tackle and too familiar to notice” (Morris et al. 2018) and invisible amid lack of public support and political will to increase welfare spending. This paper will examine poverty-related inequalities and how these affect families. It will discuss the importance of recognising that poverty is a social justice issue and a core task for social work and outline the range of supports that may be available for families to help lift them out of poverty. Finally, it will describe the development of a new practice framework for social work in Northern Ireland that challenges social workers to embed anti-poverty approaches in their practice. The framework emphasises that poverty is a social justice issue, seeks to provide practical support and guidance to re-focus attention, debate, and action on poverty in times of global economic uncertainty and give social workers the tools to make it central to their practice once again. It reinforces the need for social workers to understand and acknowledge the impact of poverty, and to advocate for and support those most in need. It aims to challenge and empower professionals to tackle poverty and inequality as an aspect of ethical and effective practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Protection and Social Inequality)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Climate Politics and Race in the Pacific Northwest
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100192
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 23 September 2018 / Accepted: 5 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
PDF Full-text (445 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The collective politics of climate justice makes the important claim that lowering emissions is not enough; society must also undertake radical transformation to address both the climate and inequality crises. Owing to its roots in the environmental justice movement, addressing systemic racism is
[...] Read more.
The collective politics of climate justice makes the important claim that lowering emissions is not enough; society must also undertake radical transformation to address both the climate and inequality crises. Owing to its roots in the environmental justice movement, addressing systemic racism is central to climate justice praxis in the United States, which is a necessary intervention in typically technocratic climate politics. What emerges from US climate justice is a moral appeal to ‘relationship’ as politics, the procedural demand that communities of color (the ‘frontline’) lead the movement, and a distributive claim on carbon pricing revenue. However, this praxis precludes a critique of racial capitalism, the process that relies on structural racism to enhance accumulation, alienating, exploiting, and immiserating black, brown, and white, while carrying out ecocide. The lack of an analysis of how class and race produce the crises climate justice confronts prevents the movement from demanding that global north fossil fuel abolition occur in tandem with the reassertion of the public over the private and de-growth. Drawing on research conducted primarily in Oregon and Washington, I argue that race works to both create and limit the transformative possibilities of climate politics. Full article
Open AccessArticle Privacy Threats and Protection Recommendations for the Use of Geosocial Network Data in Research
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100191
Received: 8 August 2018 / Revised: 21 September 2018 / Accepted: 9 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
PDF Full-text (554 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Inference attacks and protection measures are two sides of the same coin. Although the former aims to reveal information while the latter aims to hide it, they both increase awareness regarding the risks and threats from social media apps. On the one hand,
[...] Read more.
Inference attacks and protection measures are two sides of the same coin. Although the former aims to reveal information while the latter aims to hide it, they both increase awareness regarding the risks and threats from social media apps. On the one hand, inference attack studies explore the types of personal information that can be revealed and the methods used to extract it. An additional risk is that geosocial media data are collected massively for research purposes, and the processing or publication of these data may further compromise individual privacy. On the other hand, consistent and increasing research on location protection measures promises solutions that mitigate disclosure risks. In this paper, we examine recent research efforts on the spectrum of privacy issues related to geosocial network data and identify the contributions and limitations of these research efforts. Furthermore, we provide protection recommendations to researchers that share, anonymise, and store social media data or publish scientific results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Human Geography and Social Sustainability)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Do Police Officers in the USA Protect and Serve All Citizens Equally?
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100190
Received: 2 September 2018 / Revised: 26 September 2018 / Accepted: 8 October 2018 / Published: 9 October 2018
PDF Full-text (210 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Survey research has clarified the extent to which racial minorities and majority white Americans disagree about whether police should be trusted. Racial minorities are generally far more suspicious of the police officers who serve their communities. Other forms of evidence would appear to
[...] Read more.
Survey research has clarified the extent to which racial minorities and majority white Americans disagree about whether police should be trusted. Racial minorities are generally far more suspicious of the police officers who serve their communities. Other forms of evidence would appear to corroborate the views of minority citizens in the USA. This requires scholars and others interested in policing to think about reforms that may create a fairer system of law enforcement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Race/Ethnicity, Crime and Social Control)
Open AccessArticle Student Choice in Higher Education—Reducing or Reproducing Social Inequalities?
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100189
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 9 October 2018
PDF Full-text (699 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A hallmark of recent higher education policy in developed economies is the move towards quasi-markets involving greater student choice and provider competition, underpinned by cost-sharing policies. This paper examines the idealizations and illusions of student choice and marketization in higher education policy in
[...] Read more.
A hallmark of recent higher education policy in developed economies is the move towards quasi-markets involving greater student choice and provider competition, underpinned by cost-sharing policies. This paper examines the idealizations and illusions of student choice and marketization in higher education policy in England, although the overall conclusions have relevance for other countries whose higher education systems are shaped by neoliberal thinking. First, it charts the evolution of the student-choice rationale through an analysis of government commissioned reports, white papers, and legislation, focusing on policy rhetoric and the purported benefits of increasing student choice and provider competition. Second, the paper tests the predictions advanced by the student-choice rationale—increased and wider access, improved institutional quality, and greater provider responsiveness to the labour market—and finds them largely not met. Finally, the paper explores how conceptual deficiencies in the student-choice model explain why the idealization of student choice has largely proved illusionary. Government officials have narrowly conceptualized students as rational calculators primarily weighing the economic costs and benefits of higher education and the relative quality of institutions and programs. There is little awareness that student choices are shaped by several other factors as well and that these vary considerably by social background. The paper concludes that students’ choices are socially constrained and stratified, reproducing and legitimating social inequality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Stratification and Inequality in Access to Higher Education)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle How to Divide Paid Work and Unpaid Care between Parents? Comparison of Attitudes in 22 Western Countries
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100188
Received: 14 August 2018 / Revised: 1 October 2018 / Accepted: 3 October 2018 / Published: 7 October 2018
PDF Full-text (1294 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sharing responsibilities for paid work and unpaid care between men and women is recognised as one of the challenges that Western countries face in the 21st century. This article examines attitudes towards sharing paid work and unpaid care responsibilities in 22 Western countries
[...] Read more.
Sharing responsibilities for paid work and unpaid care between men and women is recognised as one of the challenges that Western countries face in the 21st century. This article examines attitudes towards sharing paid work and unpaid care responsibilities in 22 Western countries by addressing the following questions. (1) How do attitudes towards different earner-carer models vary across countries? (2) Which socio-demographic and country-level factors explain differences in attitudes to an equal division of paid work and unpaid care responsibilities? International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) data 2012 is used as the data source and research methods include logistic multi-level regression analysis. Results reveal that cross-national variations in attitudes are significant: Most traditional attitudes are found in many Eastern European countries, whereas Nordic countries are the least traditional. At the individual level, those who are highly educated, in paid work, single, childless, and religiously non-active support the equal division of paid work and unpaid care responsibilities more often than other respondents. At the country level, longer father-specific parental leave, a stronger tradition of women’s paid work, and less traditional gender roles are related to stronger support for an equal division of paid work and unpaid care. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Translation and Linguistic Validation of a Swedish Study-Specific Questionnaire for Use among Norwegian Parents Who Lost a Child to Cancer
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100187
Received: 28 May 2018 / Revised: 25 September 2018 / Accepted: 1 October 2018 / Published: 3 October 2018
PDF Full-text (629 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Research is needed on how to help cancer-bereaved parents, as they are considered to be a vulnerable population and they are at risk of developing ill health following the loss of a child to cancer. The purpose of the present study was
[...] Read more.
Background: Research is needed on how to help cancer-bereaved parents, as they are considered to be a vulnerable population and they are at risk of developing ill health following the loss of a child to cancer. The purpose of the present study was to translate and linguistically validate a Swedish study-specific questionnaire that was developed for Swedish cancer-bereaved parents. The translated questionnaire will be used in a nationwide study in Norway. Methods: Forward and backward translations of the Swedish study-specific questionnaire were conducted, followed by linguistic validation based on telephone interviews with six Norwegian cancer-bereaved parents. Result: It was found that several medical terms and conceptual issues were difficult for the Norwegian parents to understand. There were also four issues regarding the response alternatives. Conclusions: Although Sweden and Norway have quite similar cultures and languages, the results off this pilot study show that, to ensure the quality of a translated questionnaire, linguistic validation as well as translation is necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Rights and Social Protection of the Vulnerable)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Revisiting the Issues of Access to Higher Education and Social Stratification through the Case of Refugees: A Comparative Study of Spaces of Opportunity for Refugee Students in Germany and England
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100186
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 20 September 2018 / Accepted: 29 September 2018 / Published: 3 October 2018
PDF Full-text (383 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents new insights into the relationship between inequality in access to higher education and social stratification through the analytical lens of refugees’ access to high participation systems of higher education (HPS). Taking stock of the growing numbers of refugees and their
[...] Read more.
This paper presents new insights into the relationship between inequality in access to higher education and social stratification through the analytical lens of refugees’ access to high participation systems of higher education (HPS). Taking stock of the growing numbers of refugees and their increasing—yet still marginal—demand for accessing higher education, the paper analyses the specific statuses and rights they are granted, and how they combine in two European Higher Education Area HPS, England and Germany. The comparative analysis draws on the desk-based study of immigration and access to higher education policies and mechanisms for refugees in the two countries. The concept of assemblage is called upon to highlight how complex combinations of asylum, welfare and access to higher education policies lead to differential rights which create different spaces of opportunity for refugees with higher education aspirations. More generally, analysing how these rights intersect allows for a better understanding of inequalities in access to higher education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Stratification and Inequality in Access to Higher Education)
Open AccessArticle Child Protection and Social Inequality: Understanding Child Prostitution in Malawi
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100185
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 20 September 2018 / Accepted: 27 September 2018 / Published: 2 October 2018
PDF Full-text (269 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article draws on empirical research to develop understandings of child prostitution, previously theorised on the basis of children’s rights, feminist, and structure/agency debates, largely ignoring children’s own understandings of their involvement in prostitution. Conducted in Malawi, which is one of the economically
[...] Read more.
This article draws on empirical research to develop understandings of child prostitution, previously theorised on the basis of children’s rights, feminist, and structure/agency debates, largely ignoring children’s own understandings of their involvement in prostitution. Conducted in Malawi, which is one of the economically poorest countries in the world, the study goes to the heart of questions of inequality and child protection. Within a participatory research framework, nineteen girls and young women used visual methods to generate images representing their experiences of prostitution. Individual and group discussions were used to illuminate the meanings and significance of their images. With the exception of the youngest, participants understood their initial involvement in prostitution as a means of survival in the face of poverty and/or parental death, or escape from violent relationships, experiences that were subsequently mirrored by exploitation and violence within prostitution. Using the lens of the capability approach, we capture the complexity of child prostitution, demonstrating the ambiguous agency of participants in the face of deeply embedded patriarchal cultural norms that constrained their choices and limited their freedom to pursue valued lives. We end by reflecting critically on the theoretical and methodological contributions of the study, making policy and practice recommendations and identifying opportunities for further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Protection and Social Inequality)
Open AccessArticle The Effects of Poverty and Prison on British Muslim Men Who Offend
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100184
Received: 16 August 2018 / Revised: 20 September 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 2 October 2018
PDF Full-text (251 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Focusing on the lives of British Muslim young men, this article examines the links between their social and economic relations and their prison experiences, desistance, and identity. In understanding the meanings they place on their prison experiences and their social and economic marginalization,
[...] Read more.
Focusing on the lives of British Muslim young men, this article examines the links between their social and economic relations and their prison experiences, desistance, and identity. In understanding the meanings they place on their prison experiences and their social and economic marginalization, the article theorises about social integration, and their place in British society. An intergenerational shift from the availability of local high-waged, skilled, and secure textile work to low-waged, precarious, service work presented them with a series of problems and opportunities, leading them to reject licit wage labour and embrace illicit entrepreneurial criminality. The article concludes that their social and economic relations drove criminal solutions, not ethnicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Race/Ethnicity, Crime and Social Control)
Open AccessArticle Poverty and Economic Growth in Mexico
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100183
Received: 22 August 2018 / Revised: 25 September 2018 / Accepted: 28 September 2018 / Published: 30 September 2018
PDF Full-text (274 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The relationship between poverty and economic growth has been widely discussed in the economic development literature during the past few decades. However, most of this research has been based on cross-sectional studies and very few studies have used time-series techniques to analyze this
[...] Read more.
The relationship between poverty and economic growth has been widely discussed in the economic development literature during the past few decades. However, most of this research has been based on cross-sectional studies and very few studies have used time-series techniques to analyze this important issue. At the same time, there are also only a few studies analyzing this issue for the case of Mexico. Therefore, the objective of this paper was to analyze the relationship between poverty and economic growth in Mexico, using a cointegration analysis with structural change for the period 1960–2016. The Gregory-Hansen cointegration test confirmed the existence of a long-term equilibrium relationship between poverty reduction and economic growth, both in the short run and in the long run. Using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM), we find that, in the long run, a 1% increase in economic growth leads to a 2.4% increase in per capita consumption (and therefore poverty reduction). This estimate is similar to those obtained in other studies for the case of Mexico and for other developing countries. Also, using the Granger causality test, it was found that there is a bidirectional causality relationship between poverty reduction and economic growth in Mexico. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inequality and Poverty)
Open AccessArticle Feminists against Sexual Violence in War: The Question of Perpetrators and Victims Revisited
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100182
Received: 26 June 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 30 September 2018
PDF Full-text (241 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article reflects upon feminist activism and analyses of sexual victimisation of women in war during the 1990s. It critically examines the reasons for the continuation of this type of violence against women, despite its recognition as a war crime; the recognition that
[...] Read more.
This article reflects upon feminist activism and analyses of sexual victimisation of women in war during the 1990s. It critically examines the reasons for the continuation of this type of violence against women, despite its recognition as a war crime; the recognition that marked one of the significant achievements of feminist activism during the last decade of the 20th century. The discussion points to the centrality of sexual violence in war for the system of gender based violence (GBV) against both women and men in war. It argues that a relational understanding of the gendered processes of victimisation in war is critical. This approach enables an acknowledgement that sexual violence in war and rape, as one of its expressions, is a violent political act that is highly gendered both in its causes and consequences, and, as such, it affects both women and men. This article provides an overall argument for the need of feminist scholarship and activism to engage with these differently situated experiences and practices of victimisation in war, to ‘unmake’ it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feminisms: Forwards, Backwards and Something in Between)
Open AccessArticle Evolving Responsibility or Revolving Bias? The Role of the Media in the Anti-Sugar Debate in the UK Press
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100181
Received: 13 August 2018 / Revised: 19 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 29 September 2018
PDF Full-text (244 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper analyzed the coverage on the anti-sugar debate and the supermarket industry in the British press, in a period between 2014 and 2015. Using social responsibility of the press theory and a qualitative two-tier content analysis, we first conducted a documentary analysis
[...] Read more.
This paper analyzed the coverage on the anti-sugar debate and the supermarket industry in the British press, in a period between 2014 and 2015. Using social responsibility of the press theory and a qualitative two-tier content analysis, we first conducted a documentary analysis of public relations materials (press releases and surveys published by Action on Sugar as a main anti-sugar advocate in the UK), and then we traced these public relations materials in the press coverage. We also analyzed whether some sources are preferred more than others by focusing on the nature of quoted sources and whether the media give a voice to everyone, both the anti-sugar activists and the relevant industry figures who claim that sugar is not the only reason for the current obesity problem in the UK. The results show that the media have not given a representative voice to the industry but only to the anti-sugar NGOs, thus opening a question of journalism standards and the extent the press could be considered as socially responsible in this particular case. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Media and Nationalism in the Network Society)
Open AccessArticle Do Female Employees at Small and Medium Enterprises Perceive Open Source Software Usefulness and Satisfaction Differently from Male Employees? A Survey Analysis
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100180
Received: 19 August 2018 / Revised: 21 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 29 September 2018
PDF Full-text (864 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many companies, particularly small and medium enterprises (SMEs), use open source software (OSS) to promote the strategic application of their information technology assets. Several studies have claimed that male and female employees in SMEs differ in their use of various information technologies. This
[...] Read more.
Many companies, particularly small and medium enterprises (SMEs), use open source software (OSS) to promote the strategic application of their information technology assets. Several studies have claimed that male and female employees in SMEs differ in their use of various information technologies. This study investigates the factors influencing the perceived usefulness of and satisfaction with OSS among employees at SMEs in various industries, specifically comparing male and female employee perceptions. For this purpose, this study uses a proposed research model to examine the effects of quality factors—such as ease of maintenance, cost advantage, customization, and job relevance—on perceived usefulness of and satisfaction with OSS. Data were collected from 328 randomly selected survey responses of employees in various organizations using OSS. A structural equational model was created using AMOS 22.0 to test the proposed hypotheses in the research model. Results show that all OSS quality factors were significantly related to the perceived usefulness of OSS in both genders, positively affecting satisfaction. Moreover, the perceptions of male and female employees differed in relation to each research model variable. These findings suggest that employees value specific OSS qualities while perceiving its usefulness and their satisfaction. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Hunger in Higher Education: Experiences and Correlates of Food Insecurity among Wisconsin Undergraduates from Low-Income Families
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100179
Received: 27 July 2018 / Revised: 13 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 28 September 2018
PDF Full-text (472 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is growing awareness that a substantial share of undergraduates are food insecure, potentially undermining investments in higher education and hindering upward social mobility. This mixed-methods paper uses survey and interview data from low-income students at 42 public colleges and universities in Wisconsin
[...] Read more.
There is growing awareness that a substantial share of undergraduates are food insecure, potentially undermining investments in higher education and hindering upward social mobility. This mixed-methods paper uses survey and interview data from low-income students at 42 public colleges and universities in Wisconsin to illuminate the day-to-day experiences of food insecurity and examine how food security status varies across background characteristics. Results indicate that students who grew up in food insecure homes, self-identify as a racial/ethnic minority, live off-campus, and attend college in an urban area are significantly more likely to report the lowest level of food security, often associated with hunger. Students explain that challenges stemming from the interrelationship of lack of time and inadequate money are their biggest barriers to food security. Most rely on friends or family for support, but few students draw on the social safety net, in part due to eligibility restrictions. In recognition of the diversity of students’ experiences, we discuss the need for a multi-faceted response to promote food security and student success. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Stratification and Inequality in Access to Higher Education)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Interdependence Evaluation between the Home Neighborhood and the City: How Socio-Spatial Categorization Impacts upon Residential Segregation
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100178
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 28 September 2018
PDF Full-text (2749 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes a socio-cognitive approach to how people assess the different neighborhoods of a city. The main objective is to show that beyond the meanings associated with each neighborhood, the way in which residents relate to and evaluate their own neighborhood and
[...] Read more.
This paper proposes a socio-cognitive approach to how people assess the different neighborhoods of a city. The main objective is to show that beyond the meanings associated with each neighborhood, the way in which residents relate to and evaluate their own neighborhood and the city center influence how residents perceive and assess the other remaining neighborhoods of the city. The assessment of one neighborhood cannot be analyzed separately from the other neighborhoods. Cognitive processes of assimilation, contrast, contagion, and non-contagion contribute to the conceptualization of a city’s neighborhoods from the two main emotional and symbolic anchorages of residents. However, the implementation of these processes is conditioned by the socio-spatial situation of the interviewees. In this regard, a field survey of 320 residents was conducted in different neighborhoods of Besançon (in France), and allows us to show that the geographical anchorages of a resident’s own neighborhood and the city center are systematically more positively assessed than the other neighborhoods. The more these geographical anchorages are appreciated, the more the other neighborhoods are also positively assessed. The fact that it is impossible for a city’s neighborhoods to be autonomous is discussed in this paper in terms of socio-cognitive constructions of urban segregations. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Discursive Struggle and Agency—Updating the Finnish Peatland Conservation Network
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100177
Received: 7 August 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 27 September 2018
PDF Full-text (641 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper explores the process of updating the peatland conservation network in Finland—the Supplemental Mire Conservation Programme, which was drafted from 2012 to 2015. This study employs discursive agency approach (DAA), to reveal how agents actively seek to gain legitimate speaker positions and
[...] Read more.
This paper explores the process of updating the peatland conservation network in Finland—the Supplemental Mire Conservation Programme, which was drafted from 2012 to 2015. This study employs discursive agency approach (DAA), to reveal how agents actively seek to gain legitimate speaker positions and influence policy outcomes as they rely on existing discourses. It also studies the role of discourse in the context of Finnish peatland conservation policy and evaluates the role of agents in the discursive process and how they influenced the outcome. The empirical data consists of expert interviews, newspaper articles and policy documents. The results indicate that the discourses of ‘maintenance of biodiversity’, ‘regulatory program’, ‘voluntary conservation’ and ‘participatory approach’ influence the peatland conservation policy. Additionally, discursive agency is achieved through hegemonic discourse and a consensus seeking argumentation strategy that rely on keywords, such voluntary and sustainability. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Estimating the Perceived Socio-Economic Impacts of Hosting Large-Scale Sport Tourism Events
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100176
Received: 28 August 2018 / Revised: 25 September 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 27 September 2018
PDF Full-text (303 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Large-scale sport events help attract a wide range of attendees, resulting in various implications for the host community. This paper is concerned with understanding the legacy of the 13th EHF European Handball Championship, held in Croatia in January 2018, by assessing the event’s
[...] Read more.
Large-scale sport events help attract a wide range of attendees, resulting in various implications for the host community. This paper is concerned with understanding the legacy of the 13th EHF European Handball Championship, held in Croatia in January 2018, by assessing the event’s economic and social benefits and costs. Drawing on the Social Exchange Theory, it also examines if any significant differences exist between host city residents and non-host city residents regarding their perceived impacts of this event on the host cities. The number of impacts was reduced by Exploratory Factor Analysis. Differences between host city and non-host city residents were examined by an independent samples t-test. The results suggest that community development and pride, security risks, traffic problems, economic benefits, environmental concerns, and economic costs are the main impact dimensions. Non-host city residents expressed a higher level of agreement with most of the impacts, but significant differences exist primarily within the dimensions of community development and pride, economic benefits, traffic problems, and environmental concerns. These findings could benefit event planners and sport marketers when trying to acquire community-wide support and to better understand how residents perceive both the positive and negative impacts that events generate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism and Social Regeneration)
Open AccessArticle Stratification with Honors: A Case Study of the “High” Track within United States Higher Education
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100175
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 23 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 27 September 2018
PDF Full-text (248 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
At present, U.S. postsecondary sorting is best evidenced by an increasingly stratified system of higher education. However, very little attention is paid to even deeper levels of stratification within colleges and universities where academic tracking and its consequences are manifest. Given this significant
[...] Read more.
At present, U.S. postsecondary sorting is best evidenced by an increasingly stratified system of higher education. However, very little attention is paid to even deeper levels of stratification within colleges and universities where academic tracking and its consequences are manifest. Given this significant lack of attention to deepening levels of stratification within many of the most “accessible” postsecondary institutions in the U.S., the purpose of this article is threefold: (1) to introduce readers to the notion of academic tracking within the postsecondary sector, (2) to situate honors education within the U.S. postsecondary tracking structure, and (3) to demonstrate the depths of stratification within a system that is lauded as the contemporary architect of social mobility. Based upon qualitative data collected during the 2016–2017 academic year at one public 4-year “accessible” university, findings illustrate the persistence, structure, and depths of stratification as an unintended consequence of one university’s efforts to reconcile the competing goals of excellence and equity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Stratification and Inequality in Access to Higher Education)
Open AccessArticle Losing the One, Caring for the All: The Activism of the Peace Mothers in Turkey
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100174
Received: 26 August 2018 / Revised: 22 September 2018 / Accepted: 24 September 2018 / Published: 27 September 2018
PDF Full-text (284 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article focuses on the political activism of the Peace Mothers in Turkey, a group of Kurdish mothers whose children were either Partiya Karkerên Kurdistan (PKK) guerrillas or political dissidents during the conflict between the Turkish state and the PKK. The peace activism
[...] Read more.
This article focuses on the political activism of the Peace Mothers in Turkey, a group of Kurdish mothers whose children were either Partiya Karkerên Kurdistan (PKK) guerrillas or political dissidents during the conflict between the Turkish state and the PKK. The peace activism of the Mothers is a distinctive case that speaks to the tension between the domains of the familial and the political—a tension that appears in everyday discussions as well as in feminist literature. In this article, I suggest that the Peace Mothers’ struggle to bridge national and local peace-making ideals is a subtle effort to resolve that tension and to transform the realms of family and politics. The mobilization around “motherhood” aims at peace on the national scale, but has led to an unexpected form of activism in the Kurdish community, where the Mothers now mediate local family conflicts in the wake of war. While the Mothers’ activism has not been successful in achieving its main goal of securing a national peace settlement, I argue that it transforms both the political and the familial spheres to a significant extent. The Mothers conceive of motherhood broadly: as the state of being an agent with the capacity to connect to the All via a sense of loss and care. In engaging with feminist debates on motherhood, activism, and care, this article presents a novel framework for understanding the persistent boundary between the political and the familial and calls attention to the role of gendered politics and maternal activism in understudied local settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gender Studies)
Open AccessArticle ‘It’s Scary and It’s Big, and There’s No Job Security’: Undergraduate Experiences of Career Planning and Stratification in an English Red Brick University
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100173
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 21 September 2018 / Accepted: 22 September 2018 / Published: 26 September 2018
PDF Full-text (283 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is a continuing trend within higher education policy to frame undergraduate study as ‘human capital investment’—a financial transaction whereby the employment returns of a degree are monetary. However, this distinctly neoliberal imaginary ignores well-established information asymmetries in choice, non-monetary drivers for education,
[...] Read more.
There is a continuing trend within higher education policy to frame undergraduate study as ‘human capital investment’—a financial transaction whereby the employment returns of a degree are monetary. However, this distinctly neoliberal imaginary ignores well-established information asymmetries in choice, non-monetary drivers for education, as well as persistent inequalities in access, participation, and outcome. Non-linearity and disadvantage are a central feature of both career trajectory and graduate employment. This paper draws on the findings of a longitudinal, qualitative project that followed 40 undergraduate, home students over a period of four years in an English Red Brick University. Exploring the nature of career development over the whole student lifecycle and into employment, the paper examines how career strategies are experienced by lower-income students and their higher-income counterparts. It provides a typology of career planning and, in comparing the experiences of lower- and higher-income students, demonstrates some of the processes through which financial capacity and socio-economic background can impact on career planning and graduate outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Stratification and Inequality in Access to Higher Education)
Open AccessArticle Chinese Migrant Perceptions of Africans: Understanding Confucian Reflexive Politics in Southern Africa
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100172
Received: 7 August 2018 / Revised: 11 September 2018 / Accepted: 18 September 2018 / Published: 25 September 2018
PDF Full-text (360 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we use a qualitative reflexive approach to understand the dynamics of Chinese migrant perceptions of Africans upon arrival in Africa and the changes in their views upon returning to China. The research is based on in-depth, semi-structured field interviews with
[...] Read more.
In this paper, we use a qualitative reflexive approach to understand the dynamics of Chinese migrant perceptions of Africans upon arrival in Africa and the changes in their views upon returning to China. The research is based on in-depth, semi-structured field interviews with Chinese workers and managers in Mozambique and South Africa, as well as interviews with returning migrants to China, carried out in Beijing. Thus, we are able to gauge the learning experience that occurs and how the underlying Confucian philosophy that has been embraced by the Chinese polity manifests such changes in perception. The research suggests that there is a positive learning process which occurs through the migrants’ experience and underlying racial stereotypes of Chinese regarding Africans are eroded. Confucian framing of China’s role in Africa is also mitigated towards a more hybridized view of African cultures and societies that reflects to adaptive propensities of contemporary Chinese society. Full article
Open AccessArticle Competencies and Practices in Academic Engineering Leadership Development: Lessons from a National Survey
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100171
Received: 4 September 2018 / Revised: 18 September 2018 / Accepted: 18 September 2018 / Published: 21 September 2018
PDF Full-text (386 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Traditionally, higher education has relied on recruiting executive leaders based largely on scholarly credibility, expecting leadership competency to develop with “on the job” experience. This approach is risky to organizational success. Building upon research about how institutional leaders identify, select, develop, and support
[...] Read more.
Traditionally, higher education has relied on recruiting executive leaders based largely on scholarly credibility, expecting leadership competency to develop with “on the job” experience. This approach is risky to organizational success. Building upon research about how institutional leaders identify, select, develop, and support those in succession, this study aims (1) to explore how senior academic leaders in engineering perceive their leadership roles, specifically the importance they attribute to various leadership skills and their self-confidence in exercising those skills, and (2) to discern the prevalence of mentoring and sponsorship practices those leaders use as part of their leadership portfolio. Results of a national survey, distributed in collaboration with the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) to leaders in academic engineering in North America, confirm the importance of select leadership skills, including practices related to the mentoring and sponsorship of emerging leaders. However, the reported prevalence of those practices was relatively low in this sample. The authors recommend holding leaders accountable for developing future leaders and present an instrument for self- and organizational assessment of such practices for use in implementing more intentional approaches to leadership development in higher education. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Digital Learning in the UK: Sociological Reflections on an Unequal Marketplace
Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7100170
Received: 11 July 2018 / Revised: 17 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 20 September 2018
PDF Full-text (251 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Focusing on the UK context, and drawing on freely available information about online learning and the underlying commercial agreements between institutions, Massively Open Online Course (MOOC) platforms and Online Program Management (OPM) companies, this article shows how digitization and universities’ global expansion strategies
[...] Read more.
Focusing on the UK context, and drawing on freely available information about online learning and the underlying commercial agreements between institutions, Massively Open Online Course (MOOC) platforms and Online Program Management (OPM) companies, this article shows how digitization and universities’ global expansion strategies are involved in forms of transnational marketization. In particular, the article shows that the online learning marketplace in the UK shows signs of segmentation, with ‘premium’ offerings in the high-to-middle tier targeting socially advantaged students-as-consumers, and a bottom region of low-ranking institutions drifting towards low-grade ‘unbundled’ provision that targets middle-to-low income groups. The article argues that the current global landscape of online education is a shifting, unequal market place, and that more research is needed on how different groups from a range of socio-economic backgrounds successfully or unsuccessfully navigate an increasingly fragmented and ‘unbundled’ educational terrain. Full article
Back to Top